Before reading this article, I already know that most people living in rural parts of Asia are facing poverty and unable to enjoy the privilege to be living in a technologically advanced environment like us. After reading this article, i know more deeper information. This article state that the UN Development Programme (UNDP) combining energy access with anti-poverty project for people over there to heating, cooking and electricity, supplement incomes and improve health and education, telling us UN trying to improve life and reduce the bad impacts on health and the environment . However, the energy services doesn’t help much with reducing poverty but instead transform people from being ‘poor without energy access’ to ‘poor with energy access”. This led to my wonder why don’t the UNDP start from developing education over there since education is very important and can help to reduce poverty.
"Federal resources in the short- and medium-term will be much scarcer, and it will be important to work together to maximize available resources for affordable housing and targeted homelessness programs and to increase coordination with mainstream programs like TANF, SSI, Medicaid, and SNAP (formerly food stamps)."
The BCA makes deep cuts to federal “discretionary” spending over the next decade. Discretionary spending (as opposed to mandatory spending like Medicaid) is determined each year through the congressional appropriations process. It includes virtually all affordable housing and targeted homelessness programs within the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and other federal agencies. An overall cap on federal discretionary spending, starting in fiscal year (FY) 2012. Deeper spending cuts over nine years, beginning in FY 2013, totaling an additional $1.2 trillion in spending reductions.
Poverty in Africa refers to the lack of basic human needs faced by certain people in African society. African nations typically fall toward the bottom of any list measuring small size economic activity, such as income per capita or GDP per capita, despite a wealth of natural resources. In 2009, 22 of 24 nations identified as having "Low Human Development" on the United Nations' (UN) Human Development Index were in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, 34 of the 50 nations on the UN list of least developed countries are in Africa. In many nations, GDP per capita is less than USD$200 per year, with the vast majority of the population living on much less. In addition, Africa's share of income has been consistently dropping over the past century by any measure. In 1820, the average European worker earned about three times what the average African did. Now, the average European earns twenty times what the average African does. Although GDP per capita incomes in Africa have also been steadily growing, measures are still far better in other parts of the world.
Despite large amounts of arable land south of the Sahara Desert, small, individual land holdings are rare. In many nations, land is subject to tribal ownership and in others, most of the land is often in the hands of descendants of European settlers of the late 19th century and early 20th century. For example, according to a 2005 IRIN report, about 82% of the arable land in South Africa is owned by those of European descent. Many nations lack a system of freehold landowning. In others, the laws prevent people from disadvantaged groups from owning land at all. Although often these laws are ignored, and land sales to disadvantaged groups occur, legal title to the land is not assured. As such, rural Africans rarely have clear title to their own land, and have to survive as farm laborers. Unused land is plentiful, but is often private property. Most African nations have very poor land registration systems, making squatting and landtheft common occurrences. This makes it difficult to get a mortgage or similar loan, as ownership of the property often cannot be established to the satisfaction of financiers.
This system often gives an advantage to one native African group over another, and is not just Europeans over Africans. For example, it was hoped that land reform in Zimbabwe would transfer land from European land owners to family farmers. Instead, it simply substituted native Africans with ties to the government for Europeans, leaving much of the population disadvantaged. Because of this abuse, foreign aid that was destined for land purchases was withdrawn. (See Land reform in Zimbabwe)
Africa's economic malaise is self-perpetuating, as it engenders more of the disease, warfare, misgovernment, and corruption that created it in the first place. Other effects of poverty have similar consequences. The most direct consequence of low GDP is Africa's low standard of living and quality of life. Except for a wealthy elite and the more prosperous peoples of South Africa and the Maghreb, Africans have very few consumer goods. Quality of life does not correlate exactly with a nation's wealth. Angola, for instance, reaps large sums annually from its diamond mines, but after years of civil war, conditions there remain poor. Radios, televisions, and automobiles are rare luxuries. Most Africans are on the far side of the digital divide and are cut off from communications technology and the Internet, however use of mobile phones has been growing dramatically in recent years with 65% of Africans having access to a mobile phone as of 2011. Quality of life and human development are also low. African nations dominate the lower reaches of the UN Human Development Index. Infant mortality is high, while life expectancy, literacy, and education are all low. The UN also lowers the ranking of African states because the continent sees greater inequality than any other region. The best educated often choose to leave the continent for the West or the Persian Gulf to seek a better life; in the case of some nations like South Africa, many Caucasians have fled due to employment bias.
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