Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis
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Phosphorylation of the Polarity Protein BASL Differentiates Asymmetric Cell Fate through MAPKs and SPCH

Phosphorylation of the Polarity Protein BASL Differentiates Asymmetric Cell Fate through MAPKs and SPCH | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
BASL is polarized premitotically and inherited to the large daughter cells after a
stomatal asymmetric division. Zhang et al. show that polarized BASL distinguishes
two daughter cells by elevating nuclear MAPK activity to suppress SPCH. FRAP assays
reveal that intracellular mobility of polarized BASL is tightly related to its phosphorylation
status.
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A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics

A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
A pathway that integrates oxygen and potassium levels to modulate root hydraulics
allows plants to survive flooding.
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Quiescent center initiation in the Arabidopsis lateral root primordia is dependent on the SCARECROW transcription factor

Quiescent center initiation in the Arabidopsis lateral root primordia is dependent on the SCARECROW transcription factor | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Lateral root (LR) formation is an important determinant of root system architecture. In Arabidopsis , LRs originate from pericycle cells, which undergo a programme of morphogenesis to generate a new LR meristem. Despite its importance for root meristem organisation, the onset of organizing center (termed quiescent center; QC) formation during LR morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we used live 3D confocal imaging to monitor cell organization and identity acquisition during LR development. Our dynamic observations revealed an early morphogenesis phase and a late meristem formation phase as proposed in the bi-phasic growth model described by Sussex and co-workers. LR QC establishment coincided with this developmental phase transition. QC precursor cells originated from the outer layer of stage II LR primordia, within which the SCARECROW ( SCR ) transcription factor was specifically expressed. Disrupting SCR function abolished periclinal divisions in this LR primordia cell layer and perturbed the formation of QC precursor cells . We conclude that de novo QC establishment in LR primordia operates via SCR-mediated formative cell division and coincides with the developmental phase transition.
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RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation

RALFL34 regulates formative cell divisions in Arabidopsis pericycle during lateral root initiation | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Cellulose-Microtubule Uncoupling Proteins Prevent Lateral Displacement of Microtubules during Cellulose Synthesis in Arabidopsis

Cellulose-Microtubule Uncoupling Proteins Prevent Lateral Displacement of Microtubules during Cellulose Synthesis in Arabidopsis | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is synthesized at the plasma
membrane of plant cells. Liu and co-workers reveal how a microtubule-localized protein
family, the CMUs, can control the movement of the protein complex that produces cellulose,
which is essential for directed plant cell growth.
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ENDOSOMAL RAB EFFECTOR WITH PX-DOMAIN, an interacting partner of RAB5 GTPases, regulates membrane trafficking to protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis

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Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis: Current Biology

Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis: Current Biology | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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A Mechanical Feedback Restricts Sepal Growth and Shape in Arabidopsis: Current Biology

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Force-Driven Polymerization and Turgor-Induced Wall Expansion: Trends in Plant Science

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Adaptation of Root Function by Nutrient-Induced Plasticity of Endodermal Differentiation: Cell

Adaptation of Root Function by Nutrient-Induced Plasticity of Endodermal Differentiation: Cell | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Seedlings Transduce the Depth and Mechanical Pressure of Covering Soil Using COP1 and Ethylene to Regulate EBF1/EBF2 for Soil Emergence: Current Biology

Seedlings Transduce the Depth and Mechanical Pressure of Covering Soil Using COP1 and Ethylene to Regulate EBF1/EBF2 for Soil Emergence: Current Biology | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Dynamic control of lateral root positioning

Dynamic control of lateral root positioning | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Excellent review about LR positioning from the Beeckman lab
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Plant development regulated by cytokinin sinks

Plant development regulated by cytokinin sinks | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Morphogenetic signals control the patterning of multicellular organisms. Cytokinins are mobile signals that are perceived by subsets of plant cells. We found that the responses to cytokinin signaling during Arabidopsis development are constrained by the transporter PURINE PERMEASE 14 (PUP14). In our experiments, the expression of PUP14 was inversely correlated to the cytokinin signaling readout. Loss of PUP14 function allowed ectopic cytokinin signaling accompanied by aberrant morphogenesis in embryos, roots, and the shoot apical meristem. PUP14 protein localized to the plasma membrane and imported bioactive cytokinins, thus depleting apoplastic cytokinin pools and inhibiting perception by plasma membrane–localized cytokinin sensors to create a sink for active ligands. We propose that the spatiotemporal cytokinin sink patterns established by PUP14 determine the cytokinin signaling landscape that shapes the morphogenesis of land plants.
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Very insightful paper from Bruno Müller's group
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Plastid osmotic stress influences cell differentiation at the plant shoot apex

