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AGAMOUS-LIKE13, a putative ancestor for the E functional genes, specifies male and female gametophyte morphogenesis - Hsu - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

AGAMOUS-LIKE13, a putative ancestor for the E functional genes, specifies male and female gametophyte morphogenesis - Hsu - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
AGL13 Putative Ancestor for the E Genes: http://t.co/xkXfvSboWr #Arabidopsis
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The TRANSPLANTA Collection of Arabidopsis Lines: A resource for Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors based on their conditional overexpression - Coego - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Lib...

The TRANSPLANTA Collection of Arabidopsis Lines: A resource for Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors based on their conditional overexpression - Coego - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Lib... | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
i am really grateful to this AWESOME Arabidopsis collection!! http://t.co/fEw1vkWzm3
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High CO2 triggers preferential root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana ...

High CO2 triggers preferential root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana ... | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
We investigated this preferential root growth (PRG) in Arabidopsis thaliana plants cultivated under low pH/high CO2 or low nitrogen (N)/high CO2 conditions. Previous studies have suggested that changes in plant hormone, ...
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IJMS | Free Full-Text | A Dual Role of Strigolactones in Phosphate ...

IJMS | Free Full-Text | A Dual Role of Strigolactones in Phosphate ... | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal.
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BAN Ocean Phosphate Mining in... - The Petition Site

BAN Ocean Phosphate Mining in... - The Petition Site | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
Offshore phosphate mining is a dangerous and potentially deadly process posing great risk to any... (284 signatures on petition) (BAN Ocean Phosphate Mining in...
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Coordination between zinc and phosphate homeostasis involves the transcription factor PHR1, the phosphate exporter PHO1, and its homologue PHO1;H3 in Arabidopsis

Coordination between zinc and phosphate homeostasis involves the transcription factor PHR1, the phosphate exporter PHO1, and its homologue PHO1;H3 in Arabidopsis | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it

Interactions between zinc (Zn) and phosphate (Pi) nutrition in plants have long been recognized, but little information is available on their molecular bases and biological significance. This work aimed at examining the effects of Zn deficiency on Pi accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana and uncovering genes involved in the Zn-Pi synergy. Wild-type plants as well as mutants affected in Pi signalling and transport genes, namely the transcription factor PHR1, the E2-conjugase PHO2, and the Pi exporter PHO1, were examined. Zn deficiency caused an increase in shoot Pi content in the wild type as well as in the pho2 mutant, but not in the phr1 or pho1 mutants. This indicated that PHR1 and PHO1 participate in the coregulation of Zn and Pi homeostasis. Zn deprivation had a very limited effect on transcript levels of Pi-starvation-responsive genes such as AT4, IPS1, and microRNA399, or on of members of the high-affinity Pi transporter family PHT1. Interestingly, one of the PHO1 homologues, PHO1;H3, was upregulated in response to Zn deficiency. The expression pattern of PHO1 and PHO1;H3 were similar, both being expressed in cells of the root vascular cylinder and both localized to the Golgi when expressed transiently in tobacco cells. When grown in Zn-free medium, pho1;h3 mutant plants displayed higher Pi contents in the shoots than wild-type plants. This was, however, not observed in a pho1 pho1;h3 double mutant, suggesting that PHO1;H3 restricts root-to-shoot Pi transfer requiring PHO1 function for Pi homeostasis in response to Zn deficiency.

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AtERF070 Regulates Root Development and Phosphate-Starvation-Mediated-Responses

Phosphate (Pi) availability is a major factor determining growth and consequently the productivity of crops. However it is one of the least available macronutrient due to its high fixation in the rhizosphere. To overcome this constraint, plants have developed adaptive responses to better acquire, utilize and recycle Pi. Molecular determinants of these adaptive mechanisms include transcription factors (TFs) that play a major role in transcriptional control thereby regulating genome-scale networks. In this study, we have characterized the biological role of AtERF070, a Pi-starvation induced ethylene response factor belonging to AP2/ERF family of TFs in Arabidopsis thaliana. It is localized to the nucleus and induced specifically in Pi-deprived roots and shoots. RNAi mediated suppression of AtERF070 led to augmented lateral root development resulting in higher Pi accumulation. Whereas, there were reductions in both primary root length and lateral root number in 12d-old transgenic seedlings overexpressing AtERF070. When the overexpressing lines were grown to maturity under green house conditions they revealed a stunted bushy appearance that could be rescued by gibberellic acid application. Further, a number of Pi-starvation responsive genes were modulated in AtERF070 overexpressing and RNAi lines thereby suggesting a potential role for this TF in maintaining Pi homeostasis.

