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YouTube: Plant interaction with friendly microorganisms gives pathogens their break (2012)

In two papers to be published in Current Biology, researchers from JIC and The Sainsbury Laboratory on the Norwich Research Park, and Rothamsted Research and the University of York identify genes that help plants interact with microbes in the soil.

 

Professor Giles Oldroyd of the John Innes Centre explains how plant roots form beneficial interactions with soil microbes. Almost all plants associate with mycorrhizal fungi to help in the uptake of nutrients such as phosphate. Some plants, particularly legumes, also associate with bacteria that ‘fix’ atmospheric nitrogen into a form the plant can use as fertiliser.

 

These two interactions are mediated within the plant by a common signalling pathway. The researchers have identified a specific mycorrhizal transcription factor. They also show how the signalling pathway has been recruited by pathogenic microbes, presenting a challenge to the plant. Its ability to form beneficial interactions can leave it vulnerable to invasion by pathogens.

 

Wang, E., Schornack, S., Marsh, J.F., Gobbato, E., Schwessinger, B., Eastmond, P., Schultze, M., Kamoun, S., and Oldroyd, G.E.D. (2012). A common signaling process that promotes mycorrhizal and oomycete colonization of plants. Curr. Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.043

 

Gobbato, E., Marsh, J.F., Vernie´ , T., Wang, E., Maillet, F., Kim, J., Miller, J.B., Sun, J., Bano, S.A., Ratet, P., et al. (2012). A GRAS-type transcription factor with a specific function in mycorrhizal signalling. Curr. Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Plant-Microbe Symbioses
Symbiotic associations between plants and microbes
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Symbiotic plant-fungi interactions stripped down to the root

Symbiotic plant-fungi interactions stripped down to the root | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Mycorrhizal fungi live in the roots of host plants and are crucial components of all forest ecosystems. A large-scale study of fungal genomics provides new insights into the evolution of mycorrhizae and a deep exploration of mycorrhizal diversity that helps to uncover the molecular and genetic details of fungal symbiotic relationships with plants.
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A Rhizosphere-Associated Symbiont, Photobacterium spp. Strain MELD1, and Its Targeted Synergistic Activity for Phytoprotection against Mercury

A Rhizosphere-Associated Symbiont, Photobacterium spp. Strain MELD1, and Its Targeted Synergistic Activity for Phytoprotection against Mercury | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Though heavy metal such as mercury is toxic to plants and microorganisms, the synergistic activity between them may offer benefit for surviving. In this study, a mercury-reducing bacterium, Photobacterium spp. strain MELD1, with an MIC of 33 mg . kg-1 mercury was isolated from a severely mercury and dioxin contaminated rhizosphere soil of reed (Phragmites australis). While the whole genome sequencing of MELD1 confirmed the presence of a mer operon, the mercury reductase MerA gene showed 99% sequence identity to Vibrio shilloni AK1 and implicates its route resulted from the event of horizontal gene transfer. The efficiency of MELD1 to vaporize mercury (25 mg . kg-1, 24 h) and its tolerance to toxic metals and xenobiotics such as lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroethylene, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is promising. Combination of a long yard bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and strain MELD1 proved beneficial in the phytoprotection of mercury in vivo. The effect of mercury (Hg) on growth, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot, leaves and pod of yard long bean with and without the inoculation of strain MELD1. The model plant inoculated with MELD1 had significant increases in biomass, root length, seed number, and increased mercury uptake limited to roots. Biolog plate assay were used to assess the sole-carbon source utilization pattern of the isolate and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) productivity was analyzed to examine if the strain could contribute to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that, as a rhizosphere-associated symbiont, the synergistic activity between the plant and MELD1 can improve the efficiency for phytoprotection, phytostabilization and phytoremediation of mercury.
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Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria. | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed.
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Deciphering the factors associated with the colonization of rice plants by cyanobacteria

