Filamentous pathogens such as the oomycete Phytophthora infestans infect plants by developing specialized structures termed haustoria inside the host cells. Haustoria are thought to enable secretion of effector proteins into the plant cells. Haustorium biogenesis is therefore critical for pathogen accommodation in the host tissue. Haustoria are enveloped by a specialized host-derived membrane, the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), which is distinct from the plant plasma membrane. The mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of the EHM are unknown. Remarkably, several plasma membrane localised proteins are excluded from the EHM but the remorin REM1.3 accumulates around P. infestans haustoria. Here, we used overexpression, co-localization with reporter proteins, and super-resolution microscopy in cells infected by P. infestans to reveal discrete EHM domains labelled by REM1.3 and P. infestans effector AVRblb2. Moreover, SYT1 synaptotagmin, another previously identified perihaustorial protein, localized to subdomains which are mainly not labelled by REM1.3 and AVRblb2. Functional characterization of REM1.3 revealed that it is a susceptibility factor that promotes infection by P. infestans. This activity, and REM1.3 recruitment to the EHM, require REM1.3 membrane binding domain. Our results implicate REM1.3 membrane micro-domains in plant susceptibility to an oomycete pathogen.
Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, The Sainsbury Lab