PlantBioInnovation
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PlantBioInnovation
Discovery and Invention Aspects of Plant Biology That Are Interesting, Innovative and Novel !
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Host to a Stranger: Arabidopsis and Fusarium Ear Blight

Host to a Stranger: Arabidopsis and Fusarium Ear Blight | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Fusarium ear blight (FEB) is a devastating fungal disease of cereal crops. Outbreaks are sporadic and current control strategies are severely limited. This review highlights the use of Arabidopsis to study plant–FEB interactions. Use of this pathosystem has identified natural variation in Fusarium susceptibility in Arabidopsis, and native plant genes and signalling processes modulating the interaction. Recent breakthroughs include the identification of plant- and insect-derived small molecules which increase disease resistance, and the use of a host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) construct to silence an important Fusarium gene to prevent infection. Arabidopsis has also been used to study other fungi that cause cereal diseases. These findings offer the potential for translational research in cereals which could yield much-needed novel control strategies.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Fusarium ear blight (FEB) is a devastating fungal disease of cereal crops. Outbreaks are sporadic and current control strategies are severely limited. This review highlights the use of Arabidopsis to study plant–FEB interactions. Use of this pathosystem has identified natural variation in Fusarium susceptibility in Arabidopsis, and native plant genes and signalling processes modulating the interaction. Recent breakthroughs include the identification of plant- and insect-derived small molecules which increase disease resistance, and the use of a host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) construct to silence an important Fusarium gene to prevent infection. Arabidopsis has also been used to study other fungi that cause cereal diseases. These findings offer the potential for translational research in cereals which could yield much-needed novel control strategies.

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A Validated High Resolution Mass Spectrometry-based Approach for Metabolomic Fingerprinting of the Human Gut Phenotype

A Validated High Resolution Mass Spectrometry-based Approach for Metabolomic Fingerprinting of the Human Gut Phenotype | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Fecal samples are an obvious choice for metabolomic approaches, since they can be obtained non-invasively and allow studying interactions between the gut microbiota and the host. The use of ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap HRMS) in this field is unique. Hence, this study relied on Orbitrap HRMS to develop and validate a metabolic fingerprinting workflow for human feces and in vitro digestive fluids. After chemometric sample extraction optimization, an aqueous dilution appeared necessary to comply to the dynamic range of the MS. The method was proven ‘fit-for-purpose’ through a validation procedure that monitored endogenous metabolites in quality control samples, which displayed in both matrices an excellent linearity (R2>0.990), recoveries ranging from 93-105%, and precision with CVs <15%. Finally, feces from 10 healthy individuals and 13 patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease were subjected to metabolomic fingerprinting. 9553 ions were detected, as well as differentiating profiles between Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis by means of (O)PLS-DA models. Additionally, samples from the dynamic gastrointestinal tract simulator (SHIME® platform) were analyzed resulting in 6446 and 5010 ions for the proximal and distal colonic samples, respectively. Supplementing SHIME feed with antibiotics resulted in a significant shift (P<0.05) of 27.7 % of the metabolites from the proximal dataset and 34.3% for the distal one. As a result, the presented fingerprinting approach provided predictive modeling of the gastrointestinal metabolome in vivo and in vitro, offering a window to reveal disease related biomarkers and potential insight into the mechanisms behind pathologies.

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Metabolomics: an emerging but powerful tool for precision medicine