Deciphering the factors associated with the colonization of rice plants by cyanobacteria | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Cyanobacteria-rice plant interactions were analyzed using a hydroponics experiment. The activity of plant defense and pathogenesis-related enzymes, scanning electron microscopy, growth, nitrogen fixation (measured as ARA), and DNA fingerprinting assays proved useful in illustrating the nature of associations of cyanobacteria with rice plants. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of short filaments and coiled masses of filaments of cyanobacteria near the epidermis and cortex of roots and shoot tissues. Among the six cyanobacterial strains employed, Calothrix sp. (RPC1), Anabaena laxa (RPAN8), and Anabaena azollae (C16) were the best performing strains, in terms of colonization in roots and stem. These strains also enhanced nitrogen fixation and stimulated the activity of plant defense/cell wall-degrading enzymes. A significantly high correlation was also recorded between the elicited plant enzymes, growth, and ARA. DNA fingerprinting using highly iterated palindromic sequences (HIP-TG) further helped in proving the establishment of inoculated organisms in the roots/shoots of rice plants. This study illustrated that the colonization of cyanobacteria in the plant tissues is facilitated by increased elicitation of plant enzymes, leading to improved plant growth, nutrient mobilization, and enhanced plant fitness. Such strains can be promising candidates for developing “cyanobacteria colonized-nitrogen-fixing rice plants” in the future.
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Why nodulation fails, and the disaster it presents for crops

Why nodulation fails, and the disaster it presents for crops | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Nodulation failure can be disastrous to crop yields. In some cases, yield may be salvaged. In other cases, it will be too late. Two experts offer recommendations to avoid nitrogen fixation failures.
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Plant signalling mechanisms in response to the environment

Being sessile organisms, plants are faced with multiple and changing environmental stimuli and stressors which have to be intercepted, interpreted to generate appropriate responses for continued development, growth and ultimate survival of the species. All of these processes involve plant signalling mechanisms, these ranging from environmental sensors of biotic and abiotic factors, multiple signal transduction pathways involving a plethora of molecules that govern not only individual processes at the subcellular, organ and whole plant level but which are involved in cross talk between them. It is no surprise that the field of plant signalling is emerging as one indispensable in the study of biological processes, and understanding of these complex interactions is of increasing importance in managing plant productivity for food security purposes in a time when predictions from climate change models propose that increasing temperatures, UV emissions and considerably altered precipitation patterns inter alia will preclude agricultural practices commonly used today.

This special edition on Plant Signalling brings together 14 papers on various aspects of plant signalling, including responses to abiotic factors of water availability, temperature, light, hypoxia, macro and micro nutrient status, and biotic stimuli/stresses imposed by micro-, meso and macro organisms, at the cellar, organ and whole plant level. The roles of plant hormones, phospholipid signalling, redox balance, transcription factors and other regulatory elements such as microRNAs, heterotrimeric G-proteins and ubiquitination-mediated protein regulation are presented for a number of plant species and mechanisms of action (chemical and electrical) and cross talk among these in control of multiple simultaneous external stimuli are discussed.

By its nature, the field of plant signalling includes a diverse and complex array of molecular interactions with multiple physiological consequences, and the papers within this special edition represent only a small, but nevertheless significant coverage of key role players in plant signalling processes. They highlight recent advances in understanding of these drivers while simultaneously pointing out the areas where new research is required. To summarise these all succinctly is a demanding task, and readers are encouraged to read all these papers and come to their own conclusions! We aim here to draw your attention only to significant findings that have emanated from this combined work.
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The Mycorrhizae Effect - ProMix HP Mycorrhizae

The Mycorrhizae Effect - ProMix HP Mycorrhizae | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Mycorrhiza (pl. Mycorrhizae) is a symbiotic association with a fungus and the roots of your plant which results in bountiful vegetables, fruits and flowers in your garden. Learn more about ProMix High porosity growing medium with Mycorrhiza and how it can help you. Buy the product here: http://amzn.to/1M705XU
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Rhizobium Lipo-Chitooligosaccharide Signaling Triggers Accumulation of Cytokinins in Medicago Truncatula Roots

