Plants are living organisms and, like any living organism, are susceptible to disease. From fungal diseases to viral and bacterial infections, there are many different diseases that plants can fall victims to. The interactions between plants and disease organisms are complex. Understanding basic concepts and principles of how diseases develop, could be half a way to their management.
Many insects, like caterpillars and leaf beetles, mites and nematodes feed on plants. We call these animals phytophagous. If their population growth is too high or they are very specialized to certain plant species, they become pests and cause significant damage in agriculture, horticulture, forests and other ecosystems. In some instances plants themselves can become or be considered pests, if they are invasive and harmful to other plant species and different organisms.
The scope of this topic is to bring news on the occurrence, risk and status of new or regulated organisms, harmful to plants, after being introduced into new areas of the globe, or on the risk of their introduction.
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European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization has released the EPPO poster, which is available as downloadable pdf at their website.
From EPPO Press release:
EPPO has prepared a poster to raise public awareness about the risks of moving plants and their associated pests during international travel and to encourage responsible behaviour. It is primarily intended that the poster should be displayed in airports or any other sites where international travellers will see it (e.g. seaports, railway stations, travel agencies, embassies).
EPPO is an intergovernmental organization responsible for European cooperation in plant health. Founded in 1951 by 15 European countries, EPPO now has 50 members, covering almost all countries of the European and Mediterranean region. Its objectives are to protect plants, to develop international strategies against the introduction and spread of dangerous pests and to promote safe and effective control methods. As a Regional Plant Protection Organization, EPPO also participates in global discussions on plant health organized by FAO and the IPPC Secretariat.
There are many cases recorded that single introduction of infested or infected plants caused later fast spreading and outbreaks of plant pests and diseases in new environment. With increased international trade and travel risk of new introductions are greater than ever before. Common pests from Asia or Australia can become quarantine pests in America or Europe and vice versa. New pests are often introduced unintentionally with different commodities of plant origin (e. g. fruits, flowers, wood, pot plants) and soil. European national plant protection organizations will therefore join the EPPO campaign, translate the poster into national languages and help spreading the message to people, who move around the world and are not aware of organisms that present risks to plants.
Mother Nature Network How to be aware of invasive plants as you plan your garden Mother Nature Network Exotic in this case doesn't mean tropical, says Jil Swearingen, an integrated pest management and invasive species biologist for the National...
Selected: the latest new geographic, host and species records for plant pests and diseases from CAB Abstracts. Records this fortnight include the identification and characterisation of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus, the spread dynamics and agricultural impact of Sorghum halepense and the first report of black scurf on carrot caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-U.
Boxwood blight has been discovered in the US. Learn how far it has spread and how the horticultural research community is addressing this new plant disease introduction.
Boxwood Blight (Cylindrocladium buxicola or C. pseudonaviculatum) is a new plant disease to the United States, having first been confirmed in the October, 2011. The disease can cause significant defoliation and branch dieback to infected plants. Most of what we know about the disease is from research done in Europe where the disease was first discovered in the early 1990s.
Study: Gulf Coast cole pest could survive farther north TheGrower Yellowmargined leaf beetle has no trouble surviving cold temperatures, suggesting that it could spread much farther north than its current range along the Gulf Coast. Although the pest, which feeds on cole crops, can be controlled with foliar insecticides, organic producers don't have that option.
The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a pest of cruciferous crops and was first recorded in the United States from Mobile, Alabama, in March 1947, where it was found feeding on turnip, cabbage, collard, mustard, and radish (Chamberlin and Tippin 1949). It can devastate high value crops such as mizuna and mibuna (Japanese leafy vegetables), napa cabbage, turnip and watercress.
Invasive beetle hitches a lift in B.C. liquor store decorations imported from China
The Brown Fir Longhorned Beetle Callidiellum villosulum Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was again found in shipment from China. This time unpacked wood and pine cone decorations were infested. Previous interceptions in US were found in real wood trunks of artificial Christmas trees imported from China. Plant health risk is supposed to be not so high as for related species of the Anoplophora glabripennis - Asian longhorned beetle, which can kill healthy trees. However, Callidiellum villosulum could pose threat to cedar and sequoia.
Lloyd L. Loope and Janice Y. Uchida (2012) The Challenge of Retarding Erosion of Island Biodiversity through Phytosanitary Measures: An Update on the Case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai‘i. Pacific Science: Vol.
Most rust fungi are highly host specific, but Puccina psidii has an extremely broad host range within Myrtaceae and gained notoriety with a host jump in its native Brazil from common guava (Psidium guajava) to commercial Eucalyptus plantations. When detected in Hawai‘i in April 2005, the first invasion outside the neotropics/subtropics, there was immediate concern for Metrosideros polymorpha.
Paulownia tomentosa, or the Princess Tree, may look pretty in bloom, but the invasive species poses a threat to local flora. The board approved the removal of a Princess Tree, an invasive species native to China, following the receipt of a letter from the open space committee's. Three Kings Point residents also wrote a letter to the board demanding the removal of trees adjacent to their homes, citing the danger of injury and property damage of the trees should fall.
Didymosphenia geminata is freshwater diatom (a type of alga) that is spreading to river systems across the United States and around the world. Although historically D. geminata has been found across the northern hemisphere, recently this species has been noted as an aggressive invader with nuisance bloom behavior. Notably, novel detections of D. geminata across eastern North America, New Zealand and South America have caused concern for managers and anglers.