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Transgenic Plants that Express the Phytoplasma... [Plant Physiol. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the secreted effector protein SAP11AYWB of the Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular Pi and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and miRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that SAP11AYWB suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions.

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Nature: Low investment in sexual reproduction threatens plants adapted to phosphorus limitation

Plant species diversity in Eurasian wetlands and grasslands depends not only on productivity but also on the relative availability of nutrients, particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus. Here we show that the impacts of nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry on plant species richness can be explained by selected plant life-history traits, notably by plant investments in growth versus reproduction. In 599 Eurasian sites with herbaceous vegetation we examined the relationship between the local nutrient conditions and community-mean life-history traits. We found that compared with plants in nitrogen-limited communities, plants in phosphorus-limited communities invest little in sexual reproduction (for example, less investment in seed, shorter flowering period, longer lifespan) and have conservative leaf economy traits (that is, a low specific leaf area and a high leaf dry-matter content). Endangered species were more frequent in phosphorus-limited ecosystems and they too invested little in sexual reproduction. The results provide new insight into how plant adaptations to nutrient conditions can drive the distribution of plant species in natural ecosystems and can account for the vulnerability of endangered species.

Fujita Y, Venterink HO, van Bodegom PM, Douma JC, Heil GW, Hölzel N, Jabłońska E, Kotowski W, Okruszko T, Pawlikowski P, de Ruiter PC,Wassen MJ

Nature. 2014 Jan 2;505(7481):82-6

DOI: 10.1038/nature12733

 


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Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014)

Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014) | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it

A growing imbalance between phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer use in Africa could lead to crop yield reductions of nearly 30% by 2050... Underuse of phosphorus-based fertilizers in Africa currently contributes to a growing yield gap—the difference between how much crops could produce in ideal circumstances compared to actual yields... 

 

“This research shows that the imbalance between nitrogen and phosphorus applications has the potential to further limit food production for a growing population in Africa” says Marijn van der Velde, a researcher now at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, who led the study while working at IIASA.

 

While nitrogen-based fertilizers can be produced by a process that extracts the element from the air, phosphorus must be mined from rock—and reserves are limited. That makes phosphorus fertilizers expensive, especially in the longer term.

 

“Farmers with limited money are more likely to buy and have access to cheaper nitrogen-based fertilizers,” says van der Velde. “While this might work in the short term, in the longer term it has a negative effect on crop growth as soil nutrients become more imbalanced.” ... 

 

But fertilizer use remains very low in Africa, and to increase crop production, it is widely recognized that farmers must increase their fertilizer use. And while nitrogen-based fertilizer usage has begun to increase in Africa in the last 10 years, the application of phosphorus to cropland has not kept pace... increases in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs must happen in a way that provides crops with the balanced nutrient input they need... 

 

But because of the cost of phosphorus, that remains a challenge. ”While much of the remaining phosphorus reserves are found in Morocco, on the African continent, we need to find better ways for African farmers to access this precious resource” says van der Velde...

 

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/about/news/20140128-phosphorus-africa.html

 

Original article:  
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12481

 


Via Alexander J. Stein, Jean-Pierre Zryd
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Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, January 29, 2014 7:04 AM

Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014)

Mew's curator insight, February 9, 2014 4:35 AM

      This article is about how a continental study of soil in Africa found that fertilizer usage is imbalanced, currently causing reductions in crop yields of around 10% compared to optimal circumstances. Farmers in Africa generally do not have money to buy expensive phosphorus-based fertilizer, so instead they only use nitrogen-based fertilizer. Using solely nitrogen-based fertilizer in the short term is acceptable, but over time it changes the nutrient balance causing less fertile land; both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer need to be used.

      This article helps me to understand Africa because the textbook only talks about the impact of water accessibility on agriculture. It is widely accepted that fertilizer helps to bolster crop growth. Before, I was not aware that there were two types of plant fertilizer. This study is extremely important to Africans because most Africans are farmers. Farming is the most important economic activity in Africa so this find helps to justify spending upon phosphorus fertilizer as well.

      My opinion is that this study is useful for all farmers. Before, local and national surveys were conducted but this is the first continental study. Perhaps, because most of the phosphorus mined in Africa originates from Morocco, the country of Morocco could collaborate with other countries that rely upon agriculture. Government spending on behalf of the farmers would be well justified because this effect will continue to compound if no more phosphorus-based fertilizer were used along with nitrogen fertilizer.

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Aberrant gene expression in the Arabidopsis SULTR1;2 mutants suggests a possible regulatory role for this sulfate transporter in response to sulfur nutrient status - Zhang - 2013 - The Plant Journa...

