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Current Biology: Anthocyanins Double the Shelf Life of Tomatoes by Delaying Overripening and Reducing Susceptibility to Gray Mold (2013)

Current Biology: Anthocyanins Double the Shelf Life of Tomatoes by Delaying Overripening and Reducing Susceptibility to Gray Mold (2013) | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

Shelf life is an important quality trait for many fruit, including tomatoes. We report that enrichment of anthocyanin, a natural pigment, in tomatoes can significantly extend shelf life. Processes late in ripening are suppressed by anthocyanin accumulation, and susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, one of the most important postharvest pathogens, is reduced in purple tomato fruit. We show that reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea is dependent specifically on the accumulation of anthocyanins, which alter the spreading of the ROS burst during infection. The increased antioxidant capacity of purple fruit likely slows the processes of overripening. Enhancing the levels of natural antioxidants in tomato provides a novel strategy for extending shelf life by genetic engineering or conventional breeding.


Via Freddy Monteiro, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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殺生だからインパクトに関係ないなんてことはないだろうな。

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BioEssays: Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds (2016)

BioEssays: Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds (2016) | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, June 27, 4:40 AM
Intracellular NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat-containing) receptors are sensitive monitors that detect pathogen invasion of both plant and animal cells. NLRs confer recognition of diverse molecules associated with pathogen invasion. NLRs must exhibit strict intramolecular controls to avoid harmful ectopic activation in the absence of pathogens. Recent discoveries have elucidated the assembly and structure of oligomeric NLR signalling complexes in animals, and provided insights into how these complexes act as scaffolds for signal transduction. In plants, recent advances have provided novel insights into signalling-competent NLRs, and into the myriad strategies that diverse plant NLRs use to recognise pathogens. Here, we review recent insights into the NLR biology of both animals and plants. By assessing commonalities and differences between kingdoms, we are able to develop a more complete understanding of NLR function.
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PLoS ONE: Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors

PLoS ONE: Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan ® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 10 2 and 1.6 x 10 2 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease.
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IJSEM: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma hispanicum', a novel taxon associated with Mexican periwinkle virescence disease of Catharanthus roseus

ABSTRACT: Mexican periwinkle virescence (MPV) phytoplasma was originally discovered in diseased plants of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) in Yucatán, Mexico. On the basis of results from RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MPV was previously classified as the first known member of phytoplasma group 16SrXIII, and a new subgroup (16SrXIII-A) was established to accommodate MPV phytoplasma. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MPV represents a lineage distinct from previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Nucleotide sequence alignments revealed that strain MPV shared less than 97.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with all previously described 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species. Based on unique properties of the DNA, we propose recognition of Mexican periwinkle virescence phytoplasma strain MPV as representative of a novel taxon, 'Ca. Phytoplasma hispanicum'.

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ネーミングこれでイイのかっていうね
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Genome Announcement: Draft Genome Sequence of 16SrIII-J Phytoplasma, a Plant Pathogenic Bacterium with a Broad Spectrum of Hosts

ABSTRACT: Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens that can affect different vegetal hosts. In South America, a phytoplasma belonging to ribosomal subgroup 16SrIII-J has been reported in many crops. Here we report its genomic draft sequence, showing a total length of 687,253 bp and a G+C content of 27.72%.
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"11 CDSs containing the SEC translocase complex signal peptide were identified but no SAP11, SAP54, PHYL, and TENGU homologous genes were found." ほうほう
そしてなぜこのジャーナルに出したのか
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PLOS Pathogens: Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins (2016)

PLOS Pathogens: Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins (2016) | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.