Metabolomics, which is defined as the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in a biological specimen, is an emerging technology that holds promise to inform the practice of precision medicine. Historically, small numbers of metabolites have been used to diagnose complex metabolic diseases as well as monogenic disorders such as inborn errors of metabolism. Current metabolomic technologies go well beyond the scope of standard clinical chemistry techniques and are capable of precise analyses of hundreds to thousands of metabolites. Consequently, metabolomics affords detailed characterization of metabolic phenotypes and can enable precision medicine at a number of levels, including the characterization of metabolic derangements that underlie disease, discovery of new therapeutic targets, and discovery of biomarkers that may be used to either diagnose disease or monitor activity of therapeutics.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Metabolomics, which is defined as the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in a biological specimen, is an emerging technology that holds promise to inform the practice of precision medicine. Historically, small numbers of metabolites have been used to diagnose complex metabolic diseases as well as monogenic disorders such as inborn errors of metabolism. Current metabolomic technologies go well beyond the scope of standard clinical chemistry techniques and are capable of precise analyses of hundreds to thousands of metabolites. Consequently, metabolomics affords detailed characterization of metabolic phenotypes and can enable precision medicine at a number of levels, including the characterization of metabolic derangements that underlie disease, discovery of new therapeutic targets, and discovery of biomarkers that may be used to either diagnose disease or monitor activity of therapeutics.

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Symbiosis dependent accumulation of primary metabolites in arbuscule-containing cells

Abstract
Background

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is characterized by the presence of different symbiotic structures and stages within a root system. Therefore tools allowing the analysis of molecular changes at a cellular level are required to reveal insight into arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis development and functioning.
Results

Here we describe the analysis of metabolite pools in arbuscule-containing cells, which are the site of nutrient transfer between AM fungus and host plant. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI/TOF-MS) enabled the analysis of primary metabolite levels,which might be of plant or fungal origin, within these cells.
Conclusions

High levels of the amino acids, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, and glutamine, were observed in arbuscule-containing cells. Elevated amounts of sucrose and the steady-state of hexose levels indicated a direct assimilation of monosaccharides by the fungal partner.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract
Background

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is characterized by the presence of different symbiotic structures and stages within a root system. Therefore tools allowing the analysis of molecular changes at a cellular level are required to reveal insight into arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis development and functioning.

Results

Here we describe the analysis of metabolite pools in arbuscule-containing cells, which are the site of nutrient transfer between AM fungus and host plant. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI/TOF-MS) enabled the analysis of primary metabolite levels,which might be of plant or fungal origin, within these cells.

Conclusions

High levels of the amino acids, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, and glutamine, were observed in arbuscule-containing cells. Elevated amounts of sucrose and the steady-state of hexose levels indicated a direct assimilation of monosaccharides by the fungal partner.

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The synthesis of n-caproate from lactate: a new efficient process for medium-chain carboxylates production

The synthesis of n-caproate from lactate: a new efficient process for medium-chain carboxylates production | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

A unique microbiome that metabolizes lactate rather than ethanol for n-caproate production was obtained from a fermentation pit used for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL). The microbiome was able to produce n-caproate at concentrations as high as 23.41 g/L at a maximum rate of 2.97 g/L/d in batch trials without in-line extraction. Compared with previous work using ethanol as the electron donor, the n-caproate concentration increased by 82.89%. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the microbiome was dominated by a Clostridium cluster IV, which accounted for 79.07% of total reads. A new process for n-caproate production was proposed, lactate oxidation coupled to chain elongation, which revealed new insight into the well-studied lactate conversion and carbon chain elongation. In addition, these findings indicated a new synthesis mechanism of n-caproate in CSFL. We believe that this efficient process will provide a promising opportunity for the innovation of waste recovery as well as for n-caproate biosynthesis.

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Reporter pathway analysis from transcriptome data: Metabolite-centric versus Reaction-centric approach

Reporter pathway analysis from transcriptome data: Metabolite-centric versus Reaction-centric approach | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

A systems-based investigation of the effect of perturbations on metabolic machinery is crucial to elucidate the mechanism behind perturbations. One way to investigate the perturbation-induced changes within the cell metabolism is to focus on pathway-level effects. In this study, three different perturbation types (genetic, environmental and disease-based) are analyzed to compute a list of reporter pathways, metabolic pathways which are significantly affected from a perturbation. The most common omics data type, transcriptome, is used as an input to the bioinformatic analysis. The pathways are scored by two alternative approaches: by averaging the changes in the expression levels of the genes controlling the associated reactions (reaction-centric), and by averaging the changes in the associated metabolites which were scored based on the associated genes (metabolite-centric). The analysis reveals the superiority of the novel metabolite-centric approach over the commonly used reaction-centric approach since it is based on metabolites which better represent the cross-talk among different pathways, enabling a more global and realistic cataloguing of network-wide perturbation effects.

