Pschology
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Rescooped by Jacob Peterson from The insanity within our normality.
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Journey into a psychopath's mind… « Signposts 02

Journey into a psychopath's mind… « Signposts 02 | Pschology | Scoop.it

In this fascinating video from TED, journalist Jon Ronson talks about his inquisitive journey into an investigation into mental illness, especially what psychologists have termed psychopathic behaviour, and comes to some interesting ...


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Near-death experiences: the brain's last hurrah: Prof. Anil Seth

Near-death experiences: the brain's last hurrah: Prof. Anil Seth | Pschology | Scoop.it

Anil Seth: A new study suggests such phenomena are caused by a surge of brain activity – and shows death is a process, not an event.

 

We have all wondered what it will be like to die, and what – if anything – might happen afterwards. The prospect of no longer existing seems so difficult to accept that cultures throughout history have developed spiritual and religious beliefs about the persistence of consciousness after the body's physical demise. Back in the 17th century, René Descartes famously proposed that "mind stuff" (res cogitans) has a separate form of existence from "material stuff" (res extensa), thus introducing the thorny problem of how they might interact, and whether one might exist without the other.

 

Beliefs about persisting consciousness have been reinforced by reports of unusual "near-death experiences", which often involve the feeling that the soul has left the body and is approaching another reality characterised by bright light and blissful feelings. Now neuroscience has got in on the act, with a remarkable study by Jimo Borjigin and colleagues from the University of Michigan showing a transient surge in brain activity after the heart stops.


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Rescooped by Jacob Peterson from Empathy and Compassion
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Dutch scientist argues that animals show morality, too

Dutch scientist argues that animals show morality, too | Pschology | Scoop.it
Do animals have a sense of fairness? Do they empathize with another's pain?


A few decades ago, such questions would have been dismissed as nonsense. Even today, they'd be rejected by many ethicists who argue that moral reasoning is unique to humans.

 

The Bonobo and the Atheist includes a passionate defense of religion. De Waal insists that, historically, religion has been the best way we have refined our empathy and built viable moral systems.

 

Although a nonbeliever himself, de Waal says ethicists are still in thrall to a challenge issued more than a century ago, when Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud announced the death of God.

 

Tirdad Derakhshani


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Avery's curator insight, April 11, 2013 2:50 PM

My Thoughts:

Haha, even in the animal world women have to break up fights between men... But of course animals show empathy, like us. The only difference is that humans can recognize empathy, and have a word for it.

When one of our cats swallowed a string and had to be helped, he was crying constantly and our other cat, his brother, was right outside the door the entire time, waving his tail and pacing back and forth. Who said animals don't have feelings?

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Boats Against the Current

Boats Against the Current | Pschology | Scoop.it
Psychologist and psychoanalyst Erik Erikson (1902-1994) came up with the theory that the human life cycle could be understood as a series of eight developmental stages.

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The Red Book of Carl G. Jung: Its Origins and Influence — Online Exhibition at Library of Congress

The Red Book of Carl G. Jung: Its Origins and Influence — Online Exhibition at Library of Congress | Pschology | Scoop.it

Online Exhibition at the Library of Conggress -- June 17–September 25, 2010

Features the preeminent psychoanalyst Carl G. Jung’s famous Red Book, which records the creation of the seminal theories that Jung developed after his 1913 split with Sigmund Freud, and explores its place in Jung’s work through related items from the Library’s collections.

 


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Freud & Jung: Written Revelations

Freud & Jung: Written Revelations | Pschology | Scoop.it
The contrasts between the handwriting of Sigmund Freud and that of Carl Jung show that they had very different temperaments and give credence to speculation that the difference in their personalities was an important factor in the final dissolution of their friendship. Notice Freud’s compact, heavily pressured writing with numerous restrictions. These qualities show temperamental volatility, emotional torment, and impulsive outbursts. Contrast that with the much more controlled writing of Jung, seen in the small size and more proportionate lengths of the upper and lower extending strokes.

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Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Human Development, eight crisis stages human life-cycle, for teaching and learning, child development

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Human Development, eight crisis stages human life-cycle, for teaching and learning, child development | Pschology | Scoop.it
For child development and adults - explanation of Erik Erikson's Psychosocial theory of human development, biography, diagrams, terminology, references. Model for understanding human psychological development.

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Rescooped by Jacob Peterson from JAPAN, as I see it
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Japanese youth asleep while their uncertain future bears down on them | Seetell.jp

Japanese youth asleep while their uncertain future bears down on them | Seetell.jp | Pschology | Scoop.it

Japan, like much of the developed world, is in trouble. 2013 bodes ill for the world economy, a potential replay of the 2008 recession. What sets 2013 apart from 2008 is the massive sovereign debt, high unemployment/underemployment, and declining discretionary funds available for consumers. Add growing inflation due to the devaluation of all major currencies and one finds little reason to hold out hope. In 2008, the economy was in much better position to absorb the bursting of America’s real estate bubble and credit crisis.Of course, the Japanese government is not likely to explain to people how bad things look. It prints monthly unemployment data suggesting the all but 4.5% of Japan’s workforce have jobs, a hugely optimistic report which does not reflect the near 40% of the workforce working part time jobs, in some cases, multiple part time jobs. It hides real inflation of consumer goods by over-weighing the data with high-end electronics and other which tend to drop in price due to improvement in technology and productivity, but which are arguably not essential in determining the price stability of basic and necessary goods; food, energy, housing, transportation, etc.