Plastid osmotic stress influences cell differentiation at the plant shoot apex | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
The balance between proliferation and differentiation in the plant shoot apical meristem is controlled by regulatory loops involving the phytohormone cytokinin and stem cell identity genes. Concurrently, cellular differentiation in the developing shoot is coordinated with the environmental and developmental status of plastids within those cells. Here we employ an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant exhibiting constitutive plastid osmotic stress to investigate the molecular and genetic pathways connecting plastid osmotic stress with cell differentiation at the shoot apex. msl2 msl3 mutants exhibit dramatically enlarged and deformed plastids in the shoot apical meristem, and develop a mass of callus tissue at the shoot apex. Callus production in this mutant requires the cytokinin receptor AHK2 and is characterized by increased cytokinin levels, down-regulation of cytokinin signaling inhibitors ARR7 and ARR15, and induction of the stem cell identity gene WUSCHEL . Furthermore, plastid stress-induced apical callus production requires elevated plastidic ROS, ABA biosynthesis, the retrograde signaling protein GUN1, and ABI4. These results are consistent with a model wherein the cytokinin/WUS pathway and retrograde signaling control cell differentiation at the shoot apex.
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The impact of mechanical compression on cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis: a quantitative pipeline - Louveaux - 2016 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

The impact of mechanical compression on cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis: a quantitative pipeline - Louveaux - 2016 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Mapping the subcellular mechanical properties of live cells in tissues with fluorescence emission–Brillouin imaging

Mapping the subcellular mechanical properties of live cells in tissues with fluorescence emission–Brillouin imaging | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Mechanical properties of cells and the matrix that surrounds them contribute to cell shape, control cell migration, and regulate cell growth. Elsayad et al. engineered a microscope system that integrated fluorescence emission detection with detection of a light-scattering process called the Brillouin frequency shift and called the method fluorescence emission–Brillouin scattering imaging (FBi). With this optical approach, the authors showed that the mechanical properties of live plants can be visualized at the submicrometer scale and demonstrated that this approach can be used to investigate regulatory events that alter cellular and extracellular mechanical properties of living cells within tissues. This work also revealed that the cytoplasm near the cell membrane and the extracellular matrix are regions of locally increased stiffness and showed that the sides parallel to the growth axis of an expanding plant hypocotyl, but not root, cells are “stiffer” than the sides perpendicular to the growth axis. Thus, FBi is another tool in the microscopy toolkit for exploring properties of cells and tissues.
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Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-like Cells

Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-like Cells | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Perinuclear Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization enables nuclear deformation to facilitate cell migration through complex environments : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Perinuclear Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization enables nuclear deformation to facilitate cell migration through complex environments : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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Single-Cell Analysis of Growth in Budding Yeast and Bacteria Reveals a Common Size Regulation Strategy: Current Biology

Single-Cell Analysis of Growth in Budding Yeast and Bacteria Reveals a Common Size Regulation Strategy: Current Biology | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
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A phosphoinositide conversion mechanism for exit from endosomes : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

A phosphoinositide conversion mechanism for exit from endosomes : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Phosphoinositides are a minor class of short-lived membrane phospholipids that serve crucial functions in cell physiology ranging from cell signalling and motility to their role as signposts of compartmental membrane identity. Phosphoinositide 4-phosphates such as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) are concentrated at the plasma membrane, on secretory organelles, and on lysosomes, whereas phosphoinositide 3-phosphates, most notably phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), are a hallmark of the endosomal system. Directional membrane traffic between endosomal and secretory compartments, although inherently complex, therefore requires regulated phosphoinositide conversion. The molecular mechanism underlying this conversion of phosphoinositide identity during cargo exit from endosomes by exocytosis is unknown. Here we report that surface delivery of endosomal cargo requires hydrolysis of PI(3)P by the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatase MTM1, an enzyme whose loss of function leads to X-linked centronuclear myopathy (also called myotubular myopathy) in humans. Removal of endosomal PI(3)P by MTM1 is accompanied by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase-2α (PI4K2α)-dependent generation of PI(4)P and recruitment of the exocyst tethering complex to enable membrane fusion. Our data establish a mechanism for phosphoinositide conversion from PI(3)P to PI(4)P at endosomes en route to the plasma membrane and suggest that defective phosphoinositide conversion at endosomes underlies X-linked centronuclear myopathy caused by mutation of MTM1 in humans.
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Nanoscale optomechanical actuators for controlling mechanotransduction in living cells : Nature Methods : Nature Publishing Group

Nanoscale optomechanical actuators for controlling mechanotransduction in living cells : Nature Methods : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis | Scoop.it
Nanoscale optomechanical actuators for controlling mechanotransduction in living cells
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