Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition
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Forgotten Crops May Hold Key to Nutritional Security

Forgotten Crops May Hold Key to Nutritional Security | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
Genome sequencing of Africa's traditional crops intends to speed breeding of hardier, more nutrition crops to prevent malnutrition and stunting in children. Many of these are considered "orphan" crops because they have been ignored by science and industry because of their lesser commercial value. 

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Eric Larson's curator insight, February 28, 8:39 AM

Interesting crops and question?

Eric Larson's curator insight, April 14, 12:39 PM
Promise in unusual areas.
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Cellular Microbiology: Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins (2015)

Cellular Microbiology: Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins (2015) | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

Microbial pathogens and pests of animals and plants secrete effector proteins into host cells, altering cellular physiology to the benefit of the invading parasite. Research in the past decade has delivered significant new insights into the molecular mechanisms of how these effector proteins function, with a particular focus on modulation of host immunity-related pathways. One host system that has emerged as a common target of effectors is the ubiquitination system in which substrate proteins are post-translationally modified by covalent conjugation with the small protein ubiquitin. This modification, typically via isopeptide bond formation through a lysine side chain of ubiquitin, can result in target degradation, relocalization, altered activity or affect protein–protein interactions. In this review, I focus primarily on how effector proteins from bacterial and filamentous pathogens of plants and pests perturb host ubiquitination pathways that ultimately include the 26S proteasome. The activities of these effectors, in how they affect ubiquitin pathways in plants, reveal how pathogens have evolved to identify and exploit weaknesses in this system that deliver increased pathogen fitness.


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Nature Reviews Genetics: Microbial genome-enabled insights into plant-microorganism interactions (2014)

Nature Reviews Genetics: Microbial genome-enabled insights into plant-microorganism interactions (2014) | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

Advances in genome-based studies on plant-associated microorganisms have transformed our understanding of many plant pathogens and are beginning to greatly widen our knowledge of plant interactions with mutualistic and commensal microorganisms. Pathogenomics has revealed how pathogenic microorganisms adapt to particular hosts, subvert innate immune responses and change host range, as well as how new pathogen species emerge. Similarly, culture-independent community profiling methods, coupled with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies, have provided the first insights into the emerging field of research on plant-associated microbial communities. Together, these approaches have the potential to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and plant pathology, which have traditionally been two distinct research fields.


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TAL effectors – pathogen strategies and plant resistance engineering - New Phytol.

TAL effectors – pathogen strategies and plant resistance engineering - New Phytol. | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

(via T. Schreiber, thx)

Boch et al, 2014

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. and the related RipTALs from Ralstonia solanacearum are DNA-binding proteins with a modular DNA-binding domain. This domain is both predictable and programmable, which simplifies elucidation of TALE function in planta and facilitates generation of DNA-binding modules with desired specificity for biotechnological approaches. Recently identified TALE host target genes that either promote or stop bacterial disease provide new insights into how expression of TALE genes affects the plant–pathogen interaction. Since its elucidation the TALE code has been continuously refined and now provides a mature tool that, in combination with transcriptome profiling, allows rapid isolation of novel TALE target genes. The TALE code is also the basis for synthetic promoter-traps that mediate recognition of TALE or RipTAL proteins in engineered plants. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in plant-focused TALE research. In addition, we will provide an outline of the newly established gene isolation approach for TALE or RipTAL host target genes with an emphasis on potential pitfalls.


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Miniature Gas Chromatograph Could Help Farmers Detect Crop Diseases Earlier - Product Design & Development

Miniature Gas Chromatograph Could Help Farmers Detect Crop Diseases Earlier - Product Design & Development | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
Product Design & Development Miniature Gas Chromatograph Could Help Farmers Detect Crop Diseases Earlier Product Design & Development To identify potential threats to crop health, farmers typically look for physical symptoms of disease, such as...
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Securing our future food production through better understanding of disease resistance genes in crops

Securing our future food production through better understanding of disease resistance genes in crops | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
A new understanding as to how plants defend themselves against some pathogens that cause crop diseases is proposed by researchers from the University of Hertfordshire to help scientists breed new, more successful disease-resistant agricultural crops.
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Climate change increases threat of wheat rust epidemics - 28/04 ...