The legume rhizobium symbiosis is initiated uponperception of bacterial secreted lipo-chito oligosaccharides (LCOs). Perception of these signals by the plant initiates a signalling cascade that leads to nodule formation. Several studies have implicated a function for cytokinin in this process. However, whether cytokinin accumulation and subsequent signalling are an integral part of rhizobium LCO signalling remains elusive. Here we show that cytokinin signalling is required for the majority of transcriptional changes induced by rhizobium LCOs. Additionally, we demonstrate that several cytokinins accumulate in the root susceptible zone three hours post rhizobium LCO application, including the biologically most active cytokinins trans-zeatin and isopentenyl adenine. These responses are dependent on CCaMK; a key protein in rhizobial LCO induced signalling. Analysis of the ethylene insensitive Mtein2/Mtsickle mutant showed that LCO-induced cytokinin accumulation is negatively regulated by ethylene. Together with transcriptional induction of ethylene biosynthesis genes, it suggests a feedback loop negatively regulating LCO signalling and subsequent cytokinin accumulation. We argue that cytokinin accumulation is a key step in the pathway leading to nodule organogenesis and that this is tightly controlled by feedback loops.
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Very very nice..

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Applying N? You May Be Wasting Your Time and Money

Applying N? You May Be Wasting Your Time and Money | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
There is an old saying: The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over expecting different results. Today, current and ongoing research seeks to better identify the right balance between application of nutrients -- namely nitrogen -- to row-crop fields in an effort to ultimately end the trend of farmers resorting to those applications whether needed or not.
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The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters represent hotspots for the generation of fungal metabolic diversity.
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Fantastic study... I love it.

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IIL set to launch bio-fertiliser ‘Mycoraja’ nationally in April

Agro-chemicals major Insecticides (India) Ltd. (IIL) is set to commercialise its maiden bio-product ‘Mycoraja’ ahead of the onset of the Kharif season to establish a footprint in the Rs. 5,000-crore market segment. While it had been partially commercialised in Haryana around the same time last fiscal, a company official told BusinessLine on Tuesday that the bio-fertiliser will be made available all over the country from April.
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"Dale a tu cuerpo alegria Mycoraja

Que tu cuerpo es pa' darle alegria y cosa buena
Dale a tu cuerpo alegria, Mycoraja
Hey Mycoraja"

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Phytosulfokine is involved in positive regulation of Lotus japonicus nodulation

Phytosulfokine is involved in positive regulation of Lotus japonicus nodulation | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a tyrosine-sulfated peptide that is widely distributed in plants, participating in cell proliferation, differentiation and innate immunity. The potential role of PSKs in nodulation in legumes has not been reported. In this work, five PSK precursor genes were identified in Lotus japonicas, designated as LjPSK1-5. Three of them (LjPSK1, LjPSK4 and LjPSK5) were found to be expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LjPSK1 and LjPSK4 were not induced at the early stage of nodulation. Interestingly, while the expression of LjPSK4 was also found in spontaneous nodules without rhizobial colonization, LjPSK1 was not induced in these pseudo nodules. Promoter-GUS analysis revealed that LjPSK1 was highly expressed in enlarged symbiotic cells of nodules. Exogenous addition of 1 μM synthetic PSK peptide resulted in increased nodule numbers per plant. Consistently, the number of mature nodules, but not the events of rhizobial infection and nodule initiation, was increased by overexpressing LjPSK1 in transgenic hairy roots, where the expression of jasmonate responsive genes was found to be repressed. These results suggest that PSK is a new peptide signal that regulates nodulation in legumes, probably through cross-talking with other phytohormones.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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MSU and Noble Foundation to coordinate N fixation research

MSU and Noble Foundation to coordinate N fixation research | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
A new federal grant will establish Montana State University and the Noble Foundation in Ardmore, Okla., as global hubs for integrating research activities on