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Introduction of Methyl Groups at C2 and C6 Positions Enhances the Antiangiogenesis Activity of Curcumin

Introduction of Methyl Groups at C2 and C6 Positions Enhances the Antiangiogenesis Activity of Curcumin | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Curcumin has diverse biological activities, but is known to undergo rapid metabolism via reduction of vinylic double bonds and phase II conjugation. To prevent reductive metabolism of curcumin, we introduced a methyl group at both C2 and C6 positions (compound 1) or at the C2 position (compound 2) of curcumin, creating steric hindrance on double bonds against metabolizing enzymes. As predicted, these compounds were resistant to reduction by alcohol dehydrogenase. Compound 1 was further evaluated for its antiangiogenesis activity in vitro and in vivo. It exhibited significantly greater inhibitory activity than curcumin against endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. Similarly, the in vivo Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice showed more pronounced reduction of blood vessels in the plugs containing 1 than those containing curcumin. Moreover, 1 suppressed tumor growth more effectively than curcumin in a U87MG mouse xenograft model by inhibiting angiogenesis. In vivo metabolite analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrated that 1 underwent markedly slower reductive metabolism than curcumin. Taken together, our results indicate that 1 has enhanced antiangiogenesis activity and suppression of tumor growth compared with curcumin, reflecting diminished reductive metabolism owing to the introduction of methyl groups at the C2 and C6 positions of curcumin.

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Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds

Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds.

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A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in  Agrobacterium tumefaciens | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Author Summary We succeeded in understanding how the periplasmic protein AccA from the pathogen A . tumefaciens can bind both the plant compound agrocinopine and the antibiotic agrocin 84. Whereas agrocinopine acts as a nutrient and regulatory signal in A . tumefaciens , agrocin 84 is lethal once degraded by the enzyme AccF into a toxic moiety. We identified the pyranose-2-phosphate-like moiety shared by these two ligands as the key recognition template for AccA. We hypothesized that agr
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin 84, as well as the opine agrocinopine A that acts as both a nutrient and a signalling molecule for the dissemination of virulence genes through quorum-sensing. Here, we characterized the binding mode of AccA using purified agrocin 84 and synthetic agrocinopine A by X-ray crystallography at very high resolution and performed affinity measurements. Structural and affinity analyses revealed that AccA recognizes an uncommon and specific motif, a pyranose-2-phosphate moiety which is present in both imported molecules via the L-arabinopyranose moiety in agrocinopine A and the D-glucopyranose moiety in agrocin 84. We hypothesized that AccA is a gateway allowing the import of any compound possessing a pyranose-2-phosphate motif at one end. This was structurally and functionally confirmed by experiments using four synthetic compounds: agrocinopine 3’-O-benzoate, L-arabinose-2-isopropylphosphate, L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate. By combining affinity measurements and in vivo assays, we demonstrated that both L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate, which are the AccF mediated degradation products of agrocinopine A and agrocin 84 respectively, interact with the master transcriptional regulator AccR and activate the quorum-sensing signal synthesis and Ti plasmid transfer in A. tumefaciens C58. Our findings shed light on the role of agrocinopine and antibiotic agrocin 84 on quorum-sensing regulation in A. tumefaciens and reveal how the PBP AccA acts as vehicle for the importation of both molecules by means of a key-recognition motif. It also opens future possibilities for the rational design of antibiotic and anti-virulence compounds against A. tumefaciens or other pathogens possessing similar PBPs.