The coming troubles will have the greatest affect on the younger population in Japan, a generation of Japanese who are already peering into a future filled with higher taxes, declining opportunities, and a failed and bankrupt welfare state which will offer few benefits to them but require much from them to support the coming wave of the post-war generation’s retirement.

By all accounts, this would not appear to be an enviable position in which to find oneself. Sadly, few in the youth generation seem to care. So, what does occupy the time, energy, and money of this generation? Well, manga, anime, pop stars, baseball, soccer, gossiping, drinking, TV, internet games, movies, and the ubiquitous shopping among many others.

These are mere diversions from reality, popular pablum for the mind which serve little useful purpose except to extract dwindling monetary resources and fill the empty hours in an uninspired life. Given the dire future facing most Japanese youth, whiling away the hours on Japan’s pop culture could be compared to falling asleep on the train track in the middle of nowhere as the train bears down. Perhaps you will wake up in time to save yourself. Or perhaps not. The point is that there is no one else around who will save you.

Many young people in Japan expect the government to do something to fix the situation and assure them a bright future. This is understandable since the government spends and lot of it resources (taxpayer funds) on conditioning the public to think this way. From the education system to the captured and compliant media to flat out lies and deceptions, the government manipulates in the population in much the same way – and often in conjunction with – corporate advertisers do. Here’s how.

Behavior Modification Techniques Excite Authoritarians

If you have taken introductory psychology, you probably have heard of Ivan Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” and B.F. Skinner’s “operant conditioning.”

An example of Pavlov’s classical conditioning? A dog hears a bell at the same time he receives food; then the bell is sounded without the food and still elicits a salivating dog. Pair a scantily clad attractive woman with some crappy beer, and condition men to sexually salivate to the sight of the crappy beer and buy it. The advertising industry has been using classical conditioning for quite some time.

Skinner’s operant conditioning? Rewards, like money, are “positive reinforcements”; the removal of rewards are “negative reinforcements”; and punishments, such as electric shocks, are labeled in fact as “punishments.” Operant conditioning pervades the classroom, the workplace and mental health treatment.

Skinner was heavily influenced by the book Behaviorism (1924) by John B. Watson. Watson achieved some fame in the early 1900s by advocating a mechanical, rigid, affectionless manner in child rearing. He confidently asserted that he could take any healthy infant, and given complete control of the infant’s world, train him for any profession. When Watson was in his early 40s, he quit university life and began a new career in advertising at J. Walter Thompson.

Behaviorism and consumerism, two ideologies that achieved tremendous power in the 20th century, are cut from the same cloth. The shopper, the student, the worker, and the voter are all seen by consumerism and behaviorism the same way: passive, conditionable objects.

The idea of controlling the minds of groups of people can be found in many Cold-War era writings, most of which paint Chinese, Russian, and North Koreans and master of brainwashing. In fact, the Japanese (and American) government is equally adept at such tactics and use them on an ongoing basis. And for very good reasons.

Alfie Kohn, in Punished by Rewards (1993), documents with copious research how behavior modification works best on dependent, powerless, infantilized, bored, and institutionalized people. And so for authorities who get a buzz from controlling others, this creates a terrifying incentive to construct a society that creates dependent, powerless, infantilized, bored, and institutionalized people.

Many of the most successful applications of behavior modification have involved laboratory animals, children, or institutionalized adults. According to management theorists Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham in Work Redesign (1980), “Individuals in each of these groups are necessarily dependent on powerful others for many of the things they most want and need, and their behavior usually can be shaped with relative ease.”

Similarly, researcher Paul Thorne reports in the journal International Management (“Fitting Rewards,” 1990) that in order to get people to behave in a particular way, they must be “needy enough so that rewards reinforce the desired behavior.”

Hence Japan’s welfare system which greatest benefit to the government is to make people dependent on the government for their share of the welfare pie. The education system also plays a major role in this effort. Not only does it engender group think in the classroom, it establishes teachers, administrators, and government bureaucrats as authorities in one’s life from an early age. And in a society which is experiencing a consistent decline in stable two-parent families, more and more children look to the school system and the government as the one authority in which they can depend. It is the perfect environment for the government to make the Japanese public more dependent with each passing generation.

And it is the perfect environment for disaster for today’s youth for two reasons. The first, and most obvious, is that the government is filled with people who have been manipulated to believe the government is the be-all and end-all of life just like everyone else. Quite simply, they have never learned how to solve problems by critical thinking and innovation which is why the government is on a single track for the past two decades without showing any positive results or solutions. They don’t have the ability to act differently.

The second reason is that they refuse to admit to their generational manipulation because it would instantly destroy their authority over the population. Each successive government is more motivated to retain its power than to actually go about solving the nation’s many – and growing – problems. This is why governments promise welfare and pension reform but don’t actually accomplish it, preferring instead to push the problem off on a future government. The same is true of the debt and deficit, which continue to grow despite many campaign promises to reduce it. Solutions are always timed to come at a later date when the current government is safely retired and completely unaccountable to the voters.

For these reasons, the government is both unable and unwilling to reform itself. It is also unlikely that the brainwashed public will call for reform. So, for the young Japanese generation, your salvation depends on no one but you. And such salvation will not be found in an AKB48 video, One Piece manga, or building a more exciting life in an online game than in reality. Nor will it be found in buying the latest kawaii or “Cool Japan” fashion.

You are asleep on a train track and the train is bearing down on you. Wake up and save yourself...


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