Via Suayib Üstün, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Hop好きだけど いよいよ応用には今後しばらく結びつかないのかなって感でてきた気がする
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PLOS Pathog: Correction: Misregulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 Underlies the Developmental Abnormalities Caused by Three Distinct Viral Silencing Suppressors in Arabidopsis

PLOS Pathog: Correction: Misregulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 Underlies the Developmental Abnormalities Caused by Three Distinct Viral Silencing Suppressors in Arabidopsis | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
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これってどこかのPCRが既出ってエラータムが出てたんじゃなかったっけ?いずれにせよ取り下げにならず良かった
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Pest Manag Sci: ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL MAY PREVENT VECTOR-MEDIATED FLAVESCENCE DORÉE PHYTOPLASMA TRANSMISSION, BUT IS INEFFECTIVE IN INDUCING RECOVERY OF INFECTED GRAPEVINES

Abstract: BACKGROUND Acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH), a functional analog of Salicylic Acid (SA), is known to elicit a systemic resistance across a broad range of plant–pathogen interactions but, so far, it was not tested against Flavescence dorée (FDP), one of the most devastating grapevine diseases. Aims of this work were to evaluate the activity of BTH in preventing FDP transmission by the insect vector and in inducing recovery of infected grapevines. RESULTS Repeated applications of 2 mM BTH to test grapevine cuttings (cv Barbera) exposed to adults of the infectious vector, Scaphoideus titanus Ball, reduced the rate of infected plants. The effect was not recorded following similar BTH applications to highly susceptible young in vitro propagated vines. A high natural recovery rate (more than 70%) was observed over a three-year-period in field-infected grapevines of the same cv. Under these conditions, BTH repeated applications over the whole period clearly failed to increase recovery of field-infected grapevines. CONCLUSION Following a three-year experiment, it can be concluded that, although high doses and repeated applications of BTH reduced vector transmission of FDP, BTH was ineffective in inducing recovery of FDP-infected grapevines cv Barbera under field conditions.
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事前に撒いておけと
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Nat Biotech: Rapid cloning of disease-resistance genes in plants using mutagenesis and sequence capture

Nat Biotech: Rapid cloning of disease-resistance genes in plants using mutagenesis and sequence capture | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT: Wild relatives of domesticated crop species harbor multiple, diverse, disease resistance (R) genes that could be used to engineer sustainable disease control. However, breeding R genes into crop lines often requires long breeding timelines of 5–15 years to break linkage between R genes and deleterious alleles (linkage drag). Further, when R genes are bred one at a time into crop lines, the protection that they confer is often overcome within a few seasons by pathogen evolution1. If several cloned R genes were available, it would be possible to pyramid R genes2 in a crop, which might provide more durable resistance1. We describe a three-step method (MutRenSeq)-that combines chemical mutagenesis with exome capture and sequencing for rapid R gene cloning. We applied MutRenSeq to clone stem rust resistance genes Sr22 and Sr45 from hexaploid bread wheat. MutRenSeq can be applied to other commercially relevant crops and their relatives, including, for example, pea, bean, barley, oat, rye, rice and maize.

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SpringerPlus: Increased sodium and fluctuations in minerals in acid limes expressing witches’ broom symptoms

SpringerPlus: Increased sodium and fluctuations in minerals in acid limes expressing witches’ broom symptoms | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT: Witches’ broom disease of lime (WBDL), caused by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’, is a very serious disease of acid limes. The disease destroyed more than one million lime trees in the Middle East. WBDL results in the production of small, clustered leaves in some branches of lime trees. Branches develop symptoms with time and become unproductive, until the whole tree collapses within 4–8 years of first symptom appearance. This study was conducted to investigate differences in minerals between symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves of infected lime trees. The study included one set of leaves from uninfected trees and two sets of infected leaves: symptomatic leaves and asymptomatic leaves obtained from randomly selected acid lime trees. Nested polymerase chain reaction detected phytoplasma in the symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves from the six infected trees, but not from the uninfected trees. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all phytoplasmas belong to the 16S rRNA group II-B. Mineral analysis revealed that the level of Na significantly increased by four times in the symptomatic leaves compared to the non-symptomatic leaves and to the uninfected leaves. In addition, symptom development resulted in a significant increase in the levels of P and K by 1.6 and 1.5 times, respectively, and a significant decrease in the levels of Ca and B by 1.2 and 1.8 times, respectively. There was no significant effect of WBDL on the levels of N, Cu, Zn, and Fe. The development of witches’ broom disease symptoms was found to be associated with changes in some minerals. The study discusses factors and consequences of changes in the mineral content of acid limes infected by phytoplasma.

