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PLoS Pathogens: The Phylogenetically-Related Pattern Recognition Receptors EFR and XA21 Recruit Similar Immune Signaling Components in Monocots and Dicots (2015)

PLoS Pathogens: The Phylogenetically-Related Pattern Recognition Receptors EFR and XA21 Recruit Similar Immune Signaling Components in Monocots and Dicots (2015) | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

Pests and diseases cause significant agricultural losses. Plants recognize pathogen-derived molecules via plasma membrane-localized immune receptors (called pattern recognition receptors or PRRs), resulting in pathogen resistance. In recent years, the transfer of PRRs across plant species has emerged as a promising biotechnological approach to improve crop disease resistance. Successful transfers of PRRs suggest that immune signaling components are conserved across plant species. In this study, we demonstrate that the PRR XA21 from the monocot plant rice is functional in the dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and that it confers quantitatively enhanced resistance to bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the rice XA21 and the Arabidopsis EFR, which are evolutionary-distant but phylogenetically closely related, recruit similar signaling components for their function, revealing an overall conservation of immune pathways across monocots and dicots. These findings demonstrate evolutionary conservation of downstream signaling from PRRs and indicate that transfer of PRRs is possible between different plant families, but also between monocots and dicots.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rise of the field drones

Rise of the field drones | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

When the corn begins to grow in research fields used by the University of Illinois, a robot sets to work.

It goes up and down the rows, hoeing out weeds and applying herbicide. It is slow, but it works 24 hours a day in most kinds of weather and has few needs except batteries and a computer signal.

Welcome to the future — and it’s already here.

That was one of Tom Staples’ points during a talk at the Agronomy Update in Lethbridge Jan. 21.

The director of Echelon for Crop Production Services said precision agriculture will have new meaning in the future with applications beyond yield maps and variable rate agronomic prescriptions.

Most farmers use guidance systems and autosteer, which are promoted by equipment dealers. Staples said mapping and variable rate technology, which is promoted by consultants, has had slower adoption because it generates large amounts of data that requires expertise to interpret and apply.

The third wave, data collection and push-button ease of use by farmers, is not that far away.

“The real new frontier is to take all of that data and start to be able to ask questions of it and really, ideally get it down to be as simple as what Google did for the internet,” said Staples.

“We’re not far away from having that sort of technology and simplicity with agricultural data. I would say probably within five years we’ll have something that’s close to it, definitely within 10.”

Staples acknowledged the recent popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles, more commonly known as drones, but also noted their current limitations as well as their future promise.

They are already useful to scout livestock and inspect dangerous or inaccessible places, but drones for crop use are less user friendly.

Staples said it takes at least an hour to set up and fly a quarter-section field and another 16 hours to create a usable file from the data. At that pace, a farmer could scout the same field in the usual way and in less time.

“There’s a lot of promise when it comes to UAVs but we’re not there yet.”

High resolution images from UAVs could allow agronomists to identify disease symptoms, types of weed and other crop issues without being in the field, which would save farmers money.

“That’s the promise of UAVs.”

He showed a photo of a mosquito-sized drone with a camera in its nose. Theoretically, a swarm of these small units could invade a crop and look at individual plants. Variable rate, taken to its extremes, could provide water and nutrients on a per-plant basis.

Staples said high resolution sensors that measure soil moisture content are already being used in Nebraska, feeding data into irrigation systems that apply the precise moisture needed.

Monsanto’s purchase of Climate Corp. in October was another signal of things to come, Staples said.

“What Monsanto is up to is, they’re working to refine their pipeline using digital technologies to modify, to collect information, so that they can modify their pipeline of genetics.”

The company could use information on how genetics are influenced by climate, weather and conditions in a specific area to provide solutions for isolated sets of circumstances.

“It’s a very different way of looking at collecting information for plant breeding than what we’ve done traditionally,” said Staples.

It emphasizes the importance of data collection, storage and use, he added.