Climate change increases threat of wheat rust epidemics - 28/04 ... | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
In recent years, aggressive new strains of wheat rusts, such as yellow (stripe) rust and leaf stem rust, caused by particular rust fungus, have wiped out up to 40% of harvests in countries in Africa, the Middle East and central ...
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Energy Balance: Wheat Rust: "The Death of Grass"?

Energy Balance: Wheat Rust: "The Death of Grass"? | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
Wheat rust is said to be a similarly devastating condition, in fact a fungus, described as the "polio of agriculture", which has spread from Africa to South and Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe, causing severe yield ...
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Nature Communications: High genome heterozygosity and endemic genetic recombination in the wheat stripe rust fungus (2013)

Nature Communications: High genome heterozygosity and endemic genetic recombination in the wheat stripe rust fungus (2013) | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Here we report a 110-Mb draft sequence of Pst isolate CY32, obtained using a ‘fosmid-to-fosmid’ strategy, to better understand its race evolution and pathogenesis. The Pst genome is highly heterozygous and contains 25,288 protein-coding genes. Compared with non-obligate fungal pathogens, Pst has a more diverse gene composition and more genes encoding secreted proteins. Re-sequencing analysis indicates significant genetic variation among six isolates collected from different continents. Approximately 35% of SNPs are in the coding sequence regions, and half of them are non-synonymous. High genetic diversity in Pst suggests that sexual reproduction has an important role in the origin of different regional races. Our results show the effectiveness of the ‘fosmid-to-fosmid’ strategy for sequencing dikaryotic genomes and the feasibility of genome analysis to understand race evolution in Pst and other obligate pathogens.


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News: Aggressive plant fungus threatens wheat production (2015)

News: Aggressive plant fungus threatens wheat production (2015) | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

The spread of exotic and aggressive strains of a plant fungus is presenting a serious threat to wheat production in the UK, according to research published in Genome Biology. The research uses a new surveillance technique that could be applied internationally to respond to the spread of a wide variety of plant diseases.

 

Wheat is a critical staple and provides 20% of the calories and over 25% of the protein consumed by humans. 'Yellow rust' caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST) is one of the plant's major diseases and is widespread across the major wheat-producing areas of the world. Infections lead to significant reductions in both grain quality and yield, with some rare events leading to the loss of an entire crop. New fungus strains have recently emerged that adapt to warmer temperatures, are more aggressive and have overcome many of the major defensive genes in wheat.

 

Lead author Diane Saunders of the John Innes Centre and The Genome Analysis Centre (TGAC), UK, said: "Increased virulence, globalization, and climate change, are all increasing the scale and frequency of emerging plant diseases, and threatening global food security.

 

"Our research shows that in the UK we have a newly emerging population of wheat rust fungus that could be the result of an influx of more exotic and aggressive strains that are displacing the previous population. By continuing to use these new surveillance techniques, not only can we track and respond to the ongoing threat of wheat rust, but our technology opens the door for tracking other plant pathogens, including ash dieback."

 

Researchers from the John Innes Centre, The Sainsbury Laboratory, TGAC and the National Institute of Agricultural Botany sequenced genetic material from 39 PST-infected samples of wheat collected from 17 UK counties in 2013.

 

By comparing the fungal RNA with fungal genetic information from previously prevalent populations between 1978 and 2011, they showed that there has been a rapid and dramatic shift in the PST population that could have serious implications for wheat production in the UK.

 

The 2013 PST samples showed more genetic variation and diversity, reflecting an increase in the evolutionary potential in the UK pathogen population that could enhance their ability to overcome disease resistance in wheat.

 

Of the samples, 11 were also genetically similar to a PST strain called "Warrior". The strain emerged in 2011 as a serious threat to European wheat production due to its virulence on an array of previously resistant wheat varieties. This indicates that a diverse PST population containing the "Warrior" strain is now prevalent across the UK.

 

This new diagnostic technique, called "field pathogenomics", could be applied internationally to respond to the spread of a wide variety of plant diseases. By rapidly pinpointing a fungus's genetic make-up from field samples, the technique is able to confirm outbreaks on particular wheat varieties and provides an efficient means of confirming whether previously resistant wheat varieties have been broken by virulent strains of the pathogen. This is in contrast to current techniques which can be lengthy, costly and are only able to sample a relatively small proportion of the fungal population.