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オープンアクセスらっしゅ
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Photosynthetic responses to phytoplasma infection in Chinese jujube

Highlights • JWB phytoplasma could damage PSII and reduce the photosynthesis rate of Chinese jujube. • The main photochemical parameters were decreased at different stages in JWB-resistant cultivar and susceptible cultivar. • The expression profiles of four key photosynthetic- related genes were different in resistant cultivar and susceptible one. • The early photosynthetic response in JWB-resistant cultivar plays a positive role in its defense responses.
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Cell Host Microbe (Correction): Posttranslational Modifications of the Master Transcriptional Regulator NPR1 Enable Dynamic but Tight Control of Plant Immune Responses

Cell Host Microbe (Correction): Posttranslational Modifications of the Master Transcriptional Regulator NPR1 Enable Dynamic but Tight Control of Plant Immune Responses | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
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J Virol Methods: Artificial microRNA-derived resistance to Cassava brown streak disease

J Virol Methods: Artificial microRNA-derived resistance to Cassava brown streak disease | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: Artificial miRNAs (amiRNA) were generated targeting conserved sequences within the genomes of the two causal agents of Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD): Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Transient expression studies on ten amiRNAs targeting 21 nt conserved sequences of P1(CBSV and UCBSV), P3(CBSV and UCBSV), CI(UCBSV), NIb(CBSV and UCBSV), CP(UCBSV) and the un-translated region (3′-UTR) were tested in Nicotiana benthamiana. Four out of the ten amiRNAs expressed the corresponding amiRNA at high levels. Transgenic N. benthamiana plants were developed for the four amiRNAs targeting the P1 and NIb genes of CBSV and the P1 and CP genes of UCBSV and shown to accumulate miRNA products. Transgenic plants challenged with CBSV and UCBSV isolates showed resistance levels that ranged between ∼20–60% against CBSV and UCBSV and correlated with expression levels of the transgenically derived miRNAs. MicroRNAs targeting P1 and NIb of CBSV showed protection against CBSV and UCBSV, while amiRNAs targeting the P1 and CP of UCBSV showed protection against UCBSV but were less efficient against CBSV. These results indicate a potential application of amiRNAs for engineering resistance to CBSD-causing viruses in cassava.
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Convergent evolution of filamentous microbes towards evasion of glycan-triggered immunity

Convergent evolution of filamentous microbes towards evasion of glycan-triggered immunity | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
All filamentous microbes produce and release a wide range of glycans, which are essential determinants of microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions. Major cell wall constituents, such as chitin and β-glucans, are elicitors of host immune responses. The widespread capacity for glycan perception in plants has driven the evolution of various strategies that help filamentous microbes to evade detection. Common strategies include structural and chemical modifications of cell wall components as well as the secretion of effector proteins that suppress chitin- and β-glucan-triggered immune responses. Thus, the necessity to avoid glycan-triggered immunity represents a driving force in the convergent evolution of filamentous microbes towards its suppression.

Via Francis Martin
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J Microbiological Methods: Development and evaluation of different complex media for phytoplasma isolation and growth

J Microbiological Methods: Development and evaluation of different complex media for phytoplasma isolation and growth | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Highlights • Phytoplasmas were isolated from infected field-collected grapevine samples. • Complex media for phytoplasma isolation and growth were tested. • Unreported microaerophilic conditions are settled for phytoplasma plate colony growth. • “Flavescence dorée”, “bois noir” and aster yellows phytoplasma colonies are obtained from field infected materials. • Phytoplasma presence in colonies was detected by nested-PCR and sequencing on two genes.
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JXB: Phytoplasma SAP11 alters 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana by suppressing NbOMT1

