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Rescooped by julien levy from Plant pathogenic fungi
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How Microbes Twist Jasmonate Signaling around Their Little Fingers

How Microbes Twist Jasmonate Signaling around Their Little Fingers | Potato | Scoop.it
Plant immunity relies on a complex network of hormone signaling pathways in which jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role. Successful microbial pathogens or symbionts have developed strategies to manipulate plant hormone signaling pathways to cause hormonal imbalances for their own benefit. These strategies include the production of plant hormones, phytohormone mimics, or effector proteins that target host components to disrupt hormonal signaling pathways and enhance virulence. Here, we describe the molecular details of the most recent and best-characterized examples of specific JA hormonal manipulation by microbes, which exemplify the ingenious ways by which pathogens can take control over the plant’s hormone signaling network to suppress host immunity.

Via Francis Martin, Steve Marek
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Insect-borne plant pathogenic bacteria: getting a ride goes beyond physical contact

Insect-borne plant pathogenic bacteria: getting a ride goes beyond physical contact | Potato | Scoop.it
Plant pathogens have evolved numerous strategies that enable their movement from plant to plant. Phytopathogens use a great variety of insect species for transmission to plants, and insect...
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Rescooped by julien levy from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes

The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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A Gene-Edited Potato | MIT Technology Review

A Gene-Edited Potato | MIT Technology Review | Potato | Scoop.it
Plant scientists can swiftly modify crops in ways that would take years with conventional breeding.
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Humble spud poised to launch a world food revolution

Humble spud poised to launch a world food revolution | Potato | Scoop.it
Dutch team is pioneering development of crops fed by sea waterIn a small army field-hut Dr Arjen de Vos shows off his irrigation machine with pride.

 

In a small army field-hut Dr Arjen de Vos shows off his irrigation machine with pride. Pipes lead out to several acres of muddy field, where only a few stragglers from the autumn harvest of potatoes, salads, carrots and onions are left. The tubes are lined with copper to stop corrosion because – in a move that defies everything we think we know about farming – de Vos is watering his plants with diluted sea water.

Last week the project beat 560 competitors from 90 countries to win the prestigious USAid grand challenge award for its salt-tolerant potato. “It’s a game changer,” said de Vos. “We don’t see salination as a problem, we see it as an opportunity.”

Here, on one of the Netherlands’ northernmost islands, windswept Texel (pronounced Tessel) surrounded by encroaching ocean and salt marshes that seep sea water under its dykes and into ditches and canals, an enterprising farmer has taken the radical step of embracing salt water instead of fighting to keep it out. And now he thinks he might just help feed the world.

Inspired by sea cabbage, 59-year-old Marc van Rijsselberghe set up Salt Farm Texel and teamed up with the Free University in Amsterdam, which sent him de Vos to look at the possibility of growing food using non-fresh water. Their non-GM, non-laboratory-based experiments had help from an elderly Dutch farmer who has a geekish knowledge of thousands of different potato varieties.

“The world’s water is 89% salinated, 50% of agricultural land is threatened by salt water, and there are millions of people living in salt-contaminated areas. So it’s not hard to see we have a slight problem,” said van Rijsselberghe. “Up until now everyone has been concentrating on how to turn the salt water into fresh water; we are looking at what nature has already provided us with.”

The scarcity of fresh water has been labelled as the planet’s most drastic problem by the World Bank, NGOs, governments and environmentalists. A fifth of the world’s population already lives in areas of drought, and climate change is only going to exacerbate the problem. Poor farming practices, along with road and pavement building, is raising water tables and increasing the salination of rivers and lakes – in the Western Australian wheat-belt alone, salinity has caused a 50% fall in the numbers of wetland bird species, and threatened 450 plant species with extinction....


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by julien levy from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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How to incorporate active learning in undergraduate plant science classrooms?

How to incorporate active learning in undergraduate plant science classrooms? | Potato | Scoop.it

Following up from the "active learning works" PNAS paper, I got involved in a discussion about how to incorporate active learning methods in an undergraduate plant biology course. Here are some suggestions and links.

