PlantBioInnovation
Follow
Find
3.4K views | +0 today
 
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
onto PlantBioInnovation
Scoop.it!

MscS-Like10 is a stretch-activated ion channel from Arabidopsis thaliana with a preference for anions

Abstract

Like many other organisms, plants are capable of sensing and responding to mechanical stimuli such as touch, osmotic pressure, and gravity. One mechanism for the perception of force is the activation of mechanosensitive (or stretch-activated) ion channels, and a number of mechanosensitive channel activities have been described in plant membranes. Based on their homology to the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS, the 10 MscS-Like (MSL) proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana have been hypothesized to form mechanosensitive channels in plant cell and organelle membranes. However, definitive proof that MSLs form mechanosensitive channels has been lacking. Here we used single-channel patch clamp electrophysiology to show that MSL10 is capable of providing a MS channel activity when heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This channel had a conductance of ∼100 pS, consistent with the hypothesis that it underlies an activity previously observed in the plasma membrane of plant root cells. We found that MSL10 formed a channel with a moderate preference for anions, which was modulated by strongly positive and negative membrane potentials, and was reversibly inhibited by gadolinium, a known inhibitor of mechanosensitive channels. MSL10 demonstrated asymmetric activation/inactivation kinetics, with the channel closing at substantially lower tensions than channel opening. The electrophysiological characterization of MSL10 reported here provides insight into the evolution of structure and function of this important family of proteins.

more...
No comment yet.
PlantBioInnovation
Discovery and Invention Aspects of Plant Biology That Are Interesting, Innovative and Novel !
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline by a cytochrome P450 fusion in opium poppy

A fusion protein containing P450 and aldo-keto reductase domains is shown to catalyze reticuline isomerization, the critical branch point between the noscapine and morphine biosynthetic pathways. This discovery completes the enzymatic route to morphine and related compounds.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The gateway to morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline since the enzyme yielding the first committed intermediate salutaridine is specific for (R)-reticuline. A fusion between a cytochrome P450 (CYP) and an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) catalyzes the S-to-R epimerization of reticuline via 1,2-dehydroreticuline. The reticuline epimerase (REPI) fusion was detected in opium poppy and inPapaver bracteatum, which accumulates thebaine. In contrast, orthologs encoding independent CYP and AKR enzymes catalyzing the respective synthesis and reduction of 1,2-dehydroreticuline were isolated from Papaver rhoeas, which does not accumulate morphinan alkaloids. An ancestral relationship between these enzymes is supported by a conservation of introns in the gene fusions and independent orthologs. Suppression of REPI transcripts using virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy reduced levels of (R)-reticuline and morphinan alkaloids and increased the overall abundance of (S)-reticuline and its O-methylated derivatives. Discovery of REPI completes the isolation of genes responsible for known steps of morphine biosynthesis.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification in Polyploids: A Review, Example, and Recommendations

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification in Polyploids: A Review, Example, and Recommendations | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is a major biological question and being able to predict phenotypes based on molecular genotypes is integral to molecular breeding. Whole-genome duplications have shaped the history of all flowering plants and present challenges to elucidating the relationship between genotype and phenotype, especially in neopolyploid species. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become popular tools for genetic mapping, discovery and application of SNPs in polyploids has been difficult. Here, we summarize common experimental approaches to SNP calling, highlighting recent polyploid successes. To examine the impact of software choice on these analyses, we called SNPs among five peanut genotypes using different alignment programs (BWA-mem and Bowtie 2) and variant callers (SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes). Alignments produced by Bowtie 2 and BWA-mem and analyzed in SAMtools shared 24.5% concordant SNPs, and SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes shared 1.4% concordant SNPs. A subsequent analysis of simulated Brassica napus chromosome 1A and 1C genotypes demonstrated that, of the three software programs, SAMtools performed with the highest sensitivity and specificity on Bowtie 2 alignments. These results, however, are likely to vary among species, and we therefore propose a series of best practices for SNP calling in polyploids.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is a major biological question and being able to predict phenotypes based on molecular genotypes is integral to molecular breeding. Whole-genome duplications have shaped the history of all flowering plants and present challenges to elucidating the relationship between genotype and phenotype, especially in neopolyploid species. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become popular tools for genetic mapping, discovery and application of SNPs in polyploids has been difficult. Here, we summarize common experimental approaches to SNP calling, highlighting recent polyploid successes. To examine the impact of software choice on these analyses, we called SNPs among five peanut genotypes using different alignment programs (BWA-mem and Bowtie 2) and variant callers (SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes). Alignments produced by Bowtie 2 and BWA-mem and analyzed in SAMtools shared 24.5% concordant SNPs, and SAMtools, GATK, and Freebayes shared 1.4% concordant SNPs. A subsequent analysis of simulated Brassica napus chromosome 1A and 1C genotypes demonstrated that, of the three software programs, SAMtools performed with the highest sensitivity and specificity on Bowtie 2 alignments. These results, however, are likely to vary among species, and we therefore propose a series of best practices for SNP calling in polyploids.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Microbial and biochemical basis of a Fusarium wilt-suppressive soil

