In the present study, carried out in South-eastern Spain, a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) was introduced through drip irrigation to inoculate Crimson grapevines. Their effects on the physiological and nutritional activity were evaluated for 2 years (2011–12). Additionally, during the second year of experimentation, the persistence of mycorrhizae on the grapevine and their effects were innovatively analysed. The AMF satisfactorily colonized the Crimson grapevine roots, improved the plants water status, induced an improvement in the photosynthetic performance that increased the water use efficiency, promoted the uptake of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) and led to a mobilization of starch reserves in the apex in winter, which was possibly responsible for enhancing root development. Moreover, inoculated plants had significantly increased yield and improved quality of grapes, which led to early grape maturation. Overall, the persistent effect of AMF during the second year produced similar positive effects, although to a lesser extent, to those obtained in the inoculated treatment. The results found in the present study show that this AMF application technique can be recommended for sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas. Moreover, as a result of the competition with the native mycorrhizae, periodic monitoring of the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization and re-inoculation in order to obtain all the positive effects evidenced in the inoculated treatment is recommended.
How Lessons From a Brain-Infecting Fungi Could Change Medicine Pacific Standard Suspecting that this enzyme might be involved in helping the fungus slip through the blood-brain barrier, the scientists genetically engineered a strain of C.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have traditionally been considered generalist symbionts. However, an increasing number of studies are pointing out the selectivity potential of plant hosts. Plant life form, determined by plant life history traits, seems to drive the AM fungal community composition. The AM fungi also exhibit a wide diversity of functional traits known to be responsible for their distribution in natural ecosystems. However, little is known about the role of plant and fungal traits driving the resultant symbiotic assemblages. With the aim of testing the feedback relationship between plant and fungal traits on the resulting AM fungal community, we inoculated three different plant life forms, i.e. annual herbs, perennial herbs and perennial semi-woody plants, with AM fungal communities sampled in different seasons. We hypothesized that the annual climate variation will induce changes in the mean traits of the AM fungal communities present in the soil throughout the year. Furthermore, the association of plants with different life forms with AM fungi with contrasting life history traits will show certain preferences according to reciprocal traits of the plants and fungi. We found changes in the AM fungal community throughout the year, which were differentially disrupted by disturbance and altered by plant growth form and plant biomass. Both plant and fungal traits clearly contributed to the resultant AM fungal communities. The revealed process can have implications for the functioning of ecosystems since changes in dominant plant life forms or climatic variables could influence the traits of AM fungal communities in soil and hence ecosystem processes.
BackgroundApple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2?, 4? and 6? salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance.ResultsThe results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2? and 4? salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2? and 4? salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl? and Na+ concentrations clearly increased and K+ contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K+/Na+ ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4? salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6? salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively.ConclusionThese results suggest that 2? and 4? salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.
FoodNavigator.com Fungal sourced colours have big potential, say researchers FoodNavigator.com “Among non-conventional sources, filamentous fungi are known to produce an extraordinary range of pigments that include several chemical classes such as...
Essentially all plant species exhibit heritable genetic variation for resistance to a variety of plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, oomycetes or viruses. Disease losses in crop monocultures are already significant, and would be greater but for applications of disease-controlling agrichemicals. For sustainable intensification of crop production, we argue that disease control should as far as possible be achieved using genetics rather than using costly recurrent chemical sprays. The latter imply CO2 emissions from diesel fuel and potential soil compaction from tractor journeys. Great progress has been made in the past 25 years in our understanding of the molecular basis of plant disease resistance mechanisms, and of how pathogens circumvent them. These insights can inform more sophisticated approaches to elevating disease resistance in crops that help us tip the evolutionary balance in favour of the crop and away from the pathogen. We illustrate this theme with an account of a genetically modified (GM) blight-resistant potato trial in Norwich, using the Rpi-vnt1.1 gene isolated from a wild relative of potato, Solanum venturii, and introduced by GM methods into the potato variety Desiree.
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