Psychopathology
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Psychopathology
The articles picked for inclusion in this Scoop.it! collection are characterized by a couple of key factors.  First, they will primarily be about the identification, description, causes, treatments, and prevention of psychological problems.  Second, the articles will be science based and refer to contemporary research.  Noting this, one caution is recommended.  Those stories that are chosen for the popular press are often recently published, new areas of promising research, that hold broad interest and many potential benefits.  This, however, also means that the research will need replication, confirmation, and further development before the implications will have tangible benefits to those who suffer from these problems.  Please read these articles with curiosity, thoughtfulness, and cautious skepticism.
Curated by Paul Rokke
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Suicide prevention must be year round

Column: Suicide Prevention Month is Not Nearly Enough
Paul Rokke's insight:
While this article does not report on a recent study, it has been written by a highly qualified scientist and highlights the importance this topic has for science and the public at large.  Please heed its call and help open the conversation.
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Prenatal depression may be the most severe form of maternal depression

Prenatal depression may be the most severe form of maternal depression | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Depression often begins during pregnancy.
Paul Rokke's insight:
Perinatal depression is common and is accompanied by a host of unique issues.  Postnatal depression is best predicted by prenatal depression.  This article reports on a study that examines the nature of prenatal depression, primary symptoms, severity, and concerns.
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Can this app change schizophrenia treatment?

Can this app change schizophrenia treatment? | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
The Prime app aims to help people with schizophrenia find a community to better handle the disease.
Paul Rokke's insight:
Increasingly, mental health services are taking advantage of the electronic age.  Many services are now delivered electronically or assisted by websites that provide information and connections with therapists.  Many phone apps have also been created which claim to help you lose weight, reduce addictions, and cope with anxiety and depression, just to name a few.  As with any form of treatment or service it is important to know whether these apps have been evaluated in controlled research and what the limitations of their usefulness are. 

The app in this article is the result of research that comes out of the treatment literature for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.  Treatments that focus on education and family support have been found to be helpful for these problems.  The app extends this work to help individuals also build social relationships and additional sources of support.  The initial work is promising.
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Early Behavior Therapy Found to Aid Children With A.D.H.D.

Early Behavior Therapy Found to Aid Children With A.D.H.D. | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Experts said this approach could possibly change standard medical practice, which favors drugs like Adderall and Ritalin as first-line treatments.
Paul Rokke's insight:

This article does not reference a particular study, but I chose to highlight it because of the quality of work done by Dr. Pelham.  We need to support articles in the popular press that report on strong evidence-based approaches to treatment.

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Effectiveness of Talk Therapy Is Overstated, a Study Says - The New York Times

Effectiveness of Talk Therapy Is Overstated, a Study Says - The New York Times | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
A new analysis found that talk therapy is effective for treating depression, but about 25 percent less effective than previously thought.
Paul Rokke's insight:

The NY Times version of the NPR story posted earlier.

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Why do people with schizophrenia misinterpret social cues? | EurekAlert! Science News

Why do people with schizophrenia misinterpret social cues? | EurekAlert! Science News | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
A new study from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King's College London sheds light on why people with schizophrenia misinterpret social cues in others, often leading to unpleasant paranoid and persecutory thoughts.
Paul Rokke's insight:

I think there might be a lesson in here for all of us.  It's easy to read intent into other's actions, even when none was intended or present.  Never hurts not to assume too much and to ask before getting upset.

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When Crime Pays: J&J’s Drug Risperdal - The New York Times

When Crime Pays: J&J’s Drug Risperdal - The New York Times | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Marketing the antipsychotic got Johnson & Johnson a criminal record, big settlement costs and penalties — and bigger profits.
Paul Rokke's insight:

This article does not present research on the treatment of psychopathology.  However, it does follow on the criticisms of some psychopharmacology research.  My point in posting it is simply to encourage the mental health services consumer to do the best they can to understand the nature of the treatment that is being proposed and to learn what they can about it's effectiveness.  This is especially true when medications are used in an "off label" fashion, that is used for a problem that was not included in the FDA approval process. 

