A new disease was observed during the spring and autumn of 2009 and 2010 on kiwifruit plants (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) in Rize Province of Turkey. Disease incidence was estimated as 3% in approximately 10 ha. Symptoms were characterized by dark brown spots surrounded by yellow halos on leaves and cankers with reddish exudate production on twigs and stems. Eight representative bacterial strains were isolated from leaf spots and tissues under the bark on King's B medium (KB) and identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on the basis of biochemical, physiological (1,2), and PCR tests (3).
In Europe the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is present in incursions in Austria and Italy, where eradication is not feasible any more. It has been introduced also to France, Germany and Switzerland, where it is under eradication and has a transient status. Wood packing material used in international trade is regulated based on international standard for phytosanitary measures (ISPM 15) and should be treated to prevent harboring and spreading harmful organisms.
New species for Europe was identified in Italy (Trentino and Veneto Region). A leaf miner Antispila oinophylla (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae) is common in North America. Since the initial discovery in 2006, the pest spread to several additional Italian provinces. In 2010 the incidence of infestation was locally high in commercial vineyards.
BBC News has just reported about new moth species invading Italy's vineyards. They said that the pest was first discovered by Italian scientists in 2006, but they were unable to identify it.
An original resarch article has been written by van Nieukerken et al. (2012) and they admit unclarity in identification and taxonomy. The species Antispila oinophylla is closely related to, and previously confused with Antispila ampelopsifoliella Chambers, 1874, a species feeding on Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planchon.
Using barcodes the authors indicated that the Italian populations are recently established from eastern North America. The new species feeds on various wild Vitis species in North America, on cultivated Vitis vinifera L. in Italy, and also on Parthenocissus quinquefolia in Italy.
In Italy the biology of Antispila oinophylla was studied in a vineyard in the Trento Province in 2008 and 2009. Mature larvae overwinter inside their cases, fixed to vine trunks or training stakes. The first generation flies in June. An additional generation occurs from mid-August onwards. The impact of the pest in this vineyard was significant with more than 90% of leaves infested in mid-summer.
Nieukerken EJ van, Wagner DL, Baldessari M, Mazzon M, Angeli G, Girolami V, Duso C, Doorenweerd C (2012) Antispila oinophylla new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae), a new North American grapevine leafminer invading Italian vineyards: taxonomy, DNA barcodes and life cycle.- ZooKeys 170: 29–77, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.170.2617
Batocera rubus is known to attack broadleaf trees and woody plants. In Europe it was interecepted on bonsay trees. Batocera rubus is a large wood borer that has been recorded on rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis in Thailand, particularly on trees damaged by other causes such as fire and lightning. Larvae (6-8 cm) also feed on freshly felled timber (FAO-Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers, 2007). The other recorded major hosts: bread fruit trees Artocarpus altilis, A. heterophyllus, fig Ficus carica, mango Mangifera indica (PQR).
In its native area in Asia B. rubus is seldom a serious pest. It is present in:
America: no data Asia: Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Phillipines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam Africa: no data Europe: intercepted in France (2011, Nanterre on a single bonsai plant-Ficus microcarpa), incursion in Italy (2012)
FAO-Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers, OVERVIEW OF FOREST PESTS, Thailand, 2007
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