The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is the official Journal of the International Society for Microbial Ecology, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short communications, commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding and diverse discipline of microbial ecology.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Crops lack genetic resistance to most necrotrophic pathogens. To compensate for this disadvantage, plants recruit antagonistic members of the soil microbiome to defend their roots against pathogens and other pests. The best examples of this microbially based defense of roots are observed in disease-suppressive soils in which suppressiveness is induced by continuously growing crops that are susceptible to a pathogen, but the molecular basis of most is poorly understood. Here we report the microbial characterization of a Korean soil with specific suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of strawberry. In this soil, an attack on strawberry roots by Fusarium oxysporum results in a response by microbial defenders, of which members of the Actinobacteria appear to have a key role. We also identify Streptomyces genes responsible for the ribosomal synthesis of a novel heat-stable antifungal thiopeptide antibiotic inhibitory to F. oxysporum and the antibiotic’s mode of action against fungal cell wall biosynthesis. Both classical- and community-oriented approaches were required to dissect this suppressive soil from the field to the molecular level, and the results highlight the role of natural antibiotics as weapons in the microbial warfare in the rhizosphere that is integral to plant health, vigor and development.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

A Tale of Two Hyper-diversities: Diversification dynamics of the two largest families of lichenized fungi

A Tale of Two Hyper-diversities: Diversification dynamics of the two largest families of lichenized fungi | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Renewed interests in macroevolutionary dynamics have led to the proliferation of studies on diversification processes in large taxonomic groups, such as angiosperms, mammals, and birds. However, such a study has yet to be conducted in lichenized fungi – an extremely successful and diverse group of fungi. Analysing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenies with a new analytical method, we illustrated drastically different diversification dynamics between two hyper-diverse families of lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae and Parmeliaceae, which represent more than a fourth of the total species diversity of lichenized fungi. Despite adopting a similar nutrition mode and having a similar number of species, Graphidaceae exhibited a lower speciation rate, while Parmeliaceae showed a sharp increase in speciation rate that corresponded with the aridification during the Oligocene-Miocene transition, suggesting their adaptive radiation into a novel arid habitat.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Renewed interests in macroevolutionary dynamics have led to the proliferation of studies on diversification processes in large taxonomic groups, such as angiosperms, mammals, and birds. However, such a study has yet to be conducted in lichenized fungi – an extremely successful and diverse group of fungi. Analysing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenies with a new analytical method, we illustrated drastically different diversification dynamics between two hyper-diverse families of lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae and Parmeliaceae, which represent more than a fourth of the total species diversity of lichenized fungi. Despite adopting a similar nutrition mode and having a similar number of species, Graphidaceae exhibited a lower speciation rate, while Parmeliaceae showed a sharp increase in speciation rate that corresponded with the aridification during the Oligocene-Miocene transition, suggesting their adaptive radiation into a novel arid habitat.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Altitudinal patterns of diversity and functional traits of metabolically active microorganisms in stream biofilms

Altitudinal patterns of diversity and functional traits of metabolically active microorganisms in stream biofilms | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is the official Journal of the International Society for Microbial Ecology, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short communications, commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding and diverse discipline of microbial ecology.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Resources structure ecological communities and potentially link biodiversity to energy flow. It is commonly believed that functional traits (generalists versus specialists) involved in the exploitation of resources depend on resource availability and environmental fluctuations. The longitudinal nature of stream ecosystems provides changing resources to stream biota with yet unknown effects on microbial functional traits and community structure. We investigated the impact of autochthonous (algal extract) and allochthonous (spruce extract) resources, as they change along alpine streams from above to below the treeline, on microbial diversity, community composition and functions of benthic biofilms. Combining bromodeoxyuridine labelling and 454 pyrosequencing, we showed that diversity was lower upstream than downstream of the treeline and that community composition changed along the altitudinal gradient. We also found that, especially for allochthonous resources, specialisation by biofilm bacteria increased along that same gradient. Our results suggest that in streams below the treeline biofilm diversity, specialisation and functioning are associated with increasing niche differentiation as potentially modulated by divers allochthonous and autochthonous constituents contributing to resources. These findings expand our current understanding on biofilm structure and function in alpine streams.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Hippocampal memory enhancing activity of pine needle extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in a mouse model

Hippocampal memory enhancing activity of pine needle extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in a mouse model | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
We evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on memory impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice hippocampus. Mice were orally pretreated with PNE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or tacrine (10 mg/kg) for 7 days, and scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally, 30 min before the Morris water maze task on first day. To evaluate memory function, the Morris water maze task was performed for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine increased the escape latency and cumulative path-length but decreases the time spent in target quadrant, which were ameliorated by pretreatment with PNE. Oxidant-antioxidant balance, acetylcholinesterase activity, neurogenesis and their connecting pathway were abnormally altered by scopolamine in hippocampus and/or sera, while those alterations were recovered by pretreatment with PNE. As lipid peroxidation, 4HNE-positive stained cells were ameliorated in hippocampus pretreated with PNE. Pretreatment with PNE increased the proliferating cells and immature neurons against hippocampal neurogenesis suppressed by scopolamine, which was confirmed by ki67- and DCX-positive stained cells. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) in both protein and gene were facilitated by PNE pretreatment. These findings suggest that PNE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its possible mechanism might be modulating cholinergic activity via CREB-BDNF pathway.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

We evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on memory impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice hippocampus. Mice were orally pretreated with PNE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or tacrine (10 mg/kg) for 7 days, and scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally, 30 min before the Morris water maze task on first day. To evaluate memory function, the Morris water maze task was performed for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine increased the escape latency and cumulative path-length but decreases the time spent in target quadrant, which were ameliorated by pretreatment with PNE. Oxidant-antioxidant balance, acetylcholinesterase activity, neurogenesis and their connecting pathway were abnormally altered by scopolamine in hippocampus and/or sera, while those alterations were recovered by pretreatment with PNE. As lipid peroxidation, 4HNE-positive stained cells were ameliorated in hippocampus pretreated with PNE. Pretreatment with PNE increased the proliferating cells and immature neurons against hippocampal neurogenesis suppressed by scopolamine, which was confirmed by ki67- and DCX-positive stained cells. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) in both protein and gene were facilitated by PNE pretreatment. These findings suggest that PNE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its possible mechanism might be modulating cholinergic activity via CREB-BDNF pathway.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

A terpenoid phytoalexin plays a role in basal defense of Nicotiana benthamiana against Potato virus X

A terpenoid phytoalexin plays a role in basal defense of Nicotiana benthamiana against Potato virus X | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Terpenoid phytoalexins function as defense compound against a broad spectrum of pathogens and pests in the plant kingdom. However, the role of phytoalexin in antiviral defense is still elusive. In this study, we identified the biosynthesis pathway of a sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin, capsidiol 3-acetate as an antiviral response against RNA virus Potato Virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana. NbTPS1 and NbEAH genes were found strongly induced by PVX-infection. Enzymatic activity and genetic evidence indicated that both genes were involved in the PVX-induced biosynthesis of capsidiol 3-acetate. NbTPS1- or NbEAH-silenced plant was more susceptible to PVX. The accumulation of capsidiol 3-acetate in PVX-infected plant was partially regulated by jasmonic acid signaling receptor COI1. These findings provide an insight into a novel mechanism of how plant uses the basal arsenal machinery to mount a fight against virus attack even in susceptible species.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Terpenoid phytoalexins function as defense compound against a broad spectrum of pathogens and pests in the plant kingdom. However, the role of phytoalexin in antiviral defense is still elusive. In this study, we identified the biosynthesis pathway of a sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin, capsidiol 3-acetate as an antiviral response against RNA virus Potato Virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana. NbTPS1 and NbEAH genes were found strongly induced by PVX-infection. Enzymatic activity and genetic evidence indicated that both genes were involved in the PVX-induced biosynthesis of capsidiol 3-acetate. NbTPS1- or NbEAH-silenced plant was more susceptible to PVX. The accumulation of capsidiol 3-acetate in PVX-infected plant was partially regulated by jasmonic acid signaling receptor COI1. These findings provide an insight into a novel mechanism of how plant uses the basal arsenal machinery to mount a fight against virus attack even in susceptible species.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Transcriptome sequencing of three Ranunculus species (Ranunculaceae) reveals candidate genes in adaptation from terrestrial to aquatic habitats

Transcriptome sequencing of three Ranunculus species (Ranunculaceae) reveals candidate genes in adaptation from terrestrial to aquatic habitats | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Adaptation to aquatic habitats is a formidable challenge for terrestrial angiosperms that has long intrigued scientists. As part of a suite of work to explore the molecular mechanism of adaptation to aquatic habitats, we here sequenced the transcriptome of the submerged aquatic plant Ranunculus bungei, and two terrestrial relatives R. cantoniensis and R. brotherusii, followed by comparative evolutionary analyses to determine candidate genes for adaption to aquatic habitats. We obtained 126,037, 140,218 and 114,753 contigs for R. bungei, R. cantoniensis and R. brotherusiirespectively. Bidirectional Best Hit method and OrthoMCL method identified 11,362 and 8,174 1:1:1 orthologous genes (one ortholog is represented in each of the three species) respectively. Non-synonymous/synonymous (dN/dS) analyses were performed with a maximum likelihood method and an approximate method for the three species-pairs. In total, 14 genes of R. bungeipotentially involved in the adaptive transition from terrestrial to aquatic habitats were identified. Some of the homologs to these genes in model plants are involved in vacuole protein formation, regulating ‘water transport process’ and ‘microtubule cytoskeleton organization’. Our study opens the door to understand the molecular mechanism of plant adaptation from terrestrial to aquatic habitats.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Genomic features separating ten strains of Neorhizobium galegae with different symbiotic phenotypes

The symbiotic phenotype of Neorhizobium galegae, with strains specifically fixing nitrogen with either Galega orientalis or G. officinalis, has made it a target in research on determinants of host specificity in nitrogen fixation. The genomic differences between representative strains of the two symbiovars are, however, relatively small. This introduced a need for a dataset representing a larger bacterial population in order to make better conclusions on characteristics typical for a subset of the species. In this study, we produced draft genomes of eight strains of N. galegae having different symbiotic phenotypes, both with regard to host specificity and nitrogen fixation efficiency. These genomes were analysed together with the previously published complete genomes of N. galegae strains HAMBI 540T and HAMBI 1141.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

The symbiotic phenotype of Neorhizobium galegae, with strains specifically fixing nitrogen with either Galega orientalis or G. officinalis, has made it a target in research on determinants of host specificity in nitrogen fixation. The genomic differences between representative strains of the two symbiovars are, however, relatively small. This introduced a need for a dataset representing a larger bacterial population in order to make better conclusions on characteristics typical for a subset of the species. In this study, we produced draft genomes of eight strains of N. galegaehaving different symbiotic phenotypes, both with regard to host specificity and nitrogen fixation efficiency. These genomes were analysed together with the previously published complete genomes of N. galegae strains HAMBI 540T and HAMBI 1141.

