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Plant Pests and Diseases Topic

Plant Pests and Diseases Topic | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Plants are living organisms and, like any living organism, are susceptible to disease. From fungal diseases to viral and bacterial infections, there are many different diseases that plants can fall victims to. The interactions between plants and disease organisms are complex. Understanding basic concepts and principles of how diseases develop, could be half a way to their management.

 

Many insects, like caterpillars and leaf beetles, mites and nematodes feed on plants. We call these animals phytophagous. If their population growth is too high or they are very specialized to certain plant species, they become pests and cause significant damage in agriculture, horticulture, forests and other ecosystems. In some instances plants themselves can become or be considered pests, if they are invasive and harmful to other plant species and different organisms.

 

The scope of this topic is to bring news on the occurrence, risk and status of new or regulated organisms, harmful to plants, after being introduced into new areas of the globe, or on the risk of their introduction.

 

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  • Posts are only brief summaries - click the title or "Show original" at the bottom of the box, to see the original article. Usually also photos are interactive, just like links in the text are.
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Plant Pests - Global Travellers
News about spread of plants, insects, bacteria and other harmful organisms moving with trade and traffic.
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Plant Pests and Diseases Topic

Plant Pests and Diseases Topic | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Plants are living organisms and, like any living organism, are susceptible to disease. From fungal diseases to viral and bacterial infections, there are many different diseases that plants can fall victims to. The interactions between plants and disease organisms are complex. Understanding basic concepts and principles of how diseases develop, could be half a way to their management.

 

Many insects, like caterpillars and leaf beetles, mites and nematodes feed on plants. We call these animals phytophagous. If their population growth is too high or they are very specialized to certain plant species, they become pests and cause significant damage in agriculture, horticulture, forests and other ecosystems. In some instances plants themselves can become or be considered pests, if they are invasive and harmful to other plant species and different organisms.

 

The scope of this topic is to bring news on the occurrence, risk and status of new or regulated organisms, harmful to plants, after being introduced into new areas of the globe, or on the risk of their introduction.

 

Please note:

  • Posts are only brief summaries - click the title or "Show original" at the bottom of the box, to see the original article. Usually also photos are interactive, just like links in the text are.
  • If you are interested in the topic, follow us and be informed about updates
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Warming Climate Marches Pests and Pathogens Polewards

Warming Climate Marches Pests and Pathogens Polewards | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
The distribution of plant pests and pathogens have been observed to be moving away from the equator towards the North and South poles and inhabit areas previously too cold for their existence.
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Emerald ash borer infests 40-year-old tree - InsideHalton.com

Emerald ash borer infests 40-year-old tree - InsideHalton.com | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Emerald ash borer infests 40-year-old tree
InsideHalton.com
Hill said he has notified the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) about his discovery.
Knapco's insight:

The emerald ash borer is an exotic beetle native to Asia that attacks and kills all species of ash. It was first discovered in North America in 2002 in Ontario.It is listed as a quarantine pest for Europe.

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Aquatic Plants: Their Uses and Risks

Knapco's insight:

An excellent study, which is published at the IPPC portal "Aquatic Plants: Their Uses and Risks - A review of the global status of aquatic plants” is a basis for new CPM-8 recommendations on risk management, posed by trade of aquatic plants.

 

International Plant Protection Convention provides information on the protection of plants, including bryophyte and algal species, in marine and aquatic environments. The study was wellcome also by the Convention on Biological Diversity at the Eighth Session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in Rome in April 2013. Global undestranding of aquatic plants should contribute significantly to prevention of spread of the most invasive plant species.

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Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health: Eight 2013 ...

WASHINGTON, DC — The major national groups that coordinate the battle against invasive species today announced the 2013 National Invasive Species Achievement Awards. The awards recognize the dedication and ...
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Spotted Wing Drosophila research review

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In second year of research of biology and management of Spotted Wing Drosophila on small and stone fruits some biological data and control methods have been already known. Spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is an invasive pest that attacks multiple fresh fruits. It is fast becoming a problem in the Pacific Northwest as well as in Europe. Entomologists at University of California – Davis, Washington State University and Oregon State University have provided first results of their research work.

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Forest chiefs 'planted 70,000 foreign ash trees after disease alert' despite warnings imports could pose a threat to Britain

Forest chiefs 'planted 70,000 foreign ash trees after disease alert' despite warnings imports could pose a threat to Britain | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Mail Online: As early as 2009, two trade bodies demanded the Government impose a ban on importing ash trees but in 2010/11 the Forestry Commission ordered 70,400 foreign trees. 