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Stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline by a cytochrome P450 fusion in opium poppy

A fusion protein containing P450 and aldo-keto reductase domains is shown to catalyze reticuline isomerization, the critical branch point between the noscapine and morphine biosynthetic pathways. This discovery completes the enzymatic route to morphine and related compounds.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The gateway to morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline since the enzyme yielding the first committed intermediate salutaridine is specific for (R)-reticuline. A fusion between a cytochrome P450 (CYP) and an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) catalyzes the S-to-R epimerization of reticuline via 1,2-dehydroreticuline. The reticuline epimerase (REPI) fusion was detected in opium poppy and inPapaver bracteatum, which accumulates thebaine. In contrast, orthologs encoding independent CYP and AKR enzymes catalyzing the respective synthesis and reduction of 1,2-dehydroreticuline were isolated from Papaver rhoeas, which does not accumulate morphinan alkaloids. An ancestral relationship between these enzymes is supported by a conservation of introns in the gene fusions and independent orthologs. Suppression of REPI transcripts using virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy reduced levels of (R)-reticuline and morphinan alkaloids and increased the overall abundance of (S)-reticuline and its O-methylated derivatives. Discovery of REPI completes the isolation of genes responsible for known steps of morphine biosynthesis.

  
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification in Polyploids: A Review, Example, and Recommendations

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification in Polyploids: A Review, Example, and Recommendations | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is a major biological question and being able to predict phenotypes based on molecular genotypes is integral to molecular breeding. Whole-genome duplications have shaped the history of all flowering plants and present challenges to elucidating the relationship between genotype and phenotype, especially in neopolyploid species. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become popular tools for genetic mapping, discovery and application of SNPs in polyploids has been difficult. Here, we summarize common experimental approaches to SNP calling, highlighting recent polyploid successes. To examine the impact of software choice on these analyses, we called SNPs among five peanut genotypes using different alignment programs (BWA-mem and Bowtie 2) and variant callers (SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes). Alignments produced by Bowtie 2 and BWA-mem and analyzed in SAMtools shared 24.5% concordant SNPs, and SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes shared 1.4% concordant SNPs. A subsequent analysis of simulated Brassica napus chromosome 1A and 1C genotypes demonstrated that, of the three software programs, SAMtools performed with the highest sensitivity and specificity on Bowtie 2 alignments. These results, however, are likely to vary among species, and we therefore propose a series of best practices for SNP calling in polyploids.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is a major biological question and being able to predict phenotypes based on molecular genotypes is integral to molecular breeding. Whole-genome duplications have shaped the history of all flowering plants and present challenges to elucidating the relationship between genotype and phenotype, especially in neopolyploid species. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become popular tools for genetic mapping, discovery and application of SNPs in polyploids has been difficult. Here, we summarize common experimental approaches to SNP calling, highlighting recent polyploid successes. To examine the impact of software choice on these analyses, we called SNPs among five peanut genotypes using different alignment programs (BWA-mem and Bowtie 2) and variant callers (SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes). Alignments produced by Bowtie 2 and BWA-mem and analyzed in SAMtools shared 24.5% concordant SNPs, and SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes shared 1.4% concordant SNPs. A subsequent analysis of simulated Brassica napus chromosome 1A and 1C genotypes demonstrated that, of the three software programs, SAMtools performed with the highest sensitivity and specificity on Bowtie 2 alignments. These results, however, are likely to vary among species, and we therefore propose a series of best practices for SNP calling in polyploids.

  
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Microbial and biochemical basis of a Fusarium wilt-suppressive soil

The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is the official Journal of the International Society for Microbial Ecology, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short communications, commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding and diverse discipline of microbial ecology.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Crops lack genetic resistance to most necrotrophic pathogens. To compensate for this disadvantage, plants recruit antagonistic members of the soil microbiome to defend their roots against pathogens and other pests. The best examples of this microbially based defense of roots are observed in disease-suppressive soils in which suppressiveness is induced by continuously growing crops that are susceptible to a pathogen, but the molecular basis of most is poorly understood. Here we report the microbial characterization of a Korean soil with specific suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of strawberry. In this soil, an attack on strawberry roots by Fusarium oxysporum results in a response by microbial defenders, of which members of the Actinobacteria appear to have a key role. We also identify Streptomyces genes responsible for the ribosomal synthesis of a novel heat-stable antifungal thiopeptide antibiotic inhibitory to F. oxysporum and the antibiotic’s mode of action against fungal cell wall biosynthesis. Both classical- and community-oriented approaches were required to dissect this suppressive soil from the field to the molecular level, and the results highlight the role of natural antibiotics as weapons in the microbial warfare in the rhizosphere that is integral to plant health, vigor and development.