Results

The results showed that the presence of an additional rpoN sigma factor gene in the symbiosis gene region is a characteristic specific to symbiovar orientalis, required for nitrogen fixation. Also the nifQ gene was shown to be crucial for functional symbiosis in both symbiovars. Genome-wide analyses identified additional genes characteristic of strains of the same symbiovar and of strains having similar plant growth promoting properties on Galega orientalis. Many of these genes are involved in transcriptional regulation or in metabolic functions.

Conclusions

The results of this study confirm that the only symbiosis-related gene that is present in one symbiovar of N. galegae but not in the other is an rpoN gene. The specific function of this gene remains to be determined, however. New genes that were identified as specific for strains of one symbiovar may be involved in determining host specificity, while others are defined as potential determinant genes for differences in efficiency of nitrogen fixation

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

The plasticity of cyanobacterial metabolism supports direct CO2 conversion to ethylene

The cyanobacterial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle functions in both in biosynthesis and energy generation. However, it has until recently been generally considered to be incomplete1,2 with limited flux3,4, and few attempts have been made to draw carbon from the cycle for biotechnological purposes. We demonstrated that ethylene can be sustainably and efficiently produced from the TCA cycle of the recombinant cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 expressing the Pseudomonas ethylene-forming enzyme (Efe)5. A new strain with a modified ribosome binding site upstream of the efe gene diverts 10% of fixed carbon to ethylene and shows increased photosynthetic activities. The highest specific ethylene production rate reached 718 ± 19 μl l–1 h–1per A730 nm. Experimental and computational analyses based on kinetic 13C-isotope tracer and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) demonstrated that the TCA metabolism is activated by the ethylene forming reaction, resulting in a predominantly cyclic architecture. The outcome significantly enhanced flux through the remodelled TCA cycle (37% of total fixed carbon) compared with a complete, but bifurcated and low-flux (13% of total fixed carbon) TCA cycle in the wild type. Global carbon flux is redirected towards the engineered ethylene pathway. The remarkable metabolic network plasticity of this cyanobacterium is manifested by the enhancement of photosynthetic activity and redistribution of carbon flux, enabling efficient ethylene production from the TCA cycle.

  Nature Plants, Published online: 27 April 2015; | doi:10.1038/nplants.2015.53
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The cyanobacterial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle functions in both in biosynthesis and energy generation. However, it has until recently been generally considered to be incomplete1,2 with limited flux3,4, and few attempts have been made to draw carbon from the cycle for biotechnological purposes. We demonstrated that ethylene can be sustainably and efficiently produced from the TCA cycle of the recombinant cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 expressing the Pseudomonas ethylene-forming enzyme (Efe)5. A new strain with a modified ribosome binding site upstream of the efe gene diverts 10% of fixed carbon to ethylene and shows increased photosynthetic activities. The highest specific ethylene production rate reached 718 ± 19 μl l–1 h–1per A730 nm. Experimental and computational analyses based on kinetic 13C-isotope tracer and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) demonstrated that the TCA metabolism is activated by the ethylene forming reaction, resulting in a predominantly cyclic architecture. The outcome significantly enhanced flux through the remodelled TCA cycle (37% of total fixed carbon) compared with a complete, but bifurcated and low-flux (13% of total fixed carbon) TCA cycle in the wild type. Global carbon flux is redirected towards the engineered ethylene pathway. The remarkable metabolic network plasticity of this cyanobacterium is manifested by the enhancement of photosynthetic activity and redistribution of carbon flux, enabling efficient ethylene production from the TCA cycle.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
Scoop.it!

The dominant negative ARM domain uncovers multiple functions of PUB13 in Arabidopsis immunity, flowering, and senescence

The dominant negative ARM domain uncovers multiple functions of PUB13 in Arabidopsis immunity, flowering, and senescence | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Regulating the intensity and duration of immune responses is crucial to combat infections without deleterious side effects. Arabidopsis FLS2, the receptor for bacterial flagellin, activates immune signalling by association with its partner BAK1. Upon flagellin (flg22) perception, the plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases PUB12 and PUB13 complex with FLS2 in a BAK1-dependent manner, and ubiquitinate FLS2 for protein degradation, thereby down-regulating flagellin signalling. Domain deletion analysis indicates that the ARM domain of PUB13 interacts with the FLS2–BAK1 complex and is phosphorylated by BAK1. Overexpression of the PUB13 ARM domain alone inhibits flg22-induced FLS2–PUB13 association and PUB12/13-mediated FLS2 ubiquitination and degradation in Arabidopsis, suggesting that ectopic expression of the ARM domain in planta generates a dominant negative effect via blocking the ubiquitination activity. Similar to the pub12pub13 double mutant, transgenic plants expressing the PUB13 ARM domain display enhanced immune responses compared with wild-type plants. Moreover, PUB13ARM transgenic plants and the pub12pub13 mutant are more sensitive to stress-induced leaf senescence accompanied by elevated expression of stress-induced senescence marker genes. The resemblance between PUB13ARM transgenic plants and the pub12pub13 mutant provides genetic evidence that ectopic expression of the PUB ARM domain serves as an alternative approach to dissect the overlapping functions of closely related PUB genes.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

