I believe that anyone who has worked in large bureaucratic organizations or participated in large projects has seen most of the techniques below in action!
Nicos Kourounakis's insight:
A Selection from CIA’s now de-classified “Simple Sabotage Field Manual”. Look for the section on "General Interference with Organizations and Conferences".
1. Insist on doing everything through “channels.” Never permit short-cuts to be taken in order to expedite decisions.
2. Make “speeches,” Talk as frequently as possible and at great length. Illustrate your “points” by long anecdotes and accounts of personal experiences.
3. When possible refer all matters to committees, for “further study and consideration”. Attempt to make the committees as large as possible – never less than five.
4. Bring up irrelevant issues as frequently as possible.
5. Haggle over precise wordings of communications, minutes, resolutions.
6. Refer back to matters decided upon at the last meeting and attempt to re-open the question of the advisability of that decision.
7. Advocate “caution.” Be “reasonable” and urge your fellow-conferees to be “reasonable” and avoid haste which might result in embarrassments or difficulties later on.
8. Be worried about the propriety of any decision – raise the question of whether such action as is contemplated lies within the jurisdiction of the group or whether it might conflict with the policy of some higher echelon.
9. Demand written orders.
10. "Miss-understand" orders. Ask endless questions or engage in long correspondence about such orders. Quibble over them when you can.
11. Do everything possible to delay the delivery of orders. Even though parts of the order may be ready beforehand, don't deliver it until its completely ready.
12. In making work assignments, always sing out the unimportant jobs first. See that important jobs are assigned to inefficient workers with poor equipment.
13. Insist on perfect work in relatively unimportant products send back for refinishing those which have the least flaws. Approve other defective parts whose flaws are not visible to the naked eye.
14. When training new workers, give incomplete or misleading instructions.
15. To lower moral and with it production, be pleasant to inefficient workers; give them undeserved promotions. Discriminate against efficient workers; complain unjustly about their work.
16. Holdmeetings when there is critical work to be done.
17. Multiply paperwork in plausible ways. Start duplicating files.
18. Multiply the procedures and clearances involved in issuing instructions, making payments, and so on. See that three people have to approve everything where one would do.
19. Apply all regulations to the last letter.
20. Misfile essential documents.
21. In making copies, make one too few, so that an extra copying job will have to be done.
22. Spread disturbing rumours that sound like inside information.
23. Work slowly. Think out ways to increase the number of movements necessary on your job.
24. Contrive as many interruptions to your work as you can. When you go to the lavatory, spend longer time there than necessary. Forget tools so that you have to go back after them.
25. Even if you understand the language, pretend not to understand instructions in a foreign language.
26. Pretend the instructions are hard to understand, and ask to have them repeated more than once. Or pretend that you are particularly anxious to do your work, and pester the managers with unnecessary questions.
27. Do your work poorly and blame it on others, bad equipment etc. Complain that these things prevent you from doing your job right.
28. Never pass on your skills or experience to a new or a less skilful workers.
29. Snarl up administration in every possible way. Fill out forms illegibly, so that they will have to be done over; make mistakes or omit requested information in forms.
30. Give lengthy and incomprehensible explanations when questioned.
31. Act stupid.
32. Be as irritable and quarrelsome as possible without getting yourself into trouble.
Lean production philosophy has influenced profoundly the way many manufacturing businesses work today. However, lean philosophy has also been adapted and applied to project work influencing project management approaches with the ultimate goal of reducing/eliminating waste of all forms.
The "lean approach" can be applied both to core project management processes but also to the whole project value chain. Adopting a lean approach aims to reduce project costs while maximizing value for clients and users. It usually achieves this, however, within the limits of the project's scope boundaries and environment, that is, the defined value chain of the project (i.e. suppliers, project team, customer or users).
On the other hand, adopting the basic principles of green management and applying them to project management, one would tend to consider more the interrelation & interdependence between the systems of projects, the environment, economy and society, and therefore influence the project scope, deliverables, and project management approach to become “friendlier” to the surrounding systems/environments. Such systems (or sub-systems) are other projects, programs, corporate portfolios, the organization at large, society, and the natural environment.
A green project management approach would tend to "green" the project objectives and apply a "greener" approach in managing project work. The purpose is to minimize any negative impact to project environments (negative by-products) while maximizing positive impact (positive by-products) by applying a less fragmented and longer-term holistic thinking, thus moving towards a more sustainable project management model.
Assess weaknesses. Write them down too.Understand current system and processes and challenge the status quo and assumptions.Visualize the future in a changed world (and creatively conceive new possible options).Create mass around the vision.Add passion and commitment to the vision of the new order of things.Assess all risks that could potentially occur.Spend appropriate time refining the change to minimize the risk.Plan implementation of the transformational change -start at the end and work backwards.Protect changes from contamination from past practices and behaviors.
Projects fail at a spectacular rate. One reason is that too many people are reluctant to speak up about their reservations during the all-important planning phase. By making it safe for dissenters who are knowledgeable about the undertaking and worried about its weaknesses to speak up, you can improve a project’s chances of success.
(Aristotle, excerpt from Politics, Book III, Chapter XI):
“The principle that the multitude ought to be supreme rather than the few best is one that is maintained, and, though not free from difficulty, yet seems to contain an element of truth.
For the many, of whom each individual is but an ordinary person, when they meet together may very likely be better than the few good, if regarded not individually but collectively, just as a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse.
For each individual among the many has a share of virtue and prudence, and when they meet together, they become in a manner one man, who has many feet, and hands, and senses; that is a figure of their mind and disposition.”
Change management is not a matter of simply following steps. No two changes are exactly alike, nor are any two organizations. Following a recipe for change management is insufficient to drive business results.
Most people believe that their greatest improvement will come from overcoming their weaknesses.
Buckingham and Clifton say, NO! Your greatest improvement will come from identifying your natural talents and strengthening them.
Buckingham and Clifton provide three "revolutionary tools" for doing this:
1) Understanding how to distinguish your natural talents from things you can learn... 2) A system to identify your dominant talents... 3) A common language to describe your talents.
To develop your natural talents (once you've identified them) into strengths requires knowledge and skills. Buckingham and Clifton provide these definitions:
* Talents are your naturally recurring patterns of thought, feeling, or behavior. Your various themes of talent are what the Strengths Finder Profile actually measures. * Knowledge consists of the facts and lessons learned. * Skills are the steps of an activity.