Plant Molecular Farming
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Plant Molecular Farming
A news site for the activities of members of the International Society for Plant Molecular Farming, as well as for papers of interest in the field
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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iBio Expands Product Development Capacity of cGMP Plant

iBio Expands Product Development Capacity of cGMP Plant | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
NEW YORK, NY -- (Marketwired) -- 11/10/16 -- iBio, Inc. (NYSE MKT: IBIO), a leading provider of plant-based biotechnology for developing and manufacturing biological products, announced completion of expanded product development capacity of its subsidiary, iBio CMO LLC, for the production of pharmaceutical proteins in hydroponically-grown green plants. This expansion enables iBio CMO's use of iBio proprietary technologies to conduct concurrent product development work for multiple clients in multiple product classes with time-saving transitions from laboratory-level feasibility and testing through cGMP production of active pharmaceutical ingredients for toxicology studies and phase 1 human clinical trials.

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Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum

Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the ‘one-step’ BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies.
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Now how about Bean yellow dwarf virus? Must try that....
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Making protective antibodies and other therapeutics in edible plant tissues for oral applications

Making protective antibodies and other therapeutics in edible plant tissues for oral applications | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Although plant expression systems used for production of therapeutic proteins have the advantage of being scalable at a low price, the downstream processing necessary to obtain pure therapeutic molecules is as expensive as for the traditional Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) platforms. However, when edible plant tissues (EPTs) are used, there is no need for exhaustive purification, because they can be delivered orally as partially purified formulations that are safe for consumption. This economic benefit is especially interesting when high doses of recombinant proteins are required throughout the treatment/prophylaxis period, as is the case for antibodies used for oral passive immunization (OPI). The secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, which are highly abundant in the digestive tract and mucosal secretions, and thus the first choice for OPI, have only been successfully produced in plant expression systems. Here, we cover most of the up-to-date examples of EPT-produced pharmaceuticals, including two examples of SIgA aimed at oral delivery. We describe the benefits and drawbacks of delivering partially purified formulations and discuss a number of practical considerations and criteria to take into account when using plant expression systems, such as subcellular targeting, protein degradation, glycosylation patterns and downstream strategies, all crucial for improved yield, high quality and low cost of the final product.
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Chloroplast-made booster vaccine to confer immunity against different poliovirus serotypes

Chloroplast-made booster vaccine to confer immunity against different poliovirus serotypes | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
The WHO recommends complete withdrawal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) type 2 by April 2016 globally and replacing with at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). However, high-cost, limited supply of IPV, persistent circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses transmission and need for subsequent boosters remain unresolved. To meet this critical need, a novel strategy of a low-cost cold chain-free plant-made viral protein 1 (VP1) subunit oral booster vaccine after single IPV dose is reported. Codon optimization of the VP1 gene enhanced expression by 50-fold in chloroplasts. Oral boosting of VP1 expressed in plant cells with plant-derived adjuvants after single priming with IPV significantly increased VP1-IgG1 and VP1-IgA titres when compared to lower IgG1 or negligible IgA titres with IPV injections. IgA plays a pivotal role in polio eradication because of its transmission through contaminated water or sewer systems. Neutralizing antibody titres (~3.17–10.17 log2 titre) and seropositivity (70–90%) against all three poliovirus Sabin serotypes were observed with two doses of IPV and plant-cell oral boosters but single dose of IPV resulted in poor neutralization. Lyophilized plant cells expressing VP1 stored at ambient temperature maintained efficacy and preserved antigen folding/assembly indefinitely, thereby eliminating cold chain currently required for all vaccines. Replacement of OPV with this booster vaccine and the next steps in clinical translation of FDA-approved antigens and adjuvants are discussed.
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Bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and fungal uptake of external RNAs confer plant protection

Bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and fungal uptake of external RNAs confer plant protection | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. cause severe crop losses worldwide. We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc–sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. Such sRNA effectors are mostly produced by Botrytis cinerea Dicer-like protein 1 (Bc-DCL1) and Bc-DCL2. Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi. This strategy can be adapted to simultaneously control multiple fungal diseases. We also show that Botrytis can take up external sRNAs and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Applying sRNAs or dsRNAs that target Botrytis DCL1 and DCL2 genes on the surface of fruits, vegetables and flowers significantly inhibits grey mould disease. Such pathogen gene-targeting RNAs represent a new generation of environmentally friendly fungicides.