DNA damage and genetic methylation changes caused by CD in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

DNA damage and genetic methylation changes caused by CD in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MASP) techniques are sensitive to DNA damage and genetic methylation respectively. In present experiment, Arabidopsis thaliana which cultured by 0 (CK), 0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/L Cd2+ for 16d was chosen to analyze the DNA damage and methylation changes caused by cadmium (Cd) using these two methods. The DNA was amplified by 14 AFLP primer-pairs and 13 MSAP primer combinations. In AFLP experiment, 62 polymorphic sites were found in the patterns of 11 primer combinations and a total of 1116 fragments were gotten in these patterns. There were no polymorphic bands in the remaining three pairs. The proportion of polymorphic sites in 0.5 mg/L Cd2+ and 5.0 mg/L Cd2+ treatments were significantly different. Seven polymorphic fragments were then separated and sequenced successfully, which included 6 nucleobases substitution and 1 nucleobase deletion. Similarly, in MSAP experiment, MSAP% and the number of Demethylated type bands were unchanged after Cd treated, but the number of Methylated type bands was increased significantly in 5.0 mg/L Cd2+ treatment, which may be associated with the AFLP results. The polymorphic bands were also sequenced and found the functions of their homologous genes. The DNA damage and methylation changes may be the primary cause of some pathology changes in plants caused by Cd. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Stability and succession of the rhizosphere microbiota depends upon plant type and soil composition

The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is the official Journal of the International Society for Microbial Ecology, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short communications, commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding and diverse discipline of microbial ecology.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

We examined succession of the rhizosphere microbiota of three model plants (Arabidopsis, Medicago and Brachypodium) in compost and sand and three crops (Brassica, Pisum and Triticum) in compost alone. We used serial inoculation of 24 independent replicate microcosms over three plant generations for each plant/soil combination. Stochastic variation between replicates was surprisingly weak and by the third generation, replicate microcosms for each plant had communities that were very similar to each other but different to those of other plants or unplanted soil. Microbiota diversity remained high in compost, but declined drastically in sand, with bacterial opportunists and putative autotrophs becoming dominant. These dramatic differences indicate that many microbes cannot thrive on plant exudates alone and presumably also require carbon sources and/or nutrients from soil. Arabidopsis had the weakest influence on its microbiota and in compost replicate microcosms converged on three alternative community compositions rather than a single distinctive community. Organisms selected in rhizospheres can have positive or negative effects. Two abundant bacteria are shown to promote plant growth, but in Brassica the pathogen Olpidium brassicae came to dominate the fungal community. So plants exert strong selection on the rhizosphere microbiota but soil composition is critical to its stability. microbial succession/ plant–microbe interactions/rhizosphere microbiota/selection.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant roots and rhizosphere
Scoop.it!

Nitrate sensing by the maize root apex transition zone: a merged transcriptomic and proteomic survey

Nitrate sensing by the maize root apex transition zone: a merged transcriptomic and proteomic survey | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Nitrate is an essential nutrient for plants, and crops depend on its availability for growth and development, but its presence in agricultural soils is far from stable. In order to overcome nitrate fluctuations in soil, plants have developed adaptive mechanisms allowing them to grow despite changes in external nitrate availability. Nitrate can act as both nutrient and signal, regulating global gene expression in plants, and the root tip has been proposed as the sensory organ. A set of genome-wide studies has demonstrated several nitrate-regulated genes in the roots of many plants, although only a few studies have been carried out on distinct root zones. To unravel new details of the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to nitrate availability in a major food crop, a double untargeted approach was conducted on a transition zone-enriched root portion of maize seedlings subjected to differing nitrate supplies. The results highlighted a complex transcriptomic and proteomic reprogramming that occurs in response to nitrate, emphasizing the role of this root zone in sensing and transducing nitrate signal. Our findings indicated a relationship of nitrate with biosynthesis and signalling of several phytohormones, such as auxin, strigolactones, and brassinosteroids. Moreover, the already hypothesized involvement of nitric oxide in the early response to nitrate was confirmed with the use of nitric oxide inhibitors. Our results also suggested that cytoskeleton activation and cell wall modification occurred in response to nitrate provision in the transition zone.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Ethylene Signaling in Rice and Arabidopsis: Conserved and Diverged Aspects