Aberrant gene expression in the Arabidopsis SULTR1;2 mutants suggests a possible regulatory role for this sulfate transporter in response to sulfur nutrient status - Zhang - 2013 - The Plant Journa... | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
Article exploring sulfur nutrient sensor: http://t.co/uu7TguMV5P #Arabidopsis
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SKB1/PRMT5-mediated histone H4R3 dimethylation of Ib subgroup bHLH genes negatively regulates iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana - Fan - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

SKB1/PRMT5-mediated histone H4R3 dimethylation of Ib subgroup bHLH genes negatively regulates iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana - Fan - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
From Vol. 77, Issue 2, article discussing how SKB1 is involved in iron homeostasis: http://t.co/kZvNbmotLz #Arabidopsis
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Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - EurekAlert (press release)

Nature World News Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa EurekAlert (press release) Underuse of phosphorus-based fertilizers in Africa currently contributes to a growing yield gap—the difference between how much crops...
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Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism

A review of normal calcium and phosphate homeostasis, including discussion of vitamin D metabolism and the actions of PTH, as well as brief mention of the ne...
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miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula - The Plant Journal

miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula - The Plant Journal | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it

The root system is crucial for the acquisition of resources from the soil. In legumes, the efficiency of mineral and water uptake by the roots may be reinforced due to the establishment of symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi and interactions with soil rhizobia. Here, we investigated the role of miR396 in regulating the architecture of the root system and in symbiotic interactions in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Promoter–GUS analyses suggested that the two mtr-miR396a and miR396b genes are highly expressed in root tips, preferentially in the transition zone, and display distinct expression profiles during lateral root and nodule development. Transgenic roots of composite plants that overexpress the miR396b precursor showed lower expression of 6 Growth Regulating Factors (MtGRF) and 2 bHLH79-like targets as well as reduced growth and mycorrhizal associations. In contrast, miR396 inactivation by mimicry caused contrasting tendencies, with increased target expression, higher root biomass and a more efficient colonisation by AM fungi. In contrast to MtbHLH79, repression of three different GRF targets by RNA interference severely impaired root growth. Early activation of mtr-miR396b, concomitant with a post-transcriptional repression of MtGRF5 expression, was also observed in response to exogenous brassinosteroids. Growth limitation in miR396-OE roots correlated with a reduction of cell-cycle gene expression and the number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem. These results link the miR396 network to the regulation of root growth and mycorrhizal associations in plants.


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Overexpression of miR160 affects root growth and nitrogen-fixing nodule number in Medicago truncatula

Overexpression of miR160 affects root growth and nitrogen-fixing nodule number in Medicago truncatula | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it

 

Auxin action is mediated by a complex signalling pathway involving transcription factors of the auxin response factor (ARF) family. In Arabidopsis, microRNA160 (miR160) negatively regulates three ARF genes (ARF10/ARF16/ARF17) and therefore controls several developmental processes, including primary and lateral root growth. Here, we analysed the role of miR160 in root development and nodulation in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. Bioinformatic analyses identified two main mtr-miR160 variants (mtr-miR160abde and mtr-miR160c) and 17 predicted ARF targets. The miR160-dependent cleavage of four predicted targets in roots was confirmed by analysis of parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) data and RACE-PCR experiments. Promoter-GUS analyses for mtr-miR160d and mtr-miR160c genes revealed overlapping but distinct expression profiles during root and nodule development. In addition, the early miR160 activation in roots during symbiotic interaction was not observed in mutants of the nodulation signalling or autoregulation pathways. Composite plants that overexpressed mtr-miR160a under two different promoters exhibited distinct defects in root growth and nodulation: the p35S:miR160a construct led to reduced root length associated to a severe disorganisation of the RAM, whereas pCsVMV:miR160a roots showed gravitropism defects and lower nodule numbers. Our results suggest that a regulatory loop involving miR160/ARFs governs root and nodule organogenesis in M. truncatula.