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A Breakthrough in Monocot Transformation Methods

The ability to generate transgenic plants without regard to cultivar or genotype can be considered a holy grail of cereal crop transformation. Despite years of effort, it has been remarkably difficult to develop efficient methods for transformation of cereals. The preferred methods generally involve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cultured tissue or immature embryos, followed by callus culture to regenerate plants (reviewed in Shrawat and Lörz, 2006). Unfortunately, the capacity of Agrobacterium to infect monocots is limited to a narrow range of genotypes and the utility of the technique is further limited by the recalcitrance of many genotypes to callus formation and regeneration. A Breakthrough Report from Lowe et al. (2016) describes an exciting new approach to boost monocot transformation rates in a broad range of genotypes.
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Plant-based vaccine among front runners in search for new polio jab

Plant-based vaccine among front runners in search for new polio jab | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it

A researcher from Norwich is part of a consortium that has been awarded $1.5 million to develop safer polio vaccines, using a new technique developed at the John Innes Centre. The fight against polio has been one of the great success stories of modern medicine, with the disease already eliminated in much of the world. However, current immunisation programmes use attenuated ‘live’ or ‘killed’ virus vaccines, both of which carry a risk of live virus escaping back into the wild. Now, Professor George Lomonossoff of the John Innes Centre, together with his PhD student Johanna Marsian, are part of a University of Leeds-led research project “Generation of Virus Free Polio Vaccine”; the project aims to develop ways of constructing vaccines without using the live virus and exploring different methods for their production. This grant from the World Health Organisation will fund the next phase of the study to find out which technique is most suitable for large-scale manufacture and world-wide distribution. Professor David Rowlands, of the University of Leeds’ Faculty of Biological Sciences, who leads the project together with Professor Nicola Stonehouse, said: “We know that our approaches create stable vaccines that are effective against the virus in the lab. The next stage is to show how they can be manufactured cost effectively on the scale needed to replace the current vaccines. The fundamental challenge is to build protein shells that are the same as the virus’ but that do not have any of the genetic material of the virus. “Until now, the problem with this approach to developing a new polio vaccine has been that, though we’ve been able to create these empty virus-like particles (VLPs), they have been significantly less stable than the complete virus and were therefore not suitable for making vaccines. Our research has developed methods of building the genome-free particles for all three types of the virus with the stability we need.”

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Go go Jo-Jo...B-) And Comrade President George, of course!
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Tomatoes with virus attract bees

Tomatoes with virus attract bees | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it

Plant scientists at the University of Cambridge have found that the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) alters gene expression in the tomato plants it infects, causing changes to the scent emitted by the plants. Bees can smell these subtle changes, and glasshouse experiments have shown that bumblebees prefer infected plants over healthy ones. 

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Scalable Production of HPV16 L1 Protein and VLPs from Tobacco Leaves

Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy among women particularly in developing countries, with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 causing 50% of invasive cervical cancers. A plant-based HPV vaccine is an alternative to the currently available virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, and would be much less expensive. We optimized methods to express HPV16 L1 protein and purify VLPs from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves transfected with the magnICON deconstructed viral vector expression system. L1 proteins were extracted from agro-infiltrated leaves using a series of pH and salt mediated buffers. Expression levels of L1 proteins and VLPs were verified by immunoblot and ELISA, which confirmed the presence of sequential and conformational epitopes, respectively. Among three constructs tested (16L1d22, TPL1d22, and TPL1F), TPL1F, containing a full-length L1 and chloroplast transit peptide, was best. Extraction of HPV16 L1 from leaf tissue was most efficient (> 2.5% of total soluble protein) with a low-salt phosphate buffer. VLPs were purified using both cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient and size exclusion chromatography. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the presence of assembled forms of HPV16 L1 VLPs. Collectively; our results indicated that chloroplast-targeted transient expression in tobacco plants is promising for the production of a cheap, efficacious HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine. Studies are underway to develop plant VLPs for the production of a cervical cancer vaccine.

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Novel 'repair system' discovered in algae may yield new tools for biotechnology

Novel 'repair system' discovered in algae may yield new tools for biotechnology | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
A new way of fixing inactive proteins has been discovered in an algae, which uses chloroplast extracts and light to release an interrupting sequence from a protein.
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Key to plant’s ability to sense electric fields discovered, could lead to a better understanding of Ebola virus

Key to plant’s ability to sense electric fields discovered, could lead to a better understanding of Ebola virus | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it

One of the key indicators of Parkinson’s disease is the accumulation of α-synuclein, resulting in the formation of both Lewy bodies and neurites. One of the key goals of researchers is to understand the specific mechanisms that result in this α-synuclein accumulation, which has long been poorly understood, until now. In an article published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers have discovered that abnormal hyperactivity of tyrosine kinase c-Abl critically regulates α-synuclein, causing an increase in both the amount of α-synuclein and the aggregation of α-synuclein. Plants communicate with each other in a number of different ways, one of them being through electric signals. Much like how the human body uses electrical signals to communicate throughout the body, leaves also send electrical signals to other areas of the plant. However, the molecular tools used to receive such signals have long been a mystery, until now. In a recent article published in Plant Biology, researchers have identified the exact part of TPC1, a cation channel, responsible for acting as a sensor for electric fields. A 3-D model of the TPC1 protein was created , showing that the TPC1 protein is made of two interconnected protein units. Subsequent evolutionary analysis identified the second unit of TPC1 as a strong candidate since it has been highly conserved across all organisms over millions of years. Mutational analysis provided the final clue, showing that plants that carried the mutation in that subunit lost their ability to respond to electric fields. How does TPC1 and its voltage sensor activity tie into Ebola Research? It was recently found that the Ebola virus requires both TPC1 and TPC2 during host cell entry. This discovery has lead to the idea that the TPC proteins could be an effective target for therapy. With this new information how TPC1 functions in plants, researchers are hopeful that it will lead to new insights into the infection path of Ebola and a possible way to interfere with the infections path, through TPC1.

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Yah. Um. No. No, it will tell us very little about Ebola.
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One striking chart shows why pharma companies are fighting legal marijuana

One striking chart shows why pharma companies are fighting legal marijuana | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
New research shows a dramatic drop in painkiller prescriptions after medical marijuana laws are passed.
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How trees talk to each other

How trees talk to each other | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
"A forest is much more than what you see," says ecologist Suzanne Simard. Her 30 years of research in Canadian forests have led to an astounding discovery -- trees talk, often and over vast distances. Learn more about the harmonious yet complicated social lives of trees and prepare to see the natural world with new eyes.
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Furin expression in N benthamiana leads to efficient processing of latent transforming growth factor-β1

Furin expression in N benthamiana leads to efficient processing of latent transforming growth factor-β1 | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a signalling molecule that plays a key role in developmental and immunological processes in mammals. Three TGF-β isoforms exist in humans, and each isoform has unique therapeutic potential. Plants offer a platform for the production of recombinant proteins, which is cheap and easy to scale up and has a low risk of contamination with human pathogens. TGF-β3 has been produced in plants before using a chloroplast expression system. However, this strategy requires chemical refolding to obtain a biologically active protein. In this study, we investigated the possibility to transiently express active human TGF-β1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We successfully expressed mature TGF-β1 in the absence of the latency-associated peptide (LAP) using different strategies, but the obtained proteins were inactive. Upon expression of LAP-TGF-β1, we were able to show that processing of the latent complex by a furin-like protease does not occur in planta. The use of a chitinase signal peptide enhanced the expression and secretion of LAP-TGF-β1, and co-expression of human furin enabled the proteolytic processing of latent TGF-β1. Engineering the plant post-translational machinery by co-expressing human furin also enhanced the accumulation of biologically active TGF-β1. This engineering step is quite remarkable, as furin requires multiple processing steps and correct localization within the secretory pathway to become active. Our data demonstrate that plants can be a suitable platform for the production of complex proteins that rely on specific proteolytic processing.
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Production of human glucocerebrosidase in glyco-engineered Nicotiana benthamiana plants

Production of human glucocerebrosidase in glyco-engineered Nicotiana benthamiana plants | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
For the production of therapeutic proteins in plants, the presence of β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose on plants’ N-glycan structures has been debated for their antigenic activity. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to down-regulate the endogenous N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GNTI) expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. One glyco-engineered line (NbGNTI-RNAi) showed a strong reduction of plant-specific N-glycans, with the result that as much as 90.9% of the total N-glycans were of high-mannose type. Therefore, this NbGNTI-RNAi would be a promising system for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins in plants. The NbGNTI-RNAi plant was cross-pollinated with transgenic N. benthamiana expressing human glucocerebrosidase (GC). The recombinant GC, which has been used for enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Gaucher's disease, requires terminal mannose for its therapeutic efficacy. The N-glycan structures that were presented on all of the four occupied N-glycosylation sites of recombinant GC in NbGNTI-RNAi plants (GCgnt1) showed that the majority (ranging from 73.3% up to 85.5%) of the N-glycans had mannose-type structures lacking potential immunogenic β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose epitopes. Moreover, GCgnt1 could be taken up into the macrophage cells via mannose receptors, and distributed and taken up into the liver and spleen, the target organs in the treatment of Gaucher's disease. Notably, the NbGNTI-RNAi line, producing GC, was stable and the NbGNTI-RNAi plants were viable and did not show any obvious phenotype. Therefore, it would provide a robust tool for the production of GC with customized N-glycan structures.
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A platform for the effective management of biological contaminants for the production of microalgae

A platform for the effective management of biological contaminants for the production of microalgae | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Microalgal cultivation that takes advantage of solar energy is one of the most cost-effective systems for the biotechnological production of biofuels, and a range of high value products, including pharmaceuticals, fertilizers and feed. However, one of the main constraints for the cultivation of microalgae is the potential contamination with biological pollutants, such as bacteria, fungi, zooplankton or other undesirable microalgae. In closed bioreactors, the control of contamination requires the sterilization of the media, containers and all materials, which increases the cost of production, whereas open pond systems severely limits the number of species that can be cultivated under extreme environmental conditions to prevent contaminations. Here, we report the metabolic engineering of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to use phosphite as its sole phosphorus source by expressing the ptxD gene from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88, which encodes a phosphite oxidoreductase able to oxidize phosphite into phosphate using NAD as a cofactor. Engineered C. reinhardtii lines are capable of becoming the dominant species in a mixed culture when fertilized with phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Our results represent a new platform for the production of microalgae, potentially useful for both closed photobioreactors and open pond systems without the need for using sterile conditions nor antibiotics or herbicides to prevent contamination with biological pollutants.
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Vegan diet led prehistoric cave bear to extinction

Vegan diet led prehistoric cave bear to extinction | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Analysis of the bones and teeth of prehistoric cave bears that roamed Europe during the last ice age has revealed the giant beasts, which could weigh up to a ton, may have been strict vegans.
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Production of a tumour-targeting MAb with humanised glycosylation in plant hairy root cultures

Production of a tumour-targeting MAb with humanised glycosylation in plant hairy root cultures | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Hairy root (HR) cultures derived from Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation of plant tissues are an advantageous biotechnological manufacturing platform due to the accumulation of recombinant proteins in an otherwise largely protein free culture medium. In this context, HRs descending from transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants were successfully used for the production of several functional mAbs with plant-type glycans. Here, we expressed the tumor-targeting monoclonal antibody mAb H10 in HRs obtained either by infecting a transgenic N. tabacum line expressing H10 with A. rhizogenes or a glyco-engineered N. benthamiana line (ΔXTFT) with recombinant A. rhizogenes carrying mAb H10 heavy and light chain cDNAs. Selected HR clones derived from both plants accumulated mAb H10 in the culture medium with similar yields (2–3 mg/L). N-glycosylation profiles of antibodies purified from HR supernatant revealed the presence of plant-typical complex structures for N. tabacum-derived mAb H10 and of GnGn structures lacking xylose and fucose for the ΔXTFT-derived counterpart. Both antibody glyco-formats exhibited comparable antigen binding activities. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the co-infection of ΔXTFT Nicotiana benthamiana with recombinant A. rhizogenes is an efficient procedure for the generation of stable HR cultures expressing the tumor-targeting mAb H10 with a human-compatible glycosylation profile, thus representing an important step towards the exploitation of root cultures for the production of ‘next generation’ human therapeutic antibodies.
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Chloroplast-made booster vaccine to confer immunity against different poliovirus serotypes

Chloroplast-made booster vaccine to confer immunity against different poliovirus serotypes | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
The WHO recommends complete withdrawal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) type 2 by April 2016 globally and replacing with at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). However, high-cost, limited supply of IPV, persistent circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses transmission and need for subsequent boosters remain unresolved. To meet this critical need, a novel strategy of a low-cost cold chain-free plant-made viral protein 1 (VP1) subunit oral booster vaccine after single IPV dose is reported. Codon optimization of the VP1 gene enhanced expression by 50-fold in chloroplasts. Oral boosting of VP1 expressed in plant cells with plant-derived adjuvants after single priming with IPV significantly increased VP1-IgG1 and VP1-IgA titres when compared to lower IgG1 or negligible IgA titres with IPV injections. IgA plays a pivotal role in polio eradication because of its transmission through contaminated water or sewer systems. Neutralizing antibody titres (~3.17–10.17 log2 titre) and seropositivity (70–90%) against all three poliovirus Sabin serotypes were observed with two doses of IPV and plant-cell oral boosters but single dose of IPV resulted in poor neutralization. Lyophilized plant cells expressing VP1 stored at ambient temperature maintained efficacy and preserved antigen folding/assembly indefinitely, thereby eliminating cold chain currently required for all vaccines. Replacement of OPV with this booster vaccine and the next steps in clinical translation of FDA-approved antigens and adjuvants are discussed.
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Large DNA viruses in mosses

Large DNA viruses in mosses | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Little by little, the recently discovered large DNA viruses are revealing their secrets. For the first time, researchers from INRA Versailles-Grignon and CNRS have shown that gene transfer from these viruses occurred in the genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens. This phenomenon can be explained by genes being transferred during an infection.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Interesting stuff - and something I'd missed until now, until John Bryant pointed me in the right direction.  Interesting, because I don't think the "researchers" mentioned have the right end of the stick as far as why giant virus DNA is not found in so-called higher or vasculated plants.  I have postulated this elsewhere, but it bears repetition here: there are NO dsNA viruses of higher plants that do not have a single-stranded NA stage in their lifecycle.
Seriously: none. And why is that, you ask? It is really quite simple: dsNAs (RNA or DNA) are too rigid and too wide to pass through plasmodesmata, while ssRNA or DNA can do so quite successfully - albeit with the help of retreaded chaperonins and plasmodesmatal transport proteins, now become movement proteins.
And mosses, of course, have no long-distance transport vessels - making them much more similar to multicellular marine algae - some of which do have large dsDNA viruses.
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Proudly Made with GMOs

Proudly Made with GMOs | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Proudly Made with GMOs As a society, we struggle to satisfy the global demand for food. One in nine people across the globe suffer from hunger, and in order to keep pace with the rate o
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Vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer 

Vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer  | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it
Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The ‘in situ vaccination’ immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic antitumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic antitumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the antitumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic antitumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.

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Cool. Very cool B-)
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UCT BRU - Fraunhofer IME Plant Cell Pack Workshop 2015

UCT BRU - Fraunhofer IME Plant Cell Pack Workshop 2015 | Plant Molecular Farming | Scoop.it

This is a video made during the Plant Cell Pack (aka 'cookie") Workshop held at the University of Cape Town in December 2015, and which is being replicated due to popular demand elsewhere. Courtesy of Belinda Shaw, and the Biopharming Research Unit of UCT, and the Fraunhofer IME crew.


Try put names to faces: we had participants from Botswana, Mozambique, Germany, South Africa, and France!

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