Ethylene Signaling in Rice and Arabidopsis: Conserved and Diverged Aspects | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Ethylene as a gas phytohormone plays significant roles in the whole life cycle of plants, ranging from growth and development to stress responses. A linear ethylene signaling pathway has been established in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. However, the ethylene signaling mechanism in monocotyledonous plants such as rice is largely unclear. In this review, we compare the ethylene response phenotypes of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis, rice, and other monocotyledonous plants (maize, wheat, sorghum, and Brachypodium distachyon) and pinpoint that rice has a distinct phenotype of root inhibition but coleoptile promotion in etiolated seedlings upon ethylene treatment. We further summarize the homologous genes of Arabidopsis ethylene signaling components in these monocotyledonous plants and discuss recent progress. Although conserved in most aspects, ethylene signaling in rice has evolved new features compared with that in Arabidopsis. These analyses provide novel insights into the understanding of ethylene signaling in the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis and monocotyledonous plants, particularly rice. Further characterization of rice ethylene-responsive mutants and their corresponding genes will help us better understand the whole picture of ethylene signaling mechanisms in plants.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Ethylene as a gas phytohormone plays significant roles in the whole life cycle of plants, ranging from growth and development to stress responses. A linear ethylene signaling pathway has been established in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. However, the ethylene signaling mechanism in monocotyledonous plants such as rice is largely unclear. In this review, we compare the ethylene response phenotypes of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis, rice, and other monocotyledonous plants (maize, wheat, sorghum, and Brachypodium distachyon) and pinpoint that rice has a distinct phenotype of root inhibition but coleoptile promotion in etiolated seedlings upon ethylene treatment. We further summarize the homologous genes of Arabidopsis ethylene signaling components in these monocotyledonous plants and discuss recent progress. Although conserved in most aspects, ethylene signaling in rice has evolved new features compared with that inArabidopsis. These analyses provide novel insights into the understanding of ethylene signaling in the dicotyledonousArabidopsis and monocotyledonous plants, particularly rice. Further characterization of rice ethylene-responsive mutants and their corresponding genes will help us better understand the whole picture of ethylene signaling mechanisms in plants.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Ultra-high density intra-specific genetic linkage maps accelerate identification of functionally relevant molecular tags governing important agronomic traits in chickpea

Ultra-high density intra-specific genetic linkage maps accelerate identification of functionally relevant molecular tags governing important agronomic traits in chickpea | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
We discovered 26785 and 16573 high-quality SNPs differentiating two parental genotypes of a RIL mapping population using reference desi and kabuli genome-based GBS assay. Of these, 3625 and 2177 SNPs have been integrated into eight desi and kabuli chromosomes, respectively in order to construct ultra-high density (0.20–0.37 cM) intra-specific chickpea genetic linkage maps. One of these constructed high-resolution genetic map has potential to identify 33 major genomic regions harbouring 35 robust QTLs (PVE: 17.9–39.7%) associated with three agronomic traits, which were mapped within <1 cM mean marker intervals on desi chromosomes. The extended LD (linkage disequilibrium) decay (~15 cM) in chromosomes of genetic maps have encouraged us to use a rapid integrated approach (comparative QTL mapping, QTL-region specific haplotype/LD-based trait association analysis, expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association mapping) rather than a traditional QTL map-based cloning method to narrow-down one major seed weight (SW) robust QTL region. It delineated favourable natural allelic variants and superior haplotype-containing one seed-specific candidate embryo defective gene regulating SW in chickpea. The ultra-high-resolution genetic maps, QTLs/genes and alleles/haplotypes-related genomic information generated and integrated strategy for rapid QTL/gene identification developed have potential to expedite genomics-assisted breeding applications in crop plants, including chickpea for their genetic enhancement.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

We discovered 26785 and 16573 high-quality SNPs differentiating two parental genotypes of a RIL mapping population using reference desi and kabuli genome-based GBS assay. Of these, 3625 and 2177 SNPs have been integrated into eight desi and kabulichromosomes, respectively in order to construct ultra-high density (0.20–0.37 cM) intra-specific chickpea genetic linkage maps. One of these constructed high-resolution genetic map has potential to identify 33 major genomic regions harbouring 35 robust QTLs (PVE: 17.9–39.7%) associated with three agronomic traits, which were mapped within <1 cM mean marker intervals on desi chromosomes. The extended LD (linkage disequilibrium) decay (~15 cM) in chromosomes of genetic maps have encouraged us to use a rapid integrated approach (comparative QTL mapping, QTL-region specific haplotype/LD-based trait association analysis, expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association mapping) rather than a traditional QTL map-based cloning method to narrow-down one major seed weight (SW) robust QTL region. It delineated favourable natural allelic variants and superior haplotype-containing one seed-specific candidate embryo defective gene regulating SW in chickpea. The ultra-high-resolution genetic maps, QTLs/genes and alleles/haplotypes-related genomic information generated and integrated strategy for rapid QTL/gene identification developed have potential to expedite genomics-assisted breeding applications in crop plants, including chickpea for their genetic enhancement.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Negative regulatory roles of DE-ETIOLATED1 in flowering time in Arabidopsis