 

The data collection and analysis took just a few months to produce from sample collections from the field, demonstrating the potential for the method to reduce delays and transform current disease surveillance systems. The highly detailed information that is generated could help inform disease incidence predictions and agricultural practices.

 

Hubbard et al. Genome Biology http://genomebiology.com/2015/16/1/23/abstract


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Frontiers: Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors (2014)

Frontiers: Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors (2014) | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defense proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialized gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.


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Frontiers: The past, present and future of breeding rust resistant wheat (2014)

Frontiers: The past, present and future of breeding rust resistant wheat (2014) | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

Two classes of genes are used for breeding rust resistant wheat. The first class, called R (for resistance) genes, are pathogen race-specific in their action, effective at all plant growth stages and probably mostly encode immune receptors of the nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) class. The second class called Adult Plant Resistance genes (APR) because resistance is usually functional only in adult plants, and, in contrast to most R genes, the levels of resistance conferred by single APR genes are only partial and allow considerable disease development. Some but not all APR genes provide resistance to all isolates of a rust pathogen species and a subclass of these provides resistance to several fungal pathogen species. Initial indications are that APR genes encode a more heterogeneous range of proteins than R proteins. Two APR genes, Lr34 and Yr36, have been cloned from wheat and their products are an ABC transporter and a protein kinase, respectively. Lr34 and Sr2 have provided long lasting and widely used (durable) partial resistance and are mainly used in conjunction with other R and APR genes to obtain adequate rust resistance. We caution that some APR genes indeed include race-specific, weak R genes which may be of the NB-LRR class. A research priority to better inform rust resistance breeding is to characterize further APR genes in wheat and to understand how they function and how they interact when multiple APR and R genes are stacked in a single genotype by conventional and GM breeding. An important message is do not be complacent about the general durability of all APR genes.


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(EN) - Illustrated Glossary of Plant Pathology | APSnet Education Center

(EN) - Illustrated Glossary of Plant Pathology | APSnet Education Center | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it

"Illustrated Glossary of Plant Pathology

Authors: C.J. D'Arcy, D.M. Eastburn, and G. L. Schumann
(with acknowledgement of contributions from M.C. Shurtleff, P.A. Arneson, F.H. Tainter, and T.A. Evans)

The pronunciation files are courtesy of the Cornell Online Glossary of Technical Terms in Plant Pathology by P.A. Arneson, and the voice is that of Richard P. Korf, used with permission.
D'Arcy, C. J. , D. M. Eastburn, and G. L. Schumann. 2001. Illustrated Glossary of Plant Pathology. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2001-0219-01"


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New understanding as to how plants defend themselves against disease - Farming UK

New understanding as to how plants defend themselves against disease - Farming UK | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
Farming UK New understanding as to how plants defend themselves against disease Farming UK A new understanding as to how plants defend themselves against some pathogens that cause crop diseases is proposed by researchers from the University of...
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Warrior race drives yellow rust explosion in wheat - 22/05/2014 ...

Warrior race drives yellow rust explosion in wheat - 22/05/2014 ... | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
Warrior race yellow rust is enemy number one of wheat crops in the east, and is now becoming more of a problem in the west and south-west. Jonathan Blake, principal research scientist at ADAS, looks at the growing threat.
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CGIAR Combats Wheat Rust Re-emergence Due to Climate Change

CGIAR Combats Wheat Rust Re-emergence Due to Climate Change | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is leading several international initiatives to combat an increase in frequency and severity of outbreaks of wheat rust triggered by climate change.
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Wheat rust: The fungal disease that threatens to destroy the world ...

Wheat rust: The fungal disease that threatens to destroy the world ... | Sustainable agriculture, Plant pathology, Food security, Nutritional security, Food and Nutrition | Scoop.it
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/wheat-rust-the-fungal-disease-that-threatens-to-destroy-the-world-crop-9271485.html Wheat rust: The fungal disease that threatens to destroy the world crop Scientists are ...
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