Infected trees have been found at 22 publicly-owned sites since then.

The microscopic fungus – Chalara fraxinea – is rife across mainland Europe. Experts fear the disease will be more catastrophic than Dutch Elm Disease which killed 25million trees here in the 1970s and 80s.

Knapco's insight:

UK Forestry Commission is taking action against Chalara dieback of ash, which is a quarantine pest under UK national emergency measures. It is known to be a serious disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Chalara fraxinea (C. fraxinea), including its sexual stage, Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (H. pseudoalbidus). The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback in affected trees, and usually leads to tree death.


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Alien wood borers in US and Canada

Knapco's insight:

"Invasive beetles that bore into trees have become a very big problem in the United States and Canada. Many of these beetles are also vectors of plant diseases. This edition of the WPDN News and Pest Update discusses examples of boring beetles that have come into the United States since 1980. The jump in the number of non-native borers since 1980 is likely a result of the widespread increase in containerized shipping. Wood-boring insects can be transported in wood pallets, wood crating, and dunnage (unprocessed timbers) used to protect and support cargo in containers. Other exotic forest pests arrive on live plants imported for planting or propagation, while other insects simply hitchhike on imported cargo."

Editor: Richard W. Hoenisch
@Copyright Regents of the University of California

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Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) (Mile-a-Minute): Its Distribution and Physical and Socioeconomic Impacts in Papua New Guinea1

Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) (Mile-a-Minute): Its Distribution and Physical and Socioeconomic Impacts in Papua New Guinea1 | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
M. D. Day, A. Kawi, K. Kurika, C. F. Dewhurst, S. Waisale, J. Saul-Maora, J. Fidelis, J. Bokosou, J. Moxon, W. Orapa, and K. A. D.
Knapco's insight:

Mikania micrantha or mile-a-minute is regarded as a major invasive weed in Papua New Guinea and is now the target of a biological control program. As part of the program, distribution and physical and socioeconomic impacts of M. micrantha were studied to obtain baseline data and to assist with field release of biological control agents. Through public awareness campaigns and dedicated surveys, M. micrantha has been reported in all 15 lowland provinces. In socioeconomic surveys, M. micrantha was found to have severe impacts on crop production and income generated through reduced yields and high weeding costs, particularly in subsistence mixed cropping systems. M. micrantha causes yield losses in excess of 30%.

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Identification Guide to Lepidoptera Larvae Intercepted on Trade Pathways

Identification Guide to Lepidoptera Larvae Intercepted on Trade Pathways | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Manaaki Whenua Press - the New Zealand Natural History and Science Bookstore
Knapco's insight:
This Lepidoptera larval identification guide was prepared using invertebrate interception data collected from fresh produce imported into New Zealand covering pre- and post-border interceptions from 1990—-2008.

By Franz-Rudolf Schnitzler, James Maxwell Haw, Lalith Kumarasinghe, Sherly George

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Tv Meio Ambiente | Infection sites have 'doubled within a month'

Tv Meio Ambiente | Infection sites have 'doubled within a month' | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

The fungus Chalara fraxinea was first identified in the UK in February 2012 in a tree imported from the Netherlands to a nursery in Buckinghamshire. It has now been found at 136 sites linked to imported plants and a further 155 sites in the wider environment, which government scientists think were infected by wind-blown spores from continental Europe. The disease has devastated ash trees in many countries including Denmark where 90% have been infected.

The UK’s control plan is based on four measures – “reduce, develop, encourage and adapt”, said Prof Ian Boyd, chief scientist at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). He said the aim was to reduce the spread of Chalara, develop new control measures and resistant varieties, encourage the public and industry to help out and adapt the nation’s forests to the inevitable changes. More than 13% of the country’s broad-leaved woods are dominated by ash trees.


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International Plant Protection Convention, 60th anniversary (IPPC)

IPPC - the International Plant Protection Convention - is an international agreement on plant health with 177 current signatories.It aims to protect cultivated and wild plants by preventing the introduction and spread of pests.

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Survey reveals ash disease in six further counties « Defra News

The disease has now been confirmed in 115 sites: in 15 nurseries, 39 planting sites and 61 locations in the wider environment (forests and woodlands). These instances of Chalara are being discovered as a result of a rapid ...
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Thousand cankers disease detected in Italy: addition of Geosmithia morbida and Pityophthorus juglandis to the EPPO Alert List

Thousand cankers disease detected in Italy: addition of Geosmithia morbida and Pityophthorus juglandis to the EPPO Alert List | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Via Anne-Sophie Roy
Knapco's insight:

In Europe, Juglans trees are endangered by several pathogens, originating in other continents.