Negative regulatory roles of DE-ETIOLATED1 in flowering time in Arabidopsis | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Arabidopsis flowers early under long days (LD) and late under short days (SD). The repressor of photomorphogenesis DE-ETIOLATED1 (DET1) delays flowering; det1-1 mutants flower early, especially under SD, but the molecular mechanism of DET1 regulation remains unknown. Here we examine the regulatory function of DET1 in repression of flowering. Under SD, the det1-1 mutation causes daytime expression of FKF1 and CO; however, their altered expression has only a small effect on early flowering in det1-1 mutants. Notably, DET1 interacts with GI and binding of GI to the FT promoter increases in det1-1 mutants, suggesting that DET1 mainly restricts GI function, directly promoting FT expression independent of CO expression. Moreover, DET1 interacts with MSI4/FVE, which epigenetically inhibits FLC expression, indicating that the lack of FLC expression in det1-1 mutants likely involves altered histone modifications at the FLC locus. These data demonstrate that DET1 acts in both photoperiod and autonomous pathways to inhibit expression of FT and SOC1. Consistent with this, the early flowering of det1-1 mutants disappears completely in the ft-1 soc1-2 double mutant background. Thus, we propose that DET1 is a strong repressor of flowering and has a pivotal role in maintaining photoperiod sensitivity in the regulation of flowering time.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Arabidopsis flowers early under long days (LD) and late under short days (SD). The repressor of photomorphogenesis DE-ETIOLATED1 (DET1) delays flowering; det1-1mutants flower early, especially under SD, but the molecular mechanism of DET1 regulation remains unknown. Here we examine the regulatory function of DET1 in repression of flowering. Under SD, the det1-1 mutation causes daytime expression ofFKF1 and CO; however, their altered expression has only a small effect on early flowering in det1-1 mutants. Notably, DET1 interacts with GI and binding of GI to the FT promoter increases in det1-1 mutants, suggesting that DET1 mainly restricts GI function, directly promoting FT expression independent of CO expression. Moreover, DET1 interacts with MSI4/FVE, which epigenetically inhibits FLC expression, indicating that the lack of FLCexpression in det1-1 mutants likely involves altered histone modifications at the FLClocus. These data demonstrate that DET1 acts in both photoperiod and autonomous pathways to inhibit expression of FT and SOC1. Consistent with this, the early flowering ofdet1-1 mutants disappears completely in the ft-1 soc1-2 double mutant background. Thus, we propose that DET1 is a strong repressor of flowering and has a pivotal role in maintaining photoperiod sensitivity in the regulation of flowering time.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Limited Sexual Reproduction and Quick Turnover in the Population Genetic Structure of Phytophthora infestans in Fujian, China

Limited Sexual Reproduction and Quick Turnover in the Population Genetic Structure of Phytophthora infestans in Fujian, China | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
The mating system plays an important role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogen populations through both its direct and indirect impact on the generation and distribution of genetic variation. Here, we used a combination of microsatellite and phenotypic markers to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of genetic variation in Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from Fujian, China and to determine the role of sexual reproduction in the dynamics. Although the pathogen populations in this region were dominated by self-fertile genotypes, sexual reproduction only occurred occasionally and its contributions to the population genetic structure of P. infestans and epidemics of late blight in the region were limited. Only 49 genotypes were detected among the 534 isolates assayed and the pathogen populations displayed significant heterozygosity excess. Hierarchical analysis revealed that 21.42% of genetic variation was attributed to the difference among sampling years while only 4.45% was attributed to the difference among locations, suggesting temporal factors play a more important role in the population genetic dynamics of P. infestans than spatial factors in this region. We propose that clonal reproduction, combined with founder effects and long distance dispersal of sporangia, is responsible for the observed pattern of spatiotemporal dynamics in P. infestans.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The mating system plays an important role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogen populations through both its direct and indirect impact on the generation and distribution of genetic variation. Here, we used a combination of microsatellite and phenotypic markers to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of genetic variation in Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from Fujian, China and to determine the role of sexual reproduction in the dynamics. Although the pathogen populations in this region were dominated by self-fertile genotypes, sexual reproduction only occurred occasionally and its contributions to the population genetic structure of P. infestansand epidemics of late blight in the region were limited. Only 49 genotypes were detected among the 534 isolates assayed and the pathogen populations displayed significant heterozygosity excess. Hierarchical analysis revealed that 21.42% of genetic variation was attributed to the difference among sampling years while only 4.45% was attributed to the difference among locations, suggesting temporal factors play a more important role in the population genetic dynamics of P. infestans than spatial factors in this region. We propose that clonal reproduction, combined with founder effects and long distance dispersal of sporangia, is responsible for the observed pattern of spatiotemporal dynamics in P. infestans.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Arabidopsis seed mucilage secretory cells: regulation and dynamics

Arabidopsis seed mucilage secretory cells: regulation and dynamics | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Seeds from various angiosperm species produce polysaccharide mucilage facilitating germination and, therefore, conferring major evolutionary advantages. The seed epidermal mucilage secretory cells (MSCs) undergo numerous tightly controlled changes of their extracellular matrixes (ECMs) throughout seed development. Recently, major progress based on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana was published, including the identification of 54 genes necessary for mucilage synthesis and release. Here, we review these genes that constitute the so-called ‘MSC toolbox’, within which transcription factors and proteins related to polysaccharide production, secretion, modification, and stabilization are the most abundant and belong to complex regulatory networks. We also discuss how seed coat ‘omics data-mining, comparative genomics, and operon-like gene cluster studies will provide means to identify new members of the MSC toolbox.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease

Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Horticulture Research, Published online: 20 May 2015; | doi:10.1038/hortres.2015.20
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. viniferasusceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway

Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play central roles in innate immune signalling networks in plants and animals. In plants, however, the molecular mechanisms of how signal perception is transduced to MAPK activation remain elusive. Here we report that pathogen-secreted proteases activate a previously unknown signalling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana involving the G[agr], G[bgr], and G[ggr] subunits of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, which function upstream of an MAPK cascade. In this pathway, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) functions as a novel scaffold that binds to the G[bgr] subunit as well as to all three tiers of the MAPK cascade, thereby linking upstream G-protein signalling to downstream activation of an MAPK cascade. The protease-G-protein-RACK1-MAPK cascade modules identified in these studies are distinct from previously described plant immune signalling pathways such as that elicited by bacterial flagellin, in which G proteins function downstream of or in parallel to an MAPK cascade without the involvement of the RACK1 scaffolding protein. The discovery of the new protease-mediated immune signalling pathway described here was facilitated by the use of the broad host range, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play central roles in innate immune signalling networks in plants and animals1, 2. In plants, however, the molecular mechanisms of how signal perception is transduced to MAPK activation remain elusive1. Here we report that pathogen-secreted proteases activate a previously unknown signalling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana involving the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, which function upstream of an MAPK cascade. In this pathway, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) functions as a novel scaffold that binds to the Gβ subunit as well as to all three tiers of the MAPK cascade, thereby linking upstream G-protein signalling to downstream activation of an MAPK cascade. The protease–G-protein–RACK1–MAPK cascade modules identified in these studies are distinct from previously described plant immune signalling pathways such as that elicited by bacterial flagellin, in which G proteins function downstream of or in parallel to an MAPK cascade without the involvement of the RACK1 scaffolding protein. The discovery of the new protease-mediated immune signalling pathway described here was facilitated by the use of the broad host range, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

