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Let's Talk About Soil - English

This animated film tells the reality of soil resources around the world, covering the issues of degradation, urbanization, land grabbing and overexploitation; the…

Via Annals of Botany: Plant Science Research
Jorge Sáenz Mata's insight:

Suelo, literal la "base de todo"...

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Marybeth Shea's curator insight, January 25, 2013 4:07 PM

Soil performs many valuable services for humanity, basically, for free.

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Rescooped by Jorge Sáenz Mata from Plant microbiome studies
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Frontiers: The symbiont side of symbiosis: do microbes really benefit?

Frontiers: The symbiont side of symbiosis: do microbes really benefit? | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Microbial associations are integral to all eukaryotes. Mutualism, the interaction of two species for the benefit of both, is an important aspect of microbial associations, with evidence that multicellular organisms in particular benefit from microbes. However, the microbe’s perspective has largely been ignored, and it is unknown whether most microbial symbionts benefit from their associations with hosts. It has been presumed that microbial symbionts receive host-derived nutrients or a competition-free environment with reduced predation, but there have been few empirical tests, or even critical assessments, of these assumptions. We evaluate these hypotheses based on available evidence, which indicate reduced competition and predation are not universal benefits for symbionts. Some symbionts do receive nutrients from their host, but this has not always been linked to a corresponding increase in symbiont fitness. We recommend experiments to test symbiont fitness using current experimental systems of symbiosis and detail considerations for other systems. Incorporating symbiont fitness into symbiosis research will provide insight into the evolution of mutualistic interactions and cooperation in general.


Via Stéphane Hacquard, Nina Dombrowski
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Frontiers | Flavonoids: a metabolic network mediating plants adaptation to their real estate | Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity

Frontiers | Flavonoids: a metabolic network mediating plants adaptation to their real estate | Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth’s terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Knowing your friends and foes – plant receptor-like kinases as initiators of symbiosis or defence -

Knowing your friends and foes – plant receptor-like kinases as initiators of symbiosis or defence - | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
The decision between defence and symbiosis signalling in plants involves alternative and modular plasma membrane-localized receptor complexes. A critical step in their activation is ligand-induced homo- or hetero-oligomerization of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)- and/or lysin motif (LysM) receptor-like kinases (RLKs). In defence signalling, receptor complexes form upon binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including the bacterial flagellin-derived peptide flg22, or chitin. Similar mechanisms are likely to operate during the perception of microbial symbiont-derived (lipo)-chitooligosaccharides. The structurally related chitin-oligomer ligands chitooctaose and chitotetraose trigger defence and symbiosis signalling, respectively, and their discrimination involves closely related, if not identical, LysM-RLKs. This illustrates the demand for and the challenges imposed on decision mechanisms that ensure appropriate signal initiation. Appropriate signalling critically depends on abundance and localization of RLKs at the cell surface. This is regulated by internalization, which also provides a mechanism for the removal of activated signalling RLKs. Abundance of the malectin-like domain (MLD)-LRR-RLK Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase (SYMRK) is additionally controlled by cleavage of its modular ectodomain, which generates a truncated and rapidly degraded RLK fragment. This review explores LRR- and LysM-mediated signalling, the involvement of MLD-LRR-RLKs in symbiosis and defence, and the role of endocytosis in RLK function.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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What lies beneath: belowground defense strategies in plants

What lies beneath: belowground defense strategies in plants | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens result worldwide in significant yield losses in economically important crops. In contrast to foliar diseases, relatively little is known about the nature of root defenses against these pathogens. This review summarizes the current knowledge on root infection strategies, root-specific preformed barriers, pathogen recognition, and defense signaling. Studies reviewed here suggest that many commonalities as well as differences exist in defense strategies employed by roots and foliar tissues during pathogen attack. Importantly, in addition to pathogens, plant roots interact with a plethora of non-pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. Therefore, a good understanding of how plant roots interact with the microbiome would be particularly important to engineer resistance to root pathogens without negatively altering root-beneficial microbe interactions.

