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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Physics
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84 year science experiment finally sees results after years of nothing

Since 1930, there has been a science experiment that basically does nothing. Seriously. Scientists watch as a solid—that's actually a liquid 230 billion times more viscous than water—drips down a glass container.
Via José Gonçalves
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Physical and Mental Health - Exercise, Fitness and Activity
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Core work: a runner's guide

Core work: a runner's guide | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“All runners – well, all exercisers, really – know they should do core work. But if you are anything like me, without some guidance you'll run out of ideas after the plank and some crunches”
Via Peter Mellow
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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New Land Rover Discovery has an ‘invisible bonnet’ to detect obstacles

New Land Rover Discovery has an ‘invisible bonnet’ to detect obstacles | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“IT could be the biggest breakthrough in driveway safety yet — even though it was originally designed to help four-wheel-drives navigate tricky bush tracks.”Land Rover has come up with a camera system that appears to make the bonnet invisible — by projecting the image of what’s below, into the windscreen directly in front of the driver. While there is a public push to make rear-view cameras mandatory on new cars, figures show that 40 per cent of driveway deaths occur when vehicles are driven forwards because the view is obscured by the large bonnets of family-sized SUVs. The British brand developed the technology for off-road use to help drivers navigate obstacles with ease.But the system, unveiled on the eve of the New York motor show, could find more regular use in driveways. Tiny cameras fitted below the grille are paired with a display that is projected into the windscreen so that it appears as if the vehicle’s bonnet is transparent. The system is only at the experimental stage for now but is expected to be available on the new Land Rover Discovery, due on sale next year.The Land Rover concept also has lasers mounted in the front fog lights that continuously scan the terrain ahead “and renders a contour map” on the screen in the dash to help drivers plot a path off the beaten track. The same lasers can also test the depth of water in river crossings, Land Rover says. Camera technology is making rapid progress in new cars of all shapes and sizes. Japanese car maker Nissan has unveiled a new rear-view “mirror” that actually shows the view from a camera instead.Originally scooped by @Onisha Ellis
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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Artificial blood 'will be manufactured in factories', paving the way for mass production of blood

Artificial blood 'will be manufactured in factories', paving the way for mass production of blood | Public genomes | Scoop.it
Wellcome Trust-funded stem cell research has produced red blood cells fit for transfusion into humans, paving the way for the mass production of blood.
It is the stuff of gothic science fiction: men in white coats in factories of blood and bones. But the production of blood on an industrial scale could become a reality once a trial is conducted in which artificial blood made from human stem cells is tested in patients for the first time.
It is the latest breakthrough in scientists’ efforts to re-engineer the body, which have already resulted in the likes of 3d-printed bones and bionic limbs. Marc Turner, the principal researcher in the £5 million program funded by the Wellcome Trust, told The Telegraph that his team had made red blood cells fit for clinical transfusion.
Prof Turner has devised a technique to culture red blood cells from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells – cells that have been taken from humans and ‘rewound’ into stem cells. Biochemical conditions similar to those in the human body are then recreated to induce the iPS cells to mature into red blood cells – of the rare universal blood type O-.“Although similar research has been conducted elsewhere, this is the first time anybody has manufactured blood to the appropriate quality and safety standards for transfusion into a human being,” said Prof Turner. There are plans in place for the trial to be concluded by late 2016 or early 2017, he said. It will most likely involve the treatment of three patients with Thalassaemia, a blood disorder requiring regular transfusions. The behavior of the manufactured blood cells will then be monitored.“The cells will be safe,” he said, adding that there are processes whereby cells can be removed. The technique highlights the prospect of a limitless supply of manufactured type O- blood, free of disease and compatible with all patients.“Although blood banks are well-stocked in the UK and transfusion has been largely safe since the Hepatitis B and HIV infections of the 1970s and 1980s, many parts of the world still have problems with transfusing blood,” said Prof Turner.

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from ScienceNow
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Which is more painful? Childbirth vs Getting Kicked in the Balls

By @AsapScience
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Geology
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Newly Discovered North Sea Coal 'Could Power Britain for Centuries'

Newly Discovered North Sea Coal 'Could Power Britain for Centuries' | Public genomes | Scoop.it
Scientists have discovered huge coal deposits under the North Sea that could power Britain for centuries. Data from North Sea oil and gas exploration has been used to build a picture of the large coal deposits.
Via Catherine Russell
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Hepatitis C drugs not reaching poor

Hepatitis C drugs not reaching poor | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“Treatment guidelines for virus highlight challenge of paying for expensive drugs in low-income countries.”Ewen CallawayNATURE | NEWS
Via NatProdChem
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Surfing the Broadband Bit Stream
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How algorithms shape our world | Kevin Slavin | TED Talks