ConPADE: Genome Assembly Ploidy Estimation from Next-Generation Sequencing Data

ConPADE: Genome Assembly Ploidy Estimation from Next-Generation Sequencing Data | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Author Summary Diploid organisms, such as human beings, have two “copies” of each chromosome, whereas polyploid organisms have multiple “copies” (we use quotes to stress that the “copies” are not identical). A key difference between diploid and polyploid organisms is that the “copies” tend to be less similar in polyploid organisms. This difference leads to important differences in the process of de novo genome assembly from short fragments of DNA. In particular, when assembling polyploid or
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

As a result of improvements in genome assembly algorithms and the ever decreasing costs of high-throughput sequencing technologies, new high quality draft genome sequences are published at a striking pace. With well-established methodologies, larger and more complex genomes are being tackled, including polyploid plant genomes. Given the similarity between multiple copies of a basic genome in polyploid individuals, assembly of such data usually results in collapsed contigs that represent a variable number of homoeologous genomic regions. Unfortunately, such collapse is often not ideal, as keeping contigs separate can lead both to improved assembly and also insights about how haplotypes influence phenotype. Here, we describe a first step in avoiding inappropriate collapse during assembly. In particular, we describe ConPADE (Contig Ploidy and Allele Dosage Estimation), a probabilistic method that estimates the ploidy of any given contig/scaffold based on its allele proportions. In the process, we report findings regarding errors in sequencing. The method can be used for whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing data. We also show applicability of the method for variant calling and allele dosage estimation. Results for simulated and real datasets are discussed and provide evidence that ConPADE performs well as long as enough sequencing coverage is available, or the true contig ploidy is low. We show that ConPADE may also be used for related applications, such as the identification of duplicated genes in fragmented assemblies, although refinements are needed.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome

With thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (SM) clusters 30–80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this SM wealth.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

AbstractBackground

With thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (SM) clusters 30–80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this SM wealth.

Results

Here we describe a novel system-level methodology for unbiased cloning of intact large SM clusters from a single fungal genome for one-step transformation and expression in a model host. All 56 intact SM clusters from Aspergillus terreus were individually captured in self-replicating fungal artificial chromosomes (FACs) containing both the E. coli F replicon and an Aspergillusautonomously replicating sequence (AMA1). Candidate FACs were successfully shuttled between E. coli and the heterologous expression host A. nidulans. As proof-of-concept, an A. nidulans FAC strain was characterized in a novel liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and data analysis pipeline, leading to the discovery of the A. terreus astechrome biosynthetic machinery.

Conclusion

The method we present can be used to capture the entire set of intact SM gene clusters and/or pathways from fungal species for heterologous expression in A. nidulans and natural product discovery.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant hormones
Scoop.it!

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 isopentenyltransferases mediate salt stress response in tomato

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 isopentenyltransferases mediate salt stress response in tomato | PlantBioInnovation | Scoop.it
Background

Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in response to various environmental cues, including salinity. It has been previously reported that enhancing CK contents improved salt stress tolerance in tomato. However, the underlying mechanisms of CK metabolism and signaling under salt stress conditions remain to be deciphered.
Results

Two tomato isopentenyltransferases, SlIPT3 and SlIPT4, were characterized in tomato and Arabidopsis. Both proteins displayed isopentenyltransferase (IPT) activity in vitro, while their encoding genes exhibited different spatio-temporal expression patterns during tomato plant development. SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 were affected by the endogenous CK status, tightly connected with CKs feedback regulation, as revealed by hormonal treatements. In response to salt stress, SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 were strongly repressed in tomato roots, and differently affected in young and old leaves. SlIPT3 overexpression in tomato resulted in high accumulation of different CK metabolites, following modifications of CK biosynthesis-, signaling- and degradation-gene expression. In addition, 35S::SlIPT3 tomato plants displayed improved tolerance to salinity consecutive to photosynthetic pigments and K+/Na+ ratio retention. Involvement of SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 in salt stress response was also observed in Arabidopsis ipt3 knock-out complemented plants, through maintenance of CK homeostasis.
Conclusions

SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 are functional IPTs encoded by differently expressed genes, distinctively taking part in the salinity response. The substantial participation of SlIPT3 in CK metabolism during salt stress has been determined in 35S::SlIPT3 tomato transformants, where enhancement of CKs accumulation significantly improved plant tolerance to salinity, underlining the importance of this phytohormone in stress response.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology is the official Journal of the International Society for Microbial Ecology, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short communications, commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding and diverse discipline of microbial ecology.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish.

 
more...
No comment yet.