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Eye problems may signal onset of schizophrenia - Futurity

Eye problems may signal onset of schizophrenia - Futurity | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Most adults with schizophrenia have vision problems. Experts say tracking changes in the retina might be a way to identify and treat those most at risk.
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Curtailing worry reduces key schizophrenia symptom

Curtailing worry reduces key schizophrenia symptom | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Delusions of persecution in psychiatric patients can be reduced with just six sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), a new clinical trial has found. Using CBT in this way could potentially help to prevent mental illnesses occurring in at-risk people.
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Study shows importance of watching for signs in children of a bipolar parent

Study shows importance of watching for signs in children of a bipolar parent | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
A child whose mom or dad has bipolar disorder is more likely to have episodes that could point to a bipolar diagnosis in the future, and pediatricians should be alert to those signs, according to the lead author of a new study. The research compared 391 Pennsylvania children with a bipolar parent to 248 children without a parent with diagnosed bipolar disorder. The study was published today in the American Journal of Psychiatry.
Paul Rokke's insight:

For many, many years it has been a mantra in education and psychology that early detection and intervention for problems is critical.  Gone unnoticed or unchecked these problems interfere with continued cognitive, emotional, and social development.  This article appropriately warns about the potential dangers of starting medication in children in the absence of a confirmed diagnosis and clear need, but falls short in the recommendation to seek out parent training which could support efforts to teach children the emotion regulation, problem solving, social interaction, and cognitive skills necessary for a rich and satisfying life.

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Severe depression linked with inflammation in the brain

Severe depression linked with inflammation in the brain | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
A new study claims to be the first to find 'definitive evidence' of an association between brain inflammation and major depression.
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A Surprising Treatment For Depression That May Be Just As Effective As Talking To A Therapist

A Surprising Treatment For Depression That May Be Just As Effective As Talking To A Therapist | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Even though a growing body of research has demonstrated the legitimate mental and physical health benefits of meditation, some people still consider mindfulness to be merely a New Age fad rather than a serious treatment option.

Now, a new Swedis...
Paul Rokke's insight:

A couple of points.  This study joins a growing list of studies which show some benefits for meditation practice on reducing symptoms of distress.  Meta-analyses estimate a modest effect size (better than nothing and occasionally as good as - but not better than - active treatments) for many problems.  I didn't have access to the original study, but a couple of issues arose in the reading of the abstract.  The study included a relatively large sample size.  This is good.  The study included participants with a variety of problems.  This is not necessarily good as it adds a lot of variability to the measurement of problems and the range of response to treatment.  Though they said both groups improved, indices of the amount of improvement or the significance of the improvement were not reported (in the abstract).  This means that we must be cautious about interpreting the benefits - the conclusion was that there were no differences between meditation and a previously shown to be effective treatment.  Cautiously optimistic because I'm not sure how effective the standard treatment was in this case. Have to read the original to be more confident of criticisms and conclusions.

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Evidence-based interventions in pediatric psychology | OUPblog

Evidence-based interventions in pediatric psychology | OUPblog | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
The field of pediatric psychology has been changing rapidly over the last decade with both researchers and practitioners working to keep up with the latest innovations. To address the latest evidence-based interventions and methodological improvements, the editors of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology and Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology decided to join efforts.
Paul Rokke's insight:

Please ignore the graphic that the editors chose to accompany this story.  Pediatric psychologists work with children who have medical problems, just for example, feeding disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and diabetes. 

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An approach to therapy that may make depression treatment more accessible - Harvard Health Blog

An approach to therapy that may make depression treatment more accessible - Harvard Health Blog | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Behavioral activation is a therapy that may relieve depression as well as cognitive behavioral therapy and would be cheaper and more affordable.
Paul Rokke's insight:
This must be a day for depressing news.  Though not a report on a specific study, this blog talks about research that has been done on Behavioral Activation and other psychological interventions.
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Depression Treatment Often Doesn't Go To Those Most In Need

Depression Treatment Often Doesn't Go To Those Most In Need | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Most people with depression aren't getting treatment, a study finds, while people who aren't depressed are prescribed antidepressants they don't need. Ethnicity and income have a lot to do with that.
Paul Rokke's insight:
One of the most common problems, one of the most treatable problems, often goes unrecognized and untreated.  This  is yet another large sample study of adults in the US that demonstrates our inability to adequately help those that need it.  Efforts to improve adequate screening, public education, and the dissemination of effective treatments needs to continue.
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U.S. suicide rates up, especially for women