ABSTRACT: Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens that release virulence effectors into sieve cells and act systemically to affect the physiological and morphological state of host plants to promote successful pathogenesis. We show here that transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines expressing the secreted effector SAP11 from Candidatus Phytoplasma mali exhibit an altered aroma phenotype. This phenomenon is correlated with defects in the development of glandular trichomes and the biosynthesis of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP). IBMP is a volatile organic compound (VOC) synthesized by an O-methyltransferase, via a methylation step, from a non-volatile precursor, 3-isobutyl-2-hydroxypyrazine (IBHP). Based on comparative and functional genomics analyses, NbOMT1, which encodes an O-methyltransferase, was found to be highly suppressed in SAP11-transgenic plants. We further silenced NbOMT1 through virus-induced gene silencing and demonstrated that this enzyme influenced the accumulation of IBMP in N. benthamiana. In vitro biochemical analyses also showed that NbOMT1 can catalyse IBHP O-methylation in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Our study suggests that the phytoplasma effector SAP11 has the ability to modulate host VOC emissions. In addition, we also demonstrated that SAP11 destabilized TCP transcription factors and suppressed jasmonic acid responses in N. benthamiana. These findings provide valuable insights into understanding how phytoplasma effectors influence plant volatiles.
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トライコームね 気になるよね
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Nature Plants: Chloroplasts play a central role in plant defence and are targeted by pathogen effectors (2016)

Nature Plants: Chloroplasts play a central role in plant defence and are targeted by pathogen effectors (2016) | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

Microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptors in plants recognize MAMPs and activate basal defences; however a complete understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms conferring immunity remains elusive. Pathogens suppress active defence in plants through the combined action of effector proteins. Here we show that the chloroplast is a key component of early immune responses. MAMP perception triggers the rapid, large-scale suppression of nuclear encoded chloroplast-targeted genes (NECGs). Virulent Pseudomonas syringae effectors reprogramme NECG expression in Arabidopsis, target the chloroplast and inhibit photosynthetic CO2assimilation through disruption of photosystem II. This activity prevents a chloroplastic reactive oxygen burst. These physiological changes precede bacterial multiplication and coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation. MAMP pretreatment protects chloroplasts from effector manipulation, whereas application of ABA or the inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, DCMU, abolishes the MAMP-induced chloroplastic reactive oxygen burst, and enhances growth of a P. syringae hrpA mutant that fails to secrete effectors.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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New Phytol: Viral protein suppresses oxidative burst and salicylic acid-dependent autophagy and facilitates bacterial growth on virus-infected plants

SUMMARY: Virus interactions with plant silencing and innate immunity pathways can potentially alter the susceptibility of virus-infected plants to secondary infections with nonviral pathogens. We found that Arabidopsis plants infected with Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or transgenic for CaMV silencing suppressor P6 exhibit increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and allow robust growth of the Pst mutant hrcC-, which cannot deploy effectors to suppress innate immunity. The impaired antibacterial defense correlated with the suppressed oxidative burst, reduced accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) and diminished SA-dependent autophagy. The viral protein domain required for suppression of these plant defense responses is dispensable for silencing suppression but essential for binding and activation of the plant target-of-rapamycin (TOR) kinase which, in its active state, blocks cellular autophagy and promotes CaMV translation. Our findings imply that CaMV P6 is a versatile viral effector suppressing both silencing and innate immunity. P6-mediated suppression of oxidative burst and SA-dependent autophagy may predispose CaMV-infected plants to bacterial infection.
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Expression of concern: Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection by A. T. Maredza, F. Alli...