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miR444a has multiple functions in rice nitrate-signaling pathway - Yan - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

miR444a has multiple functions in rice nitrate-signaling pathway - Yan - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
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Coordination between zinc and phosphate homeostasis involves the transcription factor PHR1, the phosphate exporter PHO1, and its homologue PHO1;H3 in Arabidopsis

Coordination between zinc and phosphate homeostasis involves the transcription factor PHR1, the phosphate exporter PHO1, and its homologue PHO1;H3 in Arabidopsis | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it

Interactions between zinc (Zn) and phosphate (Pi) nutrition in plants have long been recognized, but little information is available on their molecular bases and biological significance. This work aimed at examining the effects of Zn deficiency on Pi accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana and uncovering genes involved in the Zn-Pi synergy. Wild-type plants as well as mutants affected in Pi signalling and transport genes, namely the transcription factor PHR1, the E2-conjugase PHO2, and the Pi exporter PHO1, were examined. Zn deficiency caused an increase in shoot Pi content in the wild type as well as in the pho2 mutant, but not in the phr1 or pho1 mutants. This indicated that PHR1 and PHO1 participate in the coregulation of Zn and Pi homeostasis. Zn deprivation had a very limited effect on transcript levels of Pi-starvation-responsive genes such as AT4, IPS1, and microRNA399, or on of members of the high-affinity Pi transporter family PHT1. Interestingly, one of the PHO1 homologues, PHO1;H3, was upregulated in response to Zn deficiency. The expression pattern of PHO1 and PHO1;H3 were similar, both being expressed in cells of the root vascular cylinder and both localized to the Golgi when expressed transiently in tobacco cells. When grown in Zn-free medium, pho1;h3 mutant plants displayed higher Pi contents in the shoots than wild-type plants. This was, however, not observed in a pho1 pho1;h3 double mutant, suggesting that PHO1;H3 restricts root-to-shoot Pi transfer requiring PHO1 function for Pi homeostasis in response to Zn deficiency.

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Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014)

Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014) | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it

A growing imbalance between phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer use in Africa could lead to crop yield reductions of nearly 30% by 2050... Underuse of phosphorus-based fertilizers in Africa currently contributes to a growing yield gap—the difference between how much crops could produce in ideal circumstances compared to actual yields... 

 

“This research shows that the imbalance between nitrogen and phosphorus applications has the potential to further limit food production for a growing population in Africa” says Marijn van der Velde, a researcher now at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, who led the study while working at IIASA.

 

While nitrogen-based fertilizers can be produced by a process that extracts the element from the air, phosphorus must be mined from rock—and reserves are limited. That makes phosphorus fertilizers expensive, especially in the longer term.

 

“Farmers with limited money are more likely to buy and have access to cheaper nitrogen-based fertilizers,” says van der Velde. “While this might work in the short term, in the longer term it has a negative effect on crop growth as soil nutrients become more imbalanced.” ... 

 

But fertilizer use remains very low in Africa, and to increase crop production, it is widely recognized that farmers must increase their fertilizer use. And while nitrogen-based fertilizer usage has begun to increase in Africa in the last 10 years, the application of phosphorus to cropland has not kept pace... increases in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs must happen in a way that provides crops with the balanced nutrient input they need... 

 

But because of the cost of phosphorus, that remains a challenge. ”While much of the remaining phosphorus reserves are found in Morocco, on the African continent, we need to find better ways for African farmers to access this precious resource” says van der Velde...

 

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/about/news/20140128-phosphorus-africa.html

 

Original article:  
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12481

 


Via Alexander J. Stein, Jean-Pierre Zryd
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Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, January 29, 2014 7:04 AM

Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014)

Mew's curator insight, February 9, 2014 4:35 AM

      This article is about how a continental study of soil in Africa found that fertilizer usage is imbalanced, currently causing reductions in crop yields of around 10% compared to optimal circumstances. Farmers in Africa generally do not have money to buy expensive phosphorus-based fertilizer, so instead they only use nitrogen-based fertilizer. Using solely nitrogen-based fertilizer in the short term is acceptable, but over time it changes the nutrient balance causing less fertile land; both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer need to be used.

      This article helps me to understand Africa because the textbook only talks about the impact of water accessibility on agriculture. It is widely accepted that fertilizer helps to bolster crop growth. Before, I was not aware that there were two types of plant fertilizer. This study is extremely important to Africans because most Africans are farmers. Farming is the most important economic activity in Africa so this find helps to justify spending upon phosphorus fertilizer as well.

      My opinion is that this study is useful for all farmers. Before, local and national surveys were conducted but this is the first continental study. Perhaps, because most of the phosphorus mined in Africa originates from Morocco, the country of Morocco could collaborate with other countries that rely upon agriculture. Government spending on behalf of the farmers would be well justified because this effect will continue to compound if no more phosphorus-based fertilizer were used along with nitrogen fertilizer.

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First nutrient-enriched GM crops could be grown in the UK within months

First nutrient-enriched GM crops could be grown in the UK within months | Plant nutrition | Scoop.it
A genetically modified crop boosted with a dietary supplement could be grown for the first time in Britain as early as this year following a request by scientists to conduct a controversial field trial at a heavily-protected research site in...

Via Valerio Hoyos-Villegas
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