How algorithms shape our world | Kevin Slavin | TED Talks | Public genomes | Scoop.it
Kevin Slavin argues that we're living in a world designed for -- and increasingly controlled by -- algorithms.
In this riveting talk from TEDGlobal, he shows how these complex computer programs determine: espionage tactics, stock prices, movie scripts, and architecture.And he warns that we are writing code we can't understand, with implications we can't control.Click headline to watch Kevin Slavin's TED Talk video--

Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Nature vs nurture
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BBC London Olympics 2012 -- Short Documentary on Nature versus Nurture

“ A beautiful short documentary on nature versus nurture and the triumph of black athletes in the face oppression and racism.”
Via Malin Janko Enander
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Tools and tips for scientific tinkers and tailors
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Exploiting the power of evolution to create designer proteins | MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology

Exploiting the power of evolution to create designer proteins | MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology | Public genomes | Scoop.it

Via Mel Melendrez-Vallard
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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First comprehensive atlas of human gene activity released

First comprehensive atlas of human gene activity released | Public genomes | Scoop.it
A large international consortium of researchers has produced the first comprehensive, detailed map of the way genes work across the major cells and tissues of the human body. The findings describe the complex networks that govern gene activity, and the new information could play a crucial role in identifying the genes involved with disease.“Now, for the first time, we are able to pinpoint the regions of the genome that can be active in a disease and in normal activity, whether it’s in a brain cell, the skin, in blood stem cells or in hair follicles,” said Winston Hide, associate professor of bioinformatics and computational biology at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and one of the core authors of the main paper in Nature.“This is a major advance that will greatly increase our ability to understand the causes of disease across the body.”The research is outlined in a series of papers published March 27, 2014, two in the journal Nature and 16 in other scholarly journals. The work is the result of years of concerted effort among 250 experts from more than 20 countries as part of FANTOM 5 (Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome). The FANTOM project, led by the Japanese institution RIKEN, is aimed at building a complete library of human genes.Researchers studied human and mouse cells using a new technology called Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE), developed at RIKEN, to discover how 95% of all human genes are switched on and off. These “switches” — called “promoters” and “enhancers” — are the regions of DNA that manage gene activity. The researchers mapped the activity of 180,000 promoters and 44,000 enhancers across a wide range of human cell types and tissues and, in most cases, found they were linked with specific cell types.“We now have the ability to narrow down the genes involved in particular diseases based on the tissue cell or organ in which they work,” said Hide. “This new atlas points us to the exact locations to look for the key genetic variants that might map to a disease.”
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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CRISPR-CAS9 Reverses Disease Symptoms in Living Animals for First Time

CRISPR-CAS9 Reverses Disease Symptoms in Living Animals for First Time | Public genomes | Scoop.it
MIT scientists report the use of a CRISPR methodology to cure mice of a rare liver disorder caused by a single genetic mutation. They say their study (“Genome editing with Cas9 in adult mice corrects a disease mutation and phenotype”), published in Nature Biotechnology, offers the first evidence that this gene-editing technique can reverse disease symptoms in living animals. CRISPR, which provides a way to snip out mutated DNA and replace it with the correct sequence, holds potential for treating many genetic disorders, according to the research team.“What's exciting about this approach is that we can actually correct a defective gene in a living adult animal,” says Daniel Anderson, Ph.D., the Samuel A. Goldblith associate professor of chemical engineering at MIT, a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, and the senior author of the paper.The recently developed CRISPR system relies on cellular machinery that bacteria use to defend themselves from viral infection. Researchers have copied this cellular system to create gene-editing complexes that include a DNA-cutting enzyme called Cas9 bound to a short RNA guide strand that is programmed to bind to a specific genome sequence, telling Cas9 where to make its cut.At the same time, the researchers also deliver a DNA template strand. When the cell repairs the damage produced by Cas9, it copies from the template, introducing new genetic material into the genome. Scientists envision that this kind of genome editing could one day help treat diseases such as hemophilia, and others that are caused by single mutations.For this study, the researchers designed three guide RNA strands that target different DNA sequences near the mutation that causes type I tyrosinemia, in a gene that codes for an enzyme called FAH. Patients with this disease, which affects about 1 in 100,000 people, cannot break down the amino acid tyrosine, which accumulates and can lead to liver failure. Current treatments include a low-protein diet and a drug called NTCB, which disrupts tyrosine production.In experiments with adult mice carrying the mutated form of the FAH enzyme, the researchers delivered RNA guide strands along with the gene for Cas9 and a 199-nucleotide DNA template that includes the correct sequence of the mutated FAH gene.
“Delivery of components of the CRISPR-Cas9 system by hydrodynamic injection resulted in initial expression of the wild-type Fah protein in ~1/250 liver cells,” wrote the investigators. “Expansion of Fah-positive hepatocytes rescued the body weight loss phenotype.”While the team used a high pressure injection to deliver the CRISPR components, Dr. Anderson envisions that better delivery approaches are possible. His lab is now working on methods that may be safer and more efficient, including targeted nanoparticles.