U.S. suicide rates up, especially for women | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
The number of suicides in the United States has been on the rise since 1999 in everyone between the ages of 10 and 74, according to a new report by the CDC.
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Talk Therapy Found to Ease Schizophrenia - The New York Times

Talk Therapy Found to Ease Schizophrenia - The New York Times | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
A landmark study found that a bigger emphasis on one-on-one talk therapy made greater strides in patient recovery than the usual drug-focused treatments.
Paul Rokke's insight:

This study included participants experiencing a first episode of psychosis.  It was a very large study, involving a number of patients and several clinics throughout the country.  In the mid 70s and early 80s Gordon Paul demonstrated that intensive skills training helped improve symptoms and functioning for those suffering from chronic schizophrenia and reduced the need for medication.  He also strongly argued for the importance of continued support in the community and a need for systems and policy that provided a reliable continuum of care.  This study, which included family education and supported employment opportunities adds support for that early call.  

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Both Talk Therapy And Medication May Be Less Effective For Depression : Shots - Health News : NPR

Both Talk Therapy And Medication May Be Less Effective For Depression : Shots - Health News : NPR | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Studies showing that a treatment works are more likely to be published than those with a negative result. So talk therapy and drug therapy for depression are probably less effective than thought.
Paul Rokke's insight:

An interesting look into the benefits and downsides to science and current practices in scientific publishing.

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Sleep apnea usually causes depression; treat with CPAP

Sleep apnea usually causes depression; treat with CPAP | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Treat sleep apnea to get rid of depression says study
Paul Rokke's insight:

Historically, sleep disturbance has been one of the cardinal symptoms of depression.  Recently, researchers have been investigating the role of sleep in the onset and maintenance of depression.  A change in sleep habits may signal the onset of the disorder and in some cases may precipitate an episode.  This small scale study is serves as an example of how intervening on sleep problems may also help to improve one's emotional state.

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Antidepressant Paxil Is Unsafe for Teenagers, New Analysis Says - The New York Times

Antidepressant Paxil Is Unsafe for Teenagers, New Analysis Says - The New York Times | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
The study reverses an earlier conclusion that caused a long-running dispute, and opens the way for journals to post multiple interpretations of the same experiment.
Paul Rokke's insight:

Controversy continues about conflicts that exist in research funded by proprietary interests.  See the BMJ commentary here: http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h4629

 

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To Treat Depression, a New Approach Tries Training the Brain

To Treat Depression, a New Approach Tries Training the Brain | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Computer games, chirping birds and electrical stimulation in studies to change how depressed people think.
Paul Rokke's insight:

Cognitive approaches to psychopathology became very popular in the 70s and 80s.  The basic idea is that the manner in which we attend to the world and the manner in which we think about ourselves and circumstances greatly influence our mood.  Thus, those who are inordinately anxious or depressed feel that way because of negative biases in attention and judgment.  Like many other areas of society, psychologists are taking advantage of new technologies to help people change they way they process information.  In addition, technology has also allowed us to study changes in brain activity simultaneously with changes in attention and mood.   This article provides a nice summary of recent work by Dr. Siegle, who has been at the forefront of enhancing treatment effectiveness through these methods.

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The Psychology of the Firefighter

The Psychology of the Firefighter | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
Contrary to our intuitions, studies find no consistent link between the extent of on-duty trauma experience and the eventual development of post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. Some firefighters cope poorly, while others with far more horrific ex...
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7.6% of Americans are depressed, but few seek mental health treatment

7.6% of Americans are depressed, but few seek mental health treatment | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
About 1 in 13 Americans was suffering from depression at some point between 2009 and 2012, yet only 35% of people with severe depression and 20% of those with moderate depression said they had sought help from a mental health professional, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Paul Rokke's insight:

This is a problem that we've known about for sometime.  It is a problem that is not limited to depression.  Studies have been done to determine the causes for the lack of treatment seeking, but have not produced definitive answers.  The leading candidates include lack of recognition of having a treatable problem, lack of awareness of available treatments and resources, lack of insurance coverage, and stigma about seeking mental health services.

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Mental health: A world of depression

Mental health: A world of depression | Psychopathology | Scoop.it
A global view of the burden caused by depression.
Paul Rokke's insight:

An interesting snapshot of the impact of depression around the world.

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