 

 


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase salt tolerance of apple seedlings

BackgroundApple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2?, 4? and 6? salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance.ResultsThe results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2? and 4? salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2? and 4? salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl? and Na+ concentrations clearly increased and K+ contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K+/Na+ ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4? salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6? salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively.ConclusionThese results suggest that 2? and 4? salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Functional Soil Microbiome: Belowground Solutions to an Aboveground Problem

Functional Soil Microbiome: Belowground Solutions to an Aboveground Problem | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
There is considerable evidence in the literature that beneficial rhizospheric microbes can alter plant morphology, enhance plant growth, and increase mineral content. Of late, there is a surge to understand the impact of the microbiome on plant health. Recent research shows the utilization of novel sequencing techniques to identify the microbiome in model systems such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). However, it is not known how the community of microbes identified may play a role to improve plant health and fitness. There are very few detailed studies with isolated beneficial microbes showing the importance of the functional microbiome in plant fitness and disease protection. Some recent work on the cultivated microbiome in rice (Oryza sativa) shows that a wide diversity of bacterial species is associated with the roots of field-grown rice plants. However, the biological significance and potential effects of the microbiome on the host plants are completely unknown. Work performed with isolated strains showed various genetic pathways that are involved in the recognition of host-specific factors that play roles in beneficial host-microbe interactions. The composition of the microbiome in plants is dynamic and controlled by multiple factors. In the case of the rhizosphere, temperature, pH, and the presence of chemical signals from bacteria, plants, and nematodes all shape the environment and influence which organisms will flourish. This provides a basis for plants and their microbiomes to selectively associate with one another. This Update addresses the importance of the functional microbiome to identify phenotypes that may provide a sustainable and effective strategy to increase crop yield and food security.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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The powdery mildew resistance protein RPW8.2 is carried on VAMP721/722 vesicles to the extrahaustorial membrane of haustorial complexes

The powdery mildew resistance protein RPW8.2 is carried on VAMP721/722 vesicles to the extrahaustorial membrane of haustorial complexes | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Plants employ multiple cell-autonomous defense mechanisms to impede pathogenesis of microbial intruders. Previously we identified an exocytosis defense mechanism in Arabidopsis against pathogenic powdery mildew fungi. This pre-invasive defense mechanism depends on the formation of ternary protein complexes consisting of the plasma membrane-localized PEN1 syntaxin, the adaptor protein SNAP33 and closely sequence-related vesicle-resident VAMP721 or VAMP722 proteins. The Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to powdery mildew 8.2 protein (RPW8.2) confers disease resistance against powdery mildews upon fungal entry into host cells and is specifically targeted to the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), which envelops the haustorial complex of the fungus. However, the secretory machinery involved in trafficking RPW8.2 to the EHM is unknown. Here we report that RPW8.2 is transiently located on VAMP721/722 vesicles, and later incorporated into the EHM of mature haustoria. Resistance activity of RPW8.2 against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces orontii is greatly diminished in the absence of VAMP721 but only slightly so in the absence of VAMP722. Consistent with this result, trafficking of RPW8.2 to the EHM is delayed in the absence of VAMP721. These findings implicate VAMP721/722 vesicles as key components of the secretory machinery for carrying RPW8.2 to the plant–fungal interface. Quantitative fluorescence recovery after photobleaching suggests that vesicle-mediated trafficking of RPW8.2–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to the EHM occurs transiently during early haustorial development and that lateral diffusion of RPW8.2–YFP within the EHM exceeds vesicle-mediated replenishment of RPW8.2–YFP in mature haustoria. Our findings imply the engagement of VAMP721/722 in a bifurcated trafficking pathway for pre-invasive defense at the cell periphery and post-invasive defense at the EHM.