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from ScienceNow
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Electronic noses explained: in future we will be sniffing out disease

Electronic noses explained: in future we will be sniffing out disease | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“ Technology is being developed to create electronic devices that will be able to 'smell' the presence of diseases such as TB”
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from The Jazz of Innovation
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Sanger Institute researchers spark discussion on genomes and healthcare

Sanger Institute researchers spark discussion on genomes and healthcare | Public genomes | Scoop.it
The Sanger Institute is sending 50 of its researchers to this year’s Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition to take visitors on a journey through genetic discoveries and find out what they think should be done with their DNA data.
Via Peter Verschuere
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from shubush healthwear
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3D Printed Osteoid Medical Cast - Heals Bones 80% Better

3D Printed Osteoid Medical Cast - Heals Bones 80% Better | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“ I thought this was another incredible way in which 3D printing is creeping in, and eventually overtaking traditional medical methods. This 3D printed cast is not only easy on the eyes, but it helps to ventilate the arm, and has built in technology which can allow for the healing of a broken arm 80% better than a traditional plaster cast. Below are the 3 main benefits to the Osteoid Medical cast. #1 - Easy on the Eyes As you can see from the pictures, this cast looks many orders of”
Via petabush
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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Stem-Cell Therapy for Blindness Is Moving Towards Clinical Trials

Stem-Cell Therapy for Blindness Is Moving Towards Clinical Trials | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“Advanced Cell Technology is testing a stem-cell treatment for blindness that could preserve vision and potentially reverse vision loss.”A new treatment for macular degeneration is close to the next stage of human testing—a noteworthy event not just for the millions of patients it could help, but for its potential to become the first therapy based on embryonic stem cells.This year, the Boston-area company Advanced Cell Technology plans to move its stem-cell treatment for two forms of vision loss into advanced human trials. The company has already reported that the treatment is safe (see “Eye Study Is a Small but Crucial Advance for Stem-Cell Therapy”), although a full report of the results from the early, safety-focused testing has yet to be published. The planned trials will test whether it is effective. The treatment will be tested both on patients with Stargardt’s disease (an inherited form of progressive vision loss that can affect children) and on those with age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss among people 65 and older.Although complete data from the trials of ACT’s treatments have yet to be published, the company has reported impressive results with one patient, who recovered vision after being deemed legally blind. Now the company plans to publish the data from two clinical trials taking place in the U.S. and the E.U. in a peer-reviewed academic journal. Each of these early-stage trials includes 12 patients affected by either macular degeneration or Stargardt’s disease.The more advanced trials will have dozens of participants, says ACT’s head of clinical development, Eddy Anglade. If proved safe and effective, the cellular therapy could preserve the vision of millions affected by age-related macular degeneration. By 2020, as the population ages, nearly 200 million people worldwide will have the disease, estimate researchers. Currently, there are no treatments available for the most common form, dry age-related macular degeneration.
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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Microbial cough and sneeze clouds float farther than previously thought

Microbial cough and sneeze clouds float farther than previously thought | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“Novel study uncovers the way coughs and sneezes stay airborne for long distances.”The next time you feel a sneeze coming on, raise your elbow to cover up that multiphase turbulent buoyant cloud you’re about to expel.That’s right: A novel study by MIT researchers shows that coughs and sneezes have associated gas clouds that keep their potentially infectious droplets aloft over much greater distances than previously realized.“When you cough or sneeze, you see the droplets, or feel them if someone sneezes on you,” says John Bush, a professor of applied mathematics at MIT, and co-author of a new paper on the subject. “But you don’t see the cloud, the invisible gas phase. The influence of this gas cloud is to extend the range of the individual droplets, particularly the small ones.”Indeed, the study finds, the smaller droplets that emerge in a cough or sneeze may travel five to 200 times further than they would if those droplets simply moved as groups of unconnected particles — which is what previous estimates had assumed. The tendency of these droplets to stay airborne, resuspended by gas clouds, means that ventilation systems may be more prone to transmitting potentially infectious particles than had been suspected.With this in mind, architects and engineers may want to re-examine the design of workplaces and hospitals, or air circulation on airplanes, to reduce the chances of airborne pathogens being transmitted among people.The researchers used high-speed imaging of coughs and sneezes, as well as laboratory simulations and mathematical modeling, to produce a new analysis of coughs and sneezes from a fluid-mechanics perspective. Their conclusions upend some prior thinking on the subject. For instance: Researchers had previously assumed that larger mucus droplets fly farther than smaller ones, because they have more momentum, classically defined as mass times velocity.Specifically, the study finds that droplets 100 micrometers — or millionths of a meter — in diameter travel five times farther than previously estimated, while droplets 10 micrometers in diameter travel 200 times farther. Droplets less than 50 micrometers in size can frequently remain airborne long enough to reach ceiling ventilation units.
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from ScienceNow
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The Science of How Music Enchants the Brain