 
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A Tale of Two Hyper-diversities: Diversification dynamics of the two largest families of lichenized fungi

A Tale of Two Hyper-diversities: Diversification dynamics of the two largest families of lichenized fungi | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Renewed interests in macroevolutionary dynamics have led to the proliferation of studies on diversification processes in large taxonomic groups, such as angiosperms, mammals, and birds. However, such a study has yet to be conducted in lichenized fungi – an extremely successful and diverse group of fungi. Analysing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenies with a new analytical method, we illustrated drastically different diversification dynamics between two hyper-diverse families of lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae and Parmeliaceae, which represent more than a fourth of the total species diversity of lichenized fungi. Despite adopting a similar nutrition mode and having a similar number of species, Graphidaceae exhibited a lower speciation rate, while Parmeliaceae showed a sharp increase in speciation rate that corresponded with the aridification during the Oligocene-Miocene transition, suggesting their adaptive radiation into a novel arid habitat.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Renewed interests in macroevolutionary dynamics have led to the proliferation of studies on diversification processes in large taxonomic groups, such as angiosperms, mammals, and birds. However, such a study has yet to be conducted in lichenized fungi – an extremely successful and diverse group of fungi. Analysing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenies with a new analytical method, we illustrated drastically different diversification dynamics between two hyper-diverse families of lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae and Parmeliaceae, which represent more than a fourth of the total species diversity of lichenized fungi. Despite adopting a similar nutrition mode and having a similar number of species, Graphidaceae exhibited a lower speciation rate, while Parmeliaceae showed a sharp increase in speciation rate that corresponded with the aridification during the Oligocene-Miocene transition, suggesting their adaptive radiation into a novel arid habitat.

  
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Metabolomics, standards and metabolic modeling for synthetic biology in plants

Life on earth depends on dynamic chemical transformations that enable cellular functions, including electron transfer reactions, as well as synthesis and degradation of biomolecules. Biochemical reactions are coordinated in metabolic pathways that interact in a complex way to allow adequate regulation. Biotechnology, food, biofuels, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries are highly interested in metabolic engineering as an enabling technology of synthetic biology to exploit cells for the controlled production of metabolites of interest. These approaches have only recently been extended to plants due to their greater metabolic complexity (such as primary and secondary metabolism) and highly compartmentalized cellular structures and functions (including plant-specific organelles) compared with bacteria and other microorganisms. Technological advances in analytical instrumentation in combination with advances in data analysis and modeling have opened up new approaches to engineer plant metabolic pathways, and allow the impact of modifications to be predicted more accurately. In this article, we review challenges in the integration and analysis of large-scale metabolic data, present an overview of current bioinformatics methods for the modeling and visualization of metabolic networks, and discuss approaches for interfacing bioinformatics approaches with metabolic models of cellular processes and flux distributions in order to predict phenotypes derived from specific genetic modifications, or subjected to different environmental conditions.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Life on earth depends on dynamic chemical transformations that enable cellular functions, including electron transfer reactions, as well as synthesis and degradation of biomolecules. Biochemical reactions are coordinated in metabolic pathways that interact in a complex way to allow adequate regulation. Biotechnology, food, biofuels, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries are highly interested in metabolic engineering as an enabling technology of synthetic biology to exploit cells for the controlled production of metabolites of interest. These approaches have only recently been extended to plants due to their greater metabolic complexity (such as primary and secondary metabolism) and highly compartmentalized cellular structures and functions (including plant-specific organelles) compared with bacteria and other microorganisms. Technological advances in analytical instrumentation in combination with advances in data analysis and modeling have opened up new approaches to engineer plant metabolic pathways, and allow the impact of modifications to be predicted more accurately. In this article, we review challenges in the integration and analysis of large-scale metabolic data, present an overview of current bioinformatics methods for the modeling and visualization of metabolic networks, and discuss approaches for interfacing bioinformatics approaches with metabolic models of cellular processes and flux distributions in order to predict phenotypes derived from specific genetic modifications, or subjected to different environmental conditions.