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Anne-Sophie Roy's curator insight, February 13, 12:51 AM

Thousand cankers disease has recently been detected in Italy on black walnut trees (Juglans nigra). As this disease is causing severe damage in the USA, both the fungus (Geosmithia morbida) and its vector (Pityophthorus juglandis) have been added to the EPPO Alert List.

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International Plant Sentinel Network (early warning of new and emerging pests) is recruiting its coordinator

International Plant Sentinel Network (early warning of new and emerging pests) is recruiting its coordinator | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Via Anne-Sophie Roy
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Euphresco II collaboration in plant health

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Anne-Sophie Roy's curator insight, July 17, 2013 3:54 AM

The International Plant Sentinel Network (part of EUPHRESCO II) is designed to enhance activities that provide early warning of new and emerging plant pests and diseases.  This project will be led by the Food and Environment Research Agency with funding secured for three years from 2013-16.  The project will involve extensive collaboration amongst partners in Europe as well as forging links with other organizations involved in plant sentinel networks around the world.  To date the following partners have secured funding for involvement (Food and Environment Research Agency, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, CABI Biosciences, Forest Research, Julius Kuehn Institut, Germany, Plant Protection Services, Netherlands).

 

The project is recruiting its coordinator (deadline for application Sunday 4th August midnight): http://www.bgci.org/resources/job/0557/

 

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Don't bring home exotic plants in your luggage

Don't bring home exotic plants in your luggage | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization has released the EPPO poster, which is available as downloadable pdf at their website.

From EPPO Press release:

EPPO has prepared a poster to raise public awareness about the risks of moving plants and their associated pests during international travel and to encourage responsible behaviour. It is primarily intended that the poster should be displayed in airports or any other sites where international travellers will see it (e.g. seaports, railway stations, travel agencies, embassies).

 

EPPO is an intergovernmental organization responsible for European cooperation in plant health. Founded in 1951 by 15 European countries, EPPO now has 50 members, covering almost all countries of the European and Mediterranean region. Its objectives are to protect plants, to develop international strategies against the introduction and spread of dangerous pests and to promote safe and effective control methods. As a Regional Plant Protection Organization, EPPO also participates in global discussions on plant health organized by FAO and the IPPC Secretariat.


Via Petter Françoise
Knapco's insight:

There are many cases recorded that single introduction of infested or infected plants caused later fast spreading and outbreaks of plant pests and diseases in new environment. With increased international trade and travel risk of new introductions are greater than ever before. Common pests from Asia or Australia can become quarantine pests in America or Europe and vice versa. New pests are often introduced unintentionally with different commodities of plant origin (e. g. fruits, flowers, wood, pot plants) and soil. European national plant protection organizations will therefore join the EPPO campaign, translate the poster into national languages and help spreading the message to people, who move around the world and are not aware of organisms that present risks to plants.

 

 

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How to be aware of invasive plants as you plan your garden - Mother Nature Network

How to be aware of invasive plants as you plan your garden - Mother Nature Network | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Mother Nature Network How to be aware of invasive plants as you plan your garden Mother Nature Network Exotic in this case doesn't mean tropical, says Jil Swearingen, an integrated pest management and invasive species biologist for the National...
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Update: New Pest & Disease Records (06 Feb 13)

Update: New Pest & Disease Records (06 Feb 13) | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Selected: the latest new geographic, host and species records for plant pests and diseases from CAB Abstracts. Records this fortnight include the identification and characterisation of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus, the spread dynamics and agricultural impact of Sorghum halepense and the first report of black scurf on carrot caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-U.

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Boxwood Blight Update: Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum - Box Blight Pathogen

Boxwood Blight Update: Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum - Box Blight Pathogen | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Boxwood blight has been discovered in the US. Learn how far it has spread and how the horticultural research community is addressing this new plant disease introduction.

Boxwood Blight (Cylindrocladium buxicola or C. pseudonaviculatum) is a new plant disease to the United States, having first been confirmed in the October, 2011. The disease can cause significant defoliation and branch dieback to infected plants. Most of what we know about the disease is from research done in Europe where the disease was first discovered in the early 1990s.

