When companies think about innovating new products and services (or just testing their existing ones), they know that the task before them is to find out what their customers are really looking for. How do you discover this? Generally, companies do one very plausible, but in fact very problematic thing. They go and ask the customer. However, strangely, if you really want to know what your customer wants, the last thing you should do is to go out and ask them. And for a simple reason: they won’t know.