Via Francis Martin
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Root and rhizosphere processes–high time to dig deeper

The purpose of the research topic “Ecophysiology of root systems-environment interactions” was to shed light on belowground processes—in an effort to further enhance its understanding, but also to increase the awareness of the research community and funding bodies toward this utmost important part of plants and ecosystems.

Why is it important to increase our understanding and awareness? The new challenge of global climate change is driven by an increase in atmospheric CO2 levels, a factor which in itself affects plant and root growth, but is also expected to increase the intensity of climatic and edaphic extremes. In addition, other stresses such as salinization and heavy metal contamination of soils are either increasing or continue to persist world-wide. To secure crop yield and soil quality, and to understand the functioning, and thus the resilience and resistance of pristine ecosystems under changing environmental conditions, an increased understanding of acclimation and adaptation processes is imperative. In the past, plant sciences' research has focused predominantly on parameters above ground—resulting in disproportional less knowledge regarding root systems and the way root system functioning is affected by both internal and external factors. Similarly, soil scientists have often preferred studying bulk soil over the rhizosphere and as a consequence root-driven soil processes are still far less studied. Because it is “better to light a candle than curse the darkness” (Herron et al., 2013), this research topic puts research on root and rhizosphere into the spotlight.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Trends in Plant Science: Evolution of the plant–microbe symbiotic ‘toolkit’ (2013)

Trends in Plant Science: Evolution of the plant–microbe symbiotic ‘toolkit’ (2013) | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Beneficial associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in terrestrial environments and in the sustainability of agroecosystems. Proteins, microRNAs, and small molecules have been identified in model angiosperms as required for the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and define a symbiotic ‘toolkit’ used for other interactions such as the rhizobia–legume symbiosis. Based on recent studies, we propose an evolutionary framework for this toolkit. Some components appeared recently in angiosperms, whereas others are highly conserved even in land plants unable to form arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The exciting finding that some components pre-date the appearance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggests the existence of unknown roles for this toolkit and even the possibility of symbiotic associations in charophyte green algae.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Plant Phys: Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

Plant Phys: Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

"Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of the most abundant genera of the root microbiome. Here, by employing a germ-free experimental system, we demonstrate the ability of selected Pseudomonas spp. strains to promote plant growth and drive developmental plasticity in the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation."


Via Mary Williams
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Trends in Genetics - Teosinte as a model system for population and ecological genomics

Trends in Genetics - Teosinte as a model system for population and ecological genomics | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Summary

As the cost of next-generation sequencing diminishes and genomic resources improve, crop wild relatives are well positioned to make major contributions to the field of ecological genomics via full-genome resequencing and reference-assisted de novo assembly of genomes of plants from natural populations. The wild relatives of maize, collectively known as teosinte, are a more varied and representative study system than many other model flowering plants. In this review of the population and ecological genomics of the teosintes we highlight recent advances in the study of maize domestication, introgressive hybridization, and local adaptation, and discuss future prospects for applying the genomic resources of maize to this intriguing group of species. The maize/teosinte study system is an excellent example of how crops and their wild relatives can bridge the model/non-model gap.


Via GMI Vienna
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The teosinte are wild relatives of maize. 

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New Phytol: The soil microbial community predicts the importance of plant traits in plant–soil feedback

New Phytol: The soil microbial community predicts the importance of plant traits in plant–soil feedback | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Reciprocal interaction between plant and soil (plant–soil feedback, PSF) can determine plant community structure. Understanding which traits control interspecific variation of PSF strength is crucial for plant ecology. Studies have highlighted either plant-mediated nutrient cycling (litter-mediated PSF) or plant–microbe interaction (microbial-mediated PSF) as important PSF mechanisms, each attributing PSF variation to different traits. However, this separation neglects the complex indirect interactions between the two mechanisms.
We developed a model coupling litter- and microbial-mediated PSFs to identify the relative importance of traits in controlling PSF strength, and its dependency on the composition of root-associated microbes (i.e. pathogens and/or mycorrhizal fungi).
Results showed that although plant carbon: nitrogen (C : N) ratio and microbial nutrient acquisition traits were consistently important, the importance of litter decomposability varied. Litter decomposability was not a major PSF determinant when pathogens are present. However, its importance increased with the relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi as nutrient released from the mycorrhizal-enhanced litter production to the nutrient-depleted soils result in synergistic increase of soil nutrient and mycorrhizal abundance. Data compiled from empirical studies also supported our predictions.
We propose that the importance of litter decomposability depends on the composition of root-associated microbes. Our results provide new perspectives in plant invasion and trait-based ecology.