The Science of How Music Enchants the Brain | Public genomes | Scoop.it
How harmony, melody, and rhythm trigger the same reward systems that drive our desires for food and sex.
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Physics
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Possible Dark Matter Detected at Milky Way's Core Could Hint at New Force of Nature — NOVA Next | PBS

Possible Dark Matter Detected at Milky Way's Core Could Hint at New Force of Nature — NOVA Next | PBS | Public genomes | Scoop.it
Excess gamma-ray light coming from the center of our galaxy could be scientists' first-ever indirect evidence of dark matter.
Via José Gonçalves
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Gadget Book: Raspberry Pi Projects for Kids

“Gadget Book: Raspberry Pi Projects for KidsElectronicsWeekly.comGadget Book – Raspberry Pi Projects for Kids.”
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Pharma Biotech Industry Review (Krishan Maggon)
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Why is type 2 diabetes an increasing problem? - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

Why is type 2 diabetes an increasing problem? - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Public genomes | Scoop.it

Via Krishan Maggon
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from NanoMedicine Revolution
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Ribosome structure determined to near-atomic resolution by cryo-EM | MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology

Ribosome structure determined to near-atomic resolution by cryo-EM | MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology | Public genomes | Scoop.it

Via Luís Bastos
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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Deadly H5N1 bird flu needs just 5 mutations to spread easily among people

Deadly H5N1 bird flu needs just 5 mutations to spread easily among people | Public genomes | Scoop.it
It’s a flu virus so deadly that scientists once halted research on the disease because governments feared it might be used by terrorists to stage a biological attack.Yet despite the fact that the H5N1 avian influenza has killed 60% of the 650 humans known to be infected since it was identified in Hong Kong 17 years ago, the “bird flu” virus has yet to evolve a means of spreading easily among people.Now Dutch researchers have found that the virus needs only five favorable gene mutations to become transmissible through coughing or sneezing, like regular flu viruses.World health officials have long feared that the H5N1 virus will someday evolve a knack for airborne transmission, setting off a devastating pandemic. While the new study suggests the mutations needed are relatively few, it remains unclear whether they’re likely to happen outside the laboratory.
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Geology
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When Did Anthropogenic Global Warming Begin?

When Did Anthropogenic Global Warming Begin? | Public genomes | Scoop.it
“ Image Credit: Economist By WUWT Regular “Just The Facts: Note: This article builds upon a previous article, When Did Global Warming Begin?, which offers highly recommended background for this article.”
Via Catherine Russell
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Rescooped by Martin Dougherty from Amazing Science
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Ordered carbon-nanotube design may increase conductivity of solar cells by 100 million times

Ordered carbon-nanotube design may increase conductivity of solar cells by 100 million times | Public genomes | Scoop.it
Controlled placement of carbon nanotubes in nanostructures could result in a huge boost in electronic performance in photovoltaic solar cells, researchers at Umeå University in Sweden have discovered.In the new study, published in Advanced Materials, the researchers were able to engineer the nanotubes into complex network architectures with controlled nanoscale dimensions inside a polymer matrix. That structure allows for better conductivity (lower loss of power) and reduction of the number of high-cost nanotubes needed.“We have found that the resulting nano networks possess exceptional ability to transport charges, up to 100 million times higher than previously measured carbon nanotube random networks produced by conventional methods,” says David Barbero, project leader and assistant professor at the Department of Physics at Umeå University.“This innovation has direct implications for the next generation of carbon-based solar cells, which use carbon nanotubes and other carbon materials (graphene, semi-conducting polymers, etc.),” Barbero told KurzweilAI. “That’s because the new nano-engineered networks show much increased charge transport compared to commonly used networks today. These new nano-networks could also in principle be advantageously used in any nanocomposite material where efficient charge transport is required, and where low amounts of nanotubes are necessary.“This new architecture enables a higher degree of interconnection between nanotubes and more robust charge transport pathways in the device,” he explained. “This is expected to increase device efficiency, but also to reduce materials costs because at least 100 times less nanotubes are necessary to form efficient charge transport networks.”Barbero could not predict when this new technology might go into production, but hinted that “this field is moving fast and things can happen quickly, so stay tuned.”References: - David R. Barbero et al., Nano-Engineering of SWNT Networks for Enhanced Charge Transport at Ultralow Nanotube Loading, Advanced Materials, 2014, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305843
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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