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High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation

High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures.

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Six enzymes from mayapple that complete the biosynthetic pathway to the etoposide aglycone

Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Podophyllotoxin is the natural product precursor of the chemotherapeutic etoposide, yet only part of its biosynthetic pathway is known. We used transcriptome mining in Podophyllum hexandrum (mayapple) to identify biosynthetic genes in the podophyllotoxin pathway. We selected 29 candidate genes to combinatorially express in Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) and identified six pathway enzymes, including an oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that closes the core cyclohexane ring of the aryltetralin scaffold. By coexpressing 10 genes in tobacco—these 6 plus 4 previously discovered—we reconstitute the pathway to (–)-4′-desmethylepipodophyllotoxin (the etoposide aglycone), a naturally occurring lignan that is the immediate precursor of etoposide and, unlike podophyllotoxin, a potent topoisomerase inhibitor. Our results enable production of the etoposide aglycone in tobacco and circumvent the need for cultivation of mayapple and semisynthetic epimerization and demethylation of podophyllotoxin.

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Metabolomics insights into chronic kidney disease and modulatory effect of rhubarb against tubulointerstitial fibrosis

Metabolomics insights into chronic kidney disease and modulatory effect of rhubarb against tubulointerstitial fibrosis | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Rhubarb has been shown to have nephroprotective and anti-fibrotic activities in patients with CKD. However, bioactive fractions and biochemical mechanism of anti-fibrotic properties of rhubarb remain unclear. Here we applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry together with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses to investigate the urinary metabolite profile in rats with adenine-induced CKD treated with the petroleum ether (PE)-, ethyl acetate (EA)- and n-butanol (BU)- extracts of rhubarb. Significant differences in renal function, kidney histopathology as well as metabolic profiles were observed between CKD and control rats. Changes in these parameters reflected characteristic phenotypes of CKD rats. We further identified a series of differential urinary metabolites for CKD rats, suggesting metabolic dysfunction in pathway of amino acid, purine, taurine, and choline metabolisms. Treatment with EA, BU and PE extracts of rhubarb improved renal function and histopathological abnormalities including interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, and either fully or partially reversed the abnormalities of the urinary metabolites. Among them, the nephroprotective effect of EA extract was stronger than BU and PE extracts. This work provides important mechanistic insights into the CKD and nephroprotective effects of different rhubarb extract against tubulo-interstitial fibrosis.

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The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5–8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

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Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil

Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions.

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Auxenochlorella protothecoides and Prototheca wickerhamii plastid genome sequences give insight into the origins of non-photosynthetic algae

Auxenochlorella protothecoides and Prototheca wickerhamii plastid genome sequences give insight into the origins of non-photosynthetic algae | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The forfeiting of photosynthetic capabilities has occurred independently many times throughout eukaryotic evolution. But almost all non-photosynthetic plants and algae still retain a colorless plastid and an associated genome, which performs fundamental processes apart from photosynthesis. Unfortunately, little is known about the forces leading to photosynthetic loss; this is largely because there is a lack of data from transitional species. Here, we compare the plastid genomes of two “transitional” green algae: the photosynthetic, mixotrophic Auxenochlorella protothecoides and the non-photosynthetic, obligate heterotroph Prototheca wickerhamii. Remarkably, the plastid genome of A. protothecoides is only slightly larger than that of P. wickerhamii, making it among the smallest plastid genomes yet observed from photosynthetic green algae. Even more surprising, both algae have almost identical plastid genomic architectures and gene compositions (with the exception of genes involved in photosynthesis), implying that they are closely related. This close relationship was further supported by phylogenetic and substitution rate analyses, which suggest that the lineages giving rise to A. protothecoides and P. wickerhamii diverged from one another around six million years ago.