Via Stéphane Hacquard, Nina Dombrowski
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Epigenetic Memory for Stress Response and Adaptation in Plants

Epigenetic Memory for Stress Response and Adaptation in Plants | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
In contrast to the majority of animal species, plants are sessile organisms and are, therefore, constantly challenged by environmental perturbations. Over the past few decades, our knowledge of how plants perceive environmental stimuli has increased considerably, e.g. the mechanisms for transducing environmental stress stimuli into cellular signaling cascades and gene transcription networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that plants can remember past environmental events and can use these memories to aid responses when these events recur. In this mini review, we focus on recent progress in determination of the epigenetic mechanisms used by plants under various environmental stresses. Epigenetic mechanisms are now known to play a vital role in the control of gene expression through small RNAs, histone modifications and DNA methylation. These are inherited through mitotic cell divisions and, in some cases, can be transmitted to the next generation. They therefore offer a possible mechanism for stress memories in plants. Recent studies have yielded evidence indicating that epigenetic mechanisms are indeed essential for stress memories and adaptation in plants.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Calcium signals in plant immunity: a spiky issue

Calcium signals in plant immunity: a spiky issue | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
A calcium influx across the plasma membrane is essential for the activation of plant innate immunity signalling (Steinhorst & Kudla, 2013). This influx, which has typically been measured using transgenic plants expressing the luminescent calcium reporter aequorin, is observed as a steep increase in calcium with a double peak followed by a slow return to normal calcium levels over c. 25 min. In this issue of New Phytologist, Thor & Peiter (pp. 873–881) demonstrate using Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal guard cells that, at the level of single cells, the elicitin-induced calcium response corresponds to a series of individual calcium spikes.

‘A key message is that to understand what is actually happening in signalling, it is essential to image calcium at the single cell level.’

Plants recognize microbes by binding highly-conserved microbial components (such as flagellin, EF-Tu or chitin), that are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMPs bind to cognate receptors activating a signalling pathway that involves a flux of calcium across the plasma membrane (Macho & Zipfel, 2014). The calcium influx is required for the activation of a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), probably by changing the sensitivity of a plasma-membrane NADPH oxidase for PAMP-induced phosphorylation (Kadota et al., 2014). The calcium influx is also important for activating calcium-sensing regulators such as calcium dependent protein kinases, calcineurin B-family proteins and calmodulins (Steinhorst & Kudla, 2013).

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GB03) augments salt tolerance of white clover

Soil salinity is an increasingly serious problem worldwide that reduces agricultural output potential. Selected beneficial soil bacteria can promote plant growth and augment tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Bacillus subtilis strain GB03 has been shown to confer growth promotion and abiotic stress tolerance in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we examined the effect of this beneficial soil bacterium on salt tolerance in the legume forage crop, white clover. Plants of white clover (Trifolium repens L. cultivar Huia) were grown from seeds with or without soil inoculation of the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03 supplemented with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mM NaCl water into soil. Growth parameters, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and osmotic potential were monitored during the growth cycle. Endogenous Na+ and K+ contents were determined at the time of harvest. White clover plants grown in GB03-inoculated soil were significantly larger than non-inoculated controls with respect to shoot height, root length, plant biomass, leaf area and chlorophyll content; leaf MDA content under saline condition and leaf osmotic potential under severe salinity condition (150 mM NaCl) were significantly decreased. Furthermore, GB03 significantly decreased shoot and root Na+ accumulation and thereby improved K+/Na+ ratio when GB03-inoculated plants were grown under elevated salt conditions. The results indicate that soil inoculation with GB03 promotes white clover growth under both non-saline and saline conditions by directly or indirectly regulating plant chlorophyll content, leaf osmotic potential, cell membrane integrity and ion accumulation.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Biotic Interactions in the Rhizosphere: A Diverse Cooperative Enterprise for Plant Productivity