Knapco's insight:

Up to date information is given at Webinar on Boxwood Blight Update: Where they are in US and where they hope to be? In Europe there is not much done in preventing the spread of this new fungus, which is moved by infected plants for planting and it is very difficult to control, once it is established in new area. Summary information can be found here:  http://www.ct.gov/caes/lib/caes/documents/publications/fact_sheets/plant_pathology_and_ecology/boxwood_blight-_a_new_disease_for_connecticut_and_the_u.s.__12-08-11.pdf

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satish's curator insight, January 15, 2013 2:01 AM

वनस्पतीमधील नवीन रोगाची ओळख पटली असून त्याची पृष्टी ऑक्टोंबर 2011 मध्ये करण्यात आलेली आहे. या रोगामुळे पानगळ होऊन डायबॅक होतो. या रोगावर युरोपमध्ये संशोधन करण्यात येत असून युरोपमध्ये 1990 मध्ये पहिल्यांदा आढळला होता.

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Study: Gulf Coast cole pest could survive farther north - TheGrower

Study: Gulf Coast cole pest could survive farther north - TheGrower | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Study: Gulf Coast cole pest could survive farther north
TheGrower
Yellowmargined leaf beetle has no trouble surviving cold temperatures, suggesting that it could spread much farther north than its current range along the Gulf Coast. Although the pest, which feeds on cole crops, can be controlled with foliar insecticides, organic producers don't have that option.

Knapco's insight:

The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a pest of cruciferous crops and was first recorded in the United States from Mobile, Alabama, in March 1947, where it was found feeding on turnip, cabbage, collard, mustard, and radish (Chamberlin and Tippin 1949). It can devastate high value crops such as mizuna and mibuna (Japanese leafy vegetables), napa cabbage, turnip and watercress.


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Invasive beetle hitches a lift in B.C. liquor store decorations imported from China

Invasive beetle hitches a lift in B.C. liquor store decorations imported from China | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Invasive beetle hitches a lift in B.C. liquor store decorations imported from China
Knapco's insight:

The Brown Fir Longhorned Beetle Callidiellum villosulum Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was again found in shipment from China. This time unpacked wood and pine cone decorations were infested. Previous interceptions in US were found in real wood trunks of artificial Christmas trees imported from China. Plant health risk is supposed to be not so high as for related species of the Anoplophora glabripennis - Asian longhorned beetle, which can kill healthy trees. However, Callidiellum villosulum could pose threat to cedar and sequoia.

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The Challenge of Retarding Erosion of Island Biodiversity through Phytosanitary Measures: An Update on the Case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai‘i

The Challenge of Retarding Erosion of Island Biodiversity through Phytosanitary Measures: An Update on the Case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai‘i | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Lloyd L. Loope and Janice Y. Uchida (2012) The Challenge of Retarding Erosion of Island Biodiversity through Phytosanitary Measures: An Update on the Case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai‘i. Pacific Science: Vol.
Knapco's insight:

Most rust fungi are highly host specific, but Puccina psidii has an extremely broad host range within Myrtaceae and gained notoriety with a host jump in its native Brazil from common guava (Psidium guajava) to commercial Eucalyptus plantations. When detected in Hawai‘i in April 2005, the first invasion outside the neotropics/subtropics, there was immediate concern for Metrosideros polymorpha.

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2984/66.2.3

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Invasive tree threatens park

Invasive tree threatens park | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

The Island Now: Invasive tree threatens park

Paulownia tomentosa, or the Princess Tree, may look pretty in bloom, but the invasive species poses a threat to local flora. The board approved the removal of a Princess Tree, an invasive species native to China, following the receipt of a letter from the open space committee's. Three Kings Point residents also wrote a letter to the board demanding the removal of trees adjacent to their homes, citing the danger of injury and property damage of the trees should fall.

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International Symposium on Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo)

International Symposium on Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo) | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it

Didymosphenia geminata is freshwater diatom (a type of alga) that is spreading to river systems across the United States and around the world. Although historically D. geminata has been found across the northern hemisphere, recently this species has been noted as an aggressive invader with nuisance bloom behavior. Notably, novel detections of D. geminata across eastern North America, New Zealand and South America have caused concern for managers and anglers.

RT @fedflyfishers: Didymo is an invasive species!

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Using invasive plants for biofuels: Potential for ecological problems? - Southeast Farm Press (blog)

Using invasive plants for biofuels: Potential for ecological problems?Southeast Farm Press (blog)The list of invasive species, both introduced and accidental, that have found a home in the U.S.
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Ash dieback disease: a deep-rooted problem - Scotsman (blog)

Ash dieback disease: a deep-rooted problem - Scotsman (blog) | Plant Pests - Global Travellers | Scoop.it
Scotsman (blog)Ash dieback disease: a deep-rooted problemScotsman (blog)If they don't get hold of these pests and diseases, all the nurseries will go out of business.
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