The claims are: • Authors describe without credit or acknowledgement an unpublished nomenclature developed by a competing group. • Article contains information taken from a draft manu - script of the competing group, which was about to be submitted for publication, and which was sent to the authors in Nov. 2014 for input. • Failure to acknowledge source of plasmids, which origi - nated from a member of the competing group.
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Nat Biotech: Accelerated cloning of a potato late blight-resistance gene using RenSeq and SMRT sequencing

Nat Biotech: Accelerated cloning of a potato late blight-resistance gene using RenSeq and SMRT sequencing | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT: Global yields of potato and tomato crops have fallen owing to potato late blight disease, which is caused by Phytophthora infestans. Although most commercial potato varieties are susceptible to blight, many wild potato relatives show variation for resistance and are therefore a potential source of Resistance to P. infestans (Rpi) genes. Resistance breeding has exploited Rpi genes from closely related tuber-bearing potato relatives, but is laborious and slow1, 2, 3. Here we report that the wild, diploid non-tuber-bearing Solanum americanum harbors multiple Rpi genes. We combine resistance (R) gene sequence capture (RenSeq)4 with single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing (SMRT RenSeq) to clone Rpi-amr3i. This technology should enable de novo assembly of complete nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) genes, their regulatory elements and complex multi-NLR loci from uncharacterized germplasm. SMRT RenSeq can be applied to rapidly clone multiple R genes for engineering pathogen-resistant

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LRR拾い隊
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Nat Biotech: A pigeonpea gene confers resistance to Asian soybean rust in soybean

Nat Biotech: A pigeonpea gene confers resistance to Asian soybean rust in soybean | Plant pathology | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT: Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most economically important crop diseases, but is only treatable with fungicides, which are becoming less effective owing to the emergence of fungicide resistance. There are no commercial soybean cultivars with durable resistance to P. pachyrhizi, and although soybean resistance loci have been mapped, no resistance genes have been cloned. We report the cloning of a P. pachyrhizi resistance gene CcRpp1 (Cajanus cajan Resistance against Phakopsora pachyrhizi 1) from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and show that CcRpp1 confers full resistance to P. pachyrhizi in soybean. Our findings show that legume species related to soybean such as pigeonpea, cowpea, common bean and others could provide a valuable and diverse pool of resistance traits for crop improvement.

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アブストだけじゃなんでこのジャーナルに載るのか分からないです
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Genome Announcement: Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” Strain Mbita1, the Causative Agent of Napier Grass Stunt Disease in Kenya

Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens with devastating impact on agricultural production worldwide. In eastern Africa, Napier grass stunt disease causes serious economic losses in the smallholder dairy industry. This draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1 provides insight into its genomic organization and the molecular basis of pathogenicity.

Nucleotide sequence accession numbers.This whole-genome shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LTBM00000000. The version described in this paper is version LTBM01000000. The raw reads are available under accession number SRP069757.
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Plant Cell Report: The Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors AvrRpm1 and AvrRpt2 promote virulence dependent on the F-box protein COI1

Key message: Type III effectors AvrRpm1 and AvrRpt2 promote bacterial growth dependent on a COI1-mediated pathway in the absence of the RPM1 and RPS2 resistance proteins.
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Cell Host Microbe: Plant TRAF Proteins Regulate NLR Immune Receptor Turnover

Cell Host Microbe: Plant TRAF Proteins Regulate NLR Immune Receptor Turnover | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Highlight: Genes encoding TRAF domain-containing proteins are highly expanded in higher plants •Loss of MUSE13 and MUSE14 leads to higher NLR levels and pathogen resistance •MUSE13 homo-oligomerizes and associates with NLRs and SCFCPR1 in planta •A likely plant TRAFasome with MUSE13/14, SCFCPR1 and NLRs modulates NLR homeostasis
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Cell Host Microbe: A Bacterial Effector Co-opts Calmodulin to Target the Plant Microtubule Network

Cell Host Microbe: A Bacterial Effector Co-opts Calmodulin to Target the Plant Microtubule Network | Plant pathology | Scoop.it
Highlights: HopE1 interacts with the eukaryotic calcium sensor, calmodulin (CaM) •CaM activates HopE1 to target MAP65, dissociating it from the microtubule network •Arabidopsis expressing HopE1 or lacking MAP65-1 are more susceptible to P. syringae •Targeting MAP65 results in inhibition of cell wall-based extracellular immunity
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