Emerald ash borer infests 40-year-old tree InsideHalton.com Hill said he has notified the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) about his discovery.
The emerald ash borer is an exotic beetle native to Asia that attacks and kills all species of ash. It was first discovered in North America in 2002 in Ontario.It is listed as a quarantine pest for Europe.
An excellent study, which is published at the IPPC portal "Aquatic Plants: Their Uses and Risks - A review of the global status of aquatic plants” is a basis for new CPM-8 recommendations on risk management, posed by trade of aquatic plants.
International Plant Protection Convention provides information on the protection of plants, including bryophyte and algal species, in marine and aquatic environments. The study was wellcome also by the Convention on Biological Diversity at the Eighth Session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in Rome in April 2013. Global undestranding of aquatic plants should contribute significantly to prevention of spread of the most invasive plant species.
WASHINGTON, DC — The major national groups that coordinate the battle against invasive species today announced the 2013 National Invasive Species Achievement Awards. The awards recognize the dedication and ...
In second year of research of biology and management of Spotted Wing Drosophila on small and stone fruits some biological data and control methods have been already known. Spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is an invasive pest that attacks multiple fresh fruits. It is fast becoming a problem in the Pacific Northwest as well as in Europe. Entomologists at University of California – Davis, Washington State University and Oregon State University have provided first results of their research work.
Mail Online: As early as 2009, two trade bodies demanded the Government impose a ban on importing ash trees but in 2010/11 the Forestry Commission ordered 70,400 foreign trees.
Infected trees have been found at 22 publicly-owned sites since then.
The microscopic fungus – Chalara fraxinea – is rife across mainland Europe. Experts fear the disease will be more catastrophic than Dutch Elm Disease which killed 25million trees here in the 1970s and 80s.
UK Forestry Commission is taking action against Chalara dieback of ash, which is a quarantine pest under UK national emergency measures. It is known to be a serious disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Chalara fraxinea (C. fraxinea), including its sexual stage, Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (H. pseudoalbidus). The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback in affected trees, and usually leads to tree death.
"Invasive beetles that bore into trees have become a very big problem in the United States and Canada. Many of these beetles are also vectors of plant diseases. This edition of the WPDN News and Pest Update discusses examples of boring beetles that have come into the United States since 1980. The jump in the number of non-native borers since 1980 is likely a result of the widespread increase in containerized shipping. Wood-boring insects can be transported in wood pallets, wood crating, and dunnage (unprocessed timbers) used to protect and support cargo in containers. Other exotic forest pests arrive on live plants imported for planting or propagation, while other insects simply hitchhike on imported cargo."
Editor: Richard W. Hoenisch @Copyright Regents of the University of California
M. D. Day, A. Kawi, K. Kurika, C. F. Dewhurst, S. Waisale, J. Saul-Maora, J. Fidelis, J. Bokosou, J. Moxon, W. Orapa, and K. A. D.
Mikania micrantha or mile-a-minute is regarded as a major invasive weed in Papua New Guinea and is now the target of a biological control program. As part of the program, distribution and physical and socioeconomic impacts of M. micrantha were studied to obtain baseline data and to assist with field release of biological control agents. Through public awareness campaigns and dedicated surveys, M. micrantha has been reported in all 15 lowland provinces. In socioeconomic surveys, M. micrantha was found to have severe impacts on crop production and income generated through reduced yields and high weeding costs, particularly in subsistence mixed cropping systems. M. micrantha causes yield losses in excess of 30%.
Manaaki Whenua Press - the New Zealand Natural History and Science Bookstore
This Lepidoptera larval identification guide was prepared using invertebrate interception data collected from fresh produce imported into New Zealand covering pre- and post-border interceptions from 1990-2008.
By Franz-Rudolf Schnitzler, James Maxwell Haw, Lalith Kumarasinghe, Sherly George
The fungus Chalara fraxinea was first identified in the UK in February 2012 in a tree imported from the Netherlands to a nursery in Buckinghamshire. It has now been found at 136 sites linked to imported plants and a further 155 sites in the wider environment, which government scientists think were infected by wind-blown spores from continental Europe. The disease has devastated ash trees in many countries including Denmark where 90% have been infected.
The UK’s control plan is based on four measures – “reduce, develop, encourage and adapt”, said Prof Ian Boyd, chief scientist at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). He said the aim was to reduce the spread of Chalara, develop new control measures and resistant varieties, encourage the public and industry to help out and adapt the nation’s forests to the inevitable changes. More than 13% of the country’s broad-leaved woods are dominated by ash trees.
IPPC - the International Plant Protection Convention - is an international agreement on plant health with 177 current signatories.It aims to protect cultivated and wild plants by preventing the introduction and spread of pests.
The disease has now been confirmed in 115 sites: in 15 nurseries, 39 planting sites and 61 locations in the wider environment (forests and woodlands). These instances of Chalara are being discovered as a result of a rapid ...
Ash disease 'catastrophe' for UK biodiversity (RT @ManMetUni: Dr Robin Sen is doing more media this week on threat to UK ash trees http://t.co/MlmDudyh#ashdieback...)...
The importation of ash tree seedlings from Dutch forest nurseries may have been the trigger for spread of the disease to mature ash trees in East Anglia but alternative routes into the UK through international trade in wood products cannot be discounted.
The government has now imposed import and movement bans which has sparked fierce debate around the poor administration of bio-security measures and controls on imported food crop and tree species.
A worst case scenario estimate, suggests the loss of 80 million trees.