 

This paper provides an excellent overview of how and why to get students in lecture courses talking and engaged.

Tanner, K.D. (2009). Talking to Learn: Why Biology Students Should Be Talking in Classrooms and How to Make It Happen. CBE-Life Sciences Education. 8: 89-94. http://www.lifescied.org/content/8/2/89.full

 

A big challenge is to figure out what questions to ask in a big lecture hall. The Teaching Tools series includes suggestions in the Teaching Guides (http://www.plantcell.org/site/teachingtools/teaching.xhtml), as does the ASPB / BSA Core Concepts document (http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/aspb.site-ym.com/resource/resmgr/Education/Undergradplantbio_conceptsan.pdf). Many textbooks include short questions at the end of each chapter also, and some provide separate study guides full of questions.

 

Hands-on, inquiry based activities are some of the most powerful ways to get students engaged in science. Here is a list of places to find plant-based activities. Some are adaptable to assign as homework, some can be done in an hour and could be carried out instead of a lecture (as in a flipped classroom model), others demand a longer or more formal setting. Although some are written for younger students, they can be just as effective in engaging students in first year biology or botany courses.

 

Science and Plants for Schools (SAPS): http://www.saps.org.uk/

The Huntington Gardens Grounding in Botany Lesson Plans: http://www.huntington.org/WebAssets/Templates/content.aspx?id=3546

Inquiry-based Activities for the 12 Principles of Plant Biology: http://my.aspb.org/members/group_content_view.asp?group=80400&id=99877&CFID=9965673&CFTOKEN=26885427

Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE): http://www.oercommons.org/search?f.search=ABLE+plant+physiology

Inquire Botany: http://www.inquirebotany.org/en/

Fast Plants: http://www.fastplants.org/

FPSc: http://www.fpsc.wisc.edu/

 

You can even get students to do projects studying the plants on your own campus, as described here: Long, T. and Wyse, S. (2012). A Season for Inquiry: Investigating Phenology in Local Campus Trees. Science. 335: 932-933. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/335/6071/932.full

 

 


Via Mary Williams
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Mary Williams's curator insight, May 14, 2014 4:35 AM

If you have other suggestions to share, please send them to me at mwilliams@aspb.org or comment below and I'll add them to the list!

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The Intracellular Citrus Huanglongbing Bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Encodes Two Novel Autotransporters

The Intracellular Citrus Huanglongbing Bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Encodes Two Novel Autotransporters | Potato | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Three Congressional Priorities For Potato Growers - Growing Produce

Three Congressional Priorities For Potato Growers - Growing Produce | Potato | Scoop.it
Three Congressional Priorities For Potato Growers
Growing Produce
The Senate Appropriations Committee recently approved $2 million for the National Institute of Food and Agriculture potato breeding research program.
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What Comes After Heirloom Seeds? - The New Yorker

What Comes After Heirloom Seeds? - The New Yorker | Potato | Scoop.it
Reëxamining the legacy of the godfather of American horticulture.
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AgriLife Research putting designer potatoes on the menu

SPRINGLAKE – A decline in overall potato consumption has Texas A&M AgriLife Research breeders working on “designer” spuds that meet the time constraints and ...
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Farmers' market grower shifts to mini-tubers - Capital Press

Farmers' market grower shifts to mini-tubers - Capital Press | Potato | Scoop.it
Farmers' market grower shifts to mini-tubers
Capital Press
... irrigation system pumps nutrients into plant-filled troughs through straw-width tubes.
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The Destructive Citrus Pathogen, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Encodes a Functional Flagellin Characteristic of a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern

The Destructive Citrus Pathogen, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Encodes a Functional Flagellin Characteristic of a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern | Potato | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Rescooped by julien levy from Plant, Insect and Microbe Interactions
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Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis | Potato | Scoop.it

Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E−6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they transmit.


Via The aphid team@INRA Rennes
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