The cytoskeleton is a key intracellular structure governing relevant processes such as cell division, growth, molecule trafficking, response to internal and external signals, and others. The ambitious aim of this monograph is to deal with the cytoskeleton as the ‘server’ for these numerous and multi-tasked nodes. The monograph’s content focuses on problems relevant to understanding the structural and functional organisation of the plant cytoskeleton at the single cell and whole plant levels, including the possibility of directly utilizing these functions for practical purposes in agriculture, food safety and health. As a result of advances in plant genomics, cell and molecular biology, special chapters represent new information about genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics of the plant cytoskeleton. In addition to presenting achievements attained in basic research of the plant cytoskeleton, a comprehensive review of applications in biotechnology and agriculture is presented. Special attention is devoted to current achievements in plant biotechnology through manipulating the cytoskeleton structure and functions, and prospects for the development in different professional venues, including industrial/agricultural implementation.