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Protein interaction patterns in different cellular environments are revealed by in-cell NMR

Protein interaction patterns in different cellular environments are revealed by in-cell NMR | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Scientific Reports is an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature. The 2014 Impact Factor for Scientific Reports is 5.578.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

In-cell NMR allows obtaining atomic-level information on biological macromolecules in their physiological environment. Soluble proteins may interact with the cellular environment in different ways: either specifically, with their functional partners, or non-specifically, with other cellular components. Such behaviour often causes the disappearance of the NMR signals. Here we show that by introducing mutations on the human protein profilin 1, used here as a test case, the in-cell NMR signals can be recovered. In human cells both specific and non-specific interactions are present, while in bacterial cells only the effect of non-specific interactions is observed. By comparing the NMR signal recovery pattern in human and bacterial cells, the relative contribution of each type of interaction can be assessed. This strategy allows detecting solution in-cell NMR spectra of soluble proteins without altering their fold, thus extending the applicability of in-cell NMR to a wider range of proteins.

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Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging

Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.

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Nitrate sensing by the maize root apex transition zone: a merged transcriptomic and proteomic survey

Nitrate sensing by the maize root apex transition zone: a merged transcriptomic and proteomic survey | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Nitrate is an essential nutrient for plants, and crops depend on its availability for growth and development, but its presence in agricultural soils is far from stable. In order to overcome nitrate fluctuations in soil, plants have developed adaptive mechanisms allowing them to grow despite changes in external nitrate availability. Nitrate can act as both nutrient and signal, regulating global gene expression in plants, and the root tip has been proposed as the sensory organ. A set of genome-wide studies has demonstrated several nitrate-regulated genes in the roots of many plants, although only a few studies have been carried out on distinct root zones. To unravel new details of the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to nitrate availability in a major food crop, a double untargeted approach was conducted on a transition zone-enriched root portion of maize seedlings subjected to differing nitrate supplies. The results highlighted a complex transcriptomic and proteomic reprogramming that occurs in response to nitrate, emphasizing the role of this root zone in sensing and transducing nitrate signal. Our findings indicated a relationship of nitrate with biosynthesis and signalling of several phytohormones, such as auxin, strigolactones, and brassinosteroids. Moreover, the already hypothesized involvement of nitric oxide in the early response to nitrate was confirmed with the use of nitric oxide inhibitors. Our results also suggested that cytoskeleton activation and cell wall modification occurred in response to nitrate provision in the transition zone.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Ethylene Signaling in Rice and Arabidopsis: Conserved and Diverged Aspects

Ethylene Signaling in Rice and Arabidopsis: Conserved and Diverged Aspects | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Ethylene as a gas phytohormone plays significant roles in the whole life cycle of plants, ranging from growth and development to stress responses. A linear ethylene signaling pathway has been established in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. However, the ethylene signaling mechanism in monocotyledonous plants such as rice is largely unclear. In this review, we compare the ethylene response phenotypes of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis, rice, and other monocotyledonous plants (maize, wheat, sorghum, and Brachypodium distachyon) and pinpoint that rice has a distinct phenotype of root inhibition but coleoptile promotion in etiolated seedlings upon ethylene treatment. We further summarize the homologous genes of Arabidopsis ethylene signaling components in these monocotyledonous plants and discuss recent progress. Although conserved in most aspects, ethylene signaling in rice has evolved new features compared with that in Arabidopsis. These analyses provide novel insights into the understanding of ethylene signaling in the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis and monocotyledonous plants, particularly rice. Further characterization of rice ethylene-responsive mutants and their corresponding genes will help us better understand the whole picture of ethylene signaling mechanisms in plants.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Ethylene as a gas phytohormone plays significant roles in the whole life cycle of plants, ranging from growth and development to stress responses. A linear ethylene signaling pathway has been established in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. However, the ethylene signaling mechanism in monocotyledonous plants such as rice is largely unclear. In this review, we compare the ethylene response phenotypes of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis, rice, and other monocotyledonous plants (maize, wheat, sorghum, and Brachypodium distachyon) and pinpoint that rice has a distinct phenotype of root inhibition but coleoptile promotion in etiolated seedlings upon ethylene treatment. We further summarize the homologous genes of Arabidopsis ethylene signaling components in these monocotyledonous plants and discuss recent progress. Although conserved in most aspects, ethylene signaling in rice has evolved new features compared with that inArabidopsis. These analyses provide novel insights into the understanding of ethylene signaling in the dicotyledonousArabidopsis and monocotyledonous plants, particularly rice. Further characterization of rice ethylene-responsive mutants and their corresponding genes will help us better understand the whole picture of ethylene signaling mechanisms in plants.