A typical quarter-section yield map generates one million discrete points of data. If that could be layered with yield, fertilizer and pesticide data and specific weather conditions, “all of a sudden we can ask the question behind the question. We’re at the cusp of this next technology being started to be adopted across Western Canada, and the secret sauce is, I want to be able to push a button and have that information serve up to me something that I can make a decision on.

“When the ‘Google’ comes along that can do all of that … in such a way that you can make actual decisions on it, that’s when we’re going to see that 100 percent adoption of using that data.”

Fortunately, data storage is getting cheaper. Staples said it cost $437,000 to store one gigabyte of data in 1980 but by 2013 it was less than a nickel.

Data has value to the individual farmer and potentially even more value if combined with other data, said Staples. He advised farmers to keep that in mind and to use one of the oldest technologies: paper.

“If you’re sharing information with somebody … when it comes to your production data, your business data, your financial data, try to understand before you share it with somebody, understand how your data is going to be used. Get it on paper as to how it’s going to be used.”


Via Stéphane Bisaillon
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Combating wheat stripe rust essential for region’s food security - Features - Nature Middle East

Combating wheat stripe rust essential for region’s food security - Features - Nature Middle East | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Climate change is expected to increase the spread and severity of rust diseases, further threatening food security. To combat stripe rust, greater investments in research and regional coordination are essential.
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A Novel Botrytis Species Is Associated with a Newly Emergent Foliar Disease in Cultivated Hemerocallis

A Novel Botrytis Species Is Associated with a Newly Emergent Foliar Disease in Cultivated Hemerocallis | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Fungal Community Structure in Disease Suppressive Soils Assessed by 28S LSU Gene Sequencing

Fungal Community Structure in Disease Suppressive Soils Assessed by 28S LSU Gene Sequencing | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Human and Plant Fungal Pathogens: The Role of Secondary Metabolites

Human and Plant Fungal Pathogens: The Role of Secondary Metabolites | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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PLOS Pathogens: Indifferent, Affectionate, or Deceitful: Lifestyles and Secretomes of Fungi (2012)

PLOS Pathogens: Indifferent, Affectionate, or Deceitful: Lifestyles and Secretomes of Fungi (2012) | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

Fungi occupy a myriad of niches. They can be free-living (indifferent) as saprophytes recycling nutrients in the natural environment and/or have a range of relationships (affectionate and deceitful) with insect, animal, or plant hosts. Interactions with plants can be a continuum and range from obligate biotrophy where fungi cannot be cultured outside living hosts to necrotrophy where fungi kill and live on released nutrients. Biotrophic fungi need to avoid or suppress defence responses. They include symbionts, which confer a benefit to the host, and pathogens, which can cause devastating diseases such as stem rust, which threatens production of wheat worldwide [1]. Mycorrhizae colonise roots of >80% of land plants and are symbiotic, increasing nitrogen and phosphorus uptake from the soil, while feeding on sugars from the host photosynthate. Secreted proteins are on the front line of host–fungal interactions, and a particular class, effectors, is a hot topic. Here, we examine a range of fungi and consider their complement of secreted proteins (secretome) and roles of effectors in fungal lifestyles.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Mary Williams's curator insight, March 29, 2013 10:15 AM

Love the title!

 

 

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FreshFruitPortal.com » Copa-Cogeca calls for immediate action on South African citrus

FreshFruitPortal.com » Copa-Cogeca calls for immediate action on South African citrus | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
European co-operative Copa-Cogeca has called on the EU to enforce black spot restrictions against South Africa.
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Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Insect Communities: A Transplant Experiment

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Insect Communities: A Transplant Experiment | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: A Global Initiative to Collect, Conserve, and Use Crop Wild Relatives | Agroecology and Sustainable Food systems

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: A Global Initiative to Collect, Conserve, and Use Crop Wild Relatives | Agroecology and Sustainable Food systems | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
(2014). Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: A Global Initiative to Collect, Conserve, and Use Crop Wild Relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems: Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 369-377. doi: 10.1080/21683565.2013.870629