Biotic Interactions in the Rhizosphere: A Diverse Cooperative Enterprise for Plant Productivity | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
Microbes and plants have evolved biochemical mechanisms to communicate with each other. The molecules responsible for such communication are secreted during beneficial or harmful interactions. Hundreds of these molecules secreted into the rhizosphere have been identified, and their functions are being studied in order to understand the mechanisms of interaction and communication among the different members of the rhizosphere community. The importance of root and microbe secretion to the underground habitat in improving crop productivity is increasingly recognized, with the discovery and characterization of new secreting compounds found in the rhizosphere. Different omic approaches, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have expanded our understanding of the first signals between microbes and plants. In this review, we highlight the more recent discoveries related to molecules secreted into the rhizosphere and how they affect plant productivity, either negatively or positively. In addition, we include a survey of novel approaches to studying the rhizosphere and emerging opportunities to direct future studies.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, October 11, 2014 9:56 AM

Interesting review too.

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A Phosphate Fix

A Phosphate Fix | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
If you hop into a car in the border town of Eagle Pass, Texas, and drive south for four hours, past stunted mesquite and blinding white gypsum dunes, you’ll reach an isolated corner of the Chihuahua Desert called Cuatro Ciénegas, or Four Marshes. It’s not your typical desert. Nestled among the white dunes is an oasis of wildlife centered around a series of pools whose hues of blue and green appear in stark contrast to the monochromatic desert sand.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Understanding the rhizosphere better ... Trends in Plant Science

Understanding the rhizosphere better ... Trends in Plant Science | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Evidence is mounting for the importance of understanding the rhizosphere better in order to lay the foundation for the next green revolution. Root biology and how they interact with their environment may well be one of the fastest growing areas in plant science and in this focus issue we are following some of the latest trends, such as root architecture, root development, and plant–soil fungal interactions. On pages 419–425 Arthur Q. Villordon and colleagues propose that unraveling the role of root architecture in root and tuber crop productivity will improve global food security, especially in regions with marginal soil fertility and low-input agricultural systems. On pages 426–431 Zhaojun Ding and colleagues highlight how differential growth dynamics between primary and lateral roots appear to be crucial for plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Finally, on pages 432–438 Matthias C. Rillig and colleagues propose a new framework for studying the complexity of soil fungal communities


Via Francis Martin
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, July 23, 2014 11:48 AM

Yeahhhh... a focus issue on the rhizosphere.!

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XVI International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, Rhodes, Greece, 6-10 July 2014

XVI International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, Rhodes, Greece, 6-10 July 2014 | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it

Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, May 28, 2014 8:52 AM

I can't wait for this conference!

Christophe Jacquet's comment, May 28, 2014 10:15 AM
See you there!
Mary Williams's curator insight, May 29, 2014 4:30 AM

Looks like a super conference, great poster too!


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Let's Talk About Soil - English

This animated film tells the reality of soil resources around the world, covering the issues of degradation, urbanization, land grabbing and overexploitation; the…

Via Annals of Botany: Plant Science Research
Jorge Sáenz Mata's insight:

Suelo, literal la "base de todo"...

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Marybeth Shea's curator insight, January 25, 2013 4:07 PM

Soil performs many valuable services for humanity, basically, for free.

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Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack - Babikova - 2013 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library

Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack - Babikova - 2013 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library | Plant-Microbe | Scoop.it
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