  
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Ultra-high density intra-specific genetic linkage maps accelerate identification of functionally relevant molecular tags governing important agronomic traits in chickpea

Ultra-high density intra-specific genetic linkage maps accelerate identification of functionally relevant molecular tags governing important agronomic traits in chickpea | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
We discovered 26785 and 16573 high-quality SNPs differentiating two parental genotypes of a RIL mapping population using reference desi and kabuli genome-based GBS assay. Of these, 3625 and 2177 SNPs have been integrated into eight desi and kabuli chromosomes, respectively in order to construct ultra-high density (0.20–0.37 cM) intra-specific chickpea genetic linkage maps. One of these constructed high-resolution genetic map has potential to identify 33 major genomic regions harbouring 35 robust QTLs (PVE: 17.9–39.7%) associated with three agronomic traits, which were mapped within <1 cM mean marker intervals on desi chromosomes. The extended LD (linkage disequilibrium) decay (~15 cM) in chromosomes of genetic maps have encouraged us to use a rapid integrated approach (comparative QTL mapping, QTL-region specific haplotype/LD-based trait association analysis, expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association mapping) rather than a traditional QTL map-based cloning method to narrow-down one major seed weight (SW) robust QTL region. It delineated favourable natural allelic variants and superior haplotype-containing one seed-specific candidate embryo defective gene regulating SW in chickpea. The ultra-high-resolution genetic maps, QTLs/genes and alleles/haplotypes-related genomic information generated and integrated strategy for rapid QTL/gene identification developed have potential to expedite genomics-assisted breeding applications in crop plants, including chickpea for their genetic enhancement.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

We discovered 26785 and 16573 high-quality SNPs differentiating two parental genotypes of a RIL mapping population using reference desi and kabuli genome-based GBS assay. Of these, 3625 and 2177 SNPs have been integrated into eight desi and kabulichromosomes, respectively in order to construct ultra-high density (0.20–0.37 cM) intra-specific chickpea genetic linkage maps. One of these constructed high-resolution genetic map has potential to identify 33 major genomic regions harbouring 35 robust QTLs (PVE: 17.9–39.7%) associated with three agronomic traits, which were mapped within <1 cM mean marker intervals on desi chromosomes. The extended LD (linkage disequilibrium) decay (~15 cM) in chromosomes of genetic maps have encouraged us to use a rapid integrated approach (comparative QTL mapping, QTL-region specific haplotype/LD-based trait association analysis, expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association mapping) rather than a traditional QTL map-based cloning method to narrow-down one major seed weight (SW) robust QTL region. It delineated favourable natural allelic variants and superior haplotype-containing one seed-specific candidate embryo defective gene regulating SW in chickpea. The ultra-high-resolution genetic maps, QTLs/genes and alleles/haplotypes-related genomic information generated and integrated strategy for rapid QTL/gene identification developed have potential to expedite genomics-assisted breeding applications in crop plants, including chickpea for their genetic enhancement.

  
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