Via Luz Marina Alvare
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Researcher seeks holistic understanding of disease resistance in maize

Researcher seeks holistic understanding of disease resistance in maize | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
The University of Delaware is leading an interdisciplinary project aimed at unraveling the biology of a durable form of disease resistance in maize.
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DUBLIN: Research and Markets: Global Agrochemicals Market Report 2014 - Forecast to 2018: Type, Fertilizer Type, Pesticide Type, & Sub-Types | Business Wire | Rock Hill Herald Online

DUBLIN: Research and Markets: Global Agrochemicals Market Report 2014 - Forecast to 2018: Type, Fertilizer Type, Pesticide Type, & Sub-Types | Business Wire | Rock Hill Herald Online | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/fdvpnt/agrochemicals ) has announced the addition of the "Agrochemicals Market by Type, Fertilizer Type, Pesticide Type, & Sub-types - Global Market Trends & Forecast to 2018" report to their offering.
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Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Genes Commonly Induced by Botrytis cinerea Infection, Cold, Drought and Oxidative Stresses in Arabidopsis

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Genes Commonly Induced by Botrytis cinerea Infection, Cold, Drought and Oxidative Stresses in Arabidopsis | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress), and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses). Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs) and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs). We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets for genetic modification to improve plant resistance to multiple stresses.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Our alarming food future, explained in 7 charts

Our alarming food future, explained in 7 charts | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
The takeaway from a blockbuster climate report: As the temperature goes up, crop yields will go down.
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A Novel Botrytis Species Is Associated with a Newly Emergent Foliar Disease in Cultivated Hemerocallis

A Novel Botrytis Species Is Associated with a Newly Emergent Foliar Disease in Cultivated Hemerocallis | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Frontiers | Plant cell wall dynamics and wall-related susceptibility in plant-pathogen interactions | Plant-Microbe Interaction

The cell wall is a dynamic structure that often determines the outcome of the interactions between plants and pathogens. It is a barrier that pathogens need to breach to colonize the plant tissue. While fungal necrotrophs extensively destroy the integrity of the cell wall through the combined action of degrading enzymes, biotrophic fungi require a more localized and controlled degradation of the cell wall in order to keep the host cells alive and utilize their feeding structures. Also bacteria and nematodes need to degrade the plant cell wall at a certain stage of their infection process, to obtain nutrients for their growth. Plants have developed a system for sensing pathogens and monitoring the cell wall integrity, upon which they activate defense responses that lead to a dynamic cell wall remodeling required to prevent the disease. Pathogens, on the other hand, may exploit the host cell wall metabolism to support the infection. We review here the strategies utilized by both plants and pathogens to prevail in the cell wall battleground.
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The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Novel Symbiotic Protoplasts Formed by Endophytic Fungi Explain Their Hidden Existence, Lifestyle Switching, and Diversity within the Plant Kingdom

Novel Symbiotic Protoplasts Formed by Endophytic Fungi Explain Their Hidden Existence, Lifestyle Switching, and Diversity within the Plant Kingdom | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny withinAureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs) that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline “what, where, when and how”, opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that provide a robust framework for continued tests of the mycosome phase hypothesis.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, May 3, 2014 11:56 AM

Amazing... and I am sure that this is just the tip of the iceberg...

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Heritable, de novo resistance to leaf rust and othe... [PLoS One. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

Heritable, de novo resistance to leaf rust and othe... [PLoS One. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Climate Change May Lead to Greater Severity in Wheat Crop Disease

Climate Change May Lead to Greater Severity in Wheat Crop Disease | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Climate change may lead to an increased risk in severity of wheat crop diseases in the next two decades, according to a new study.
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11 innovations to fight food and water scarcity

11 innovations to fight food and water scarcity | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Data from the International Food Policy Research Institute validates the role of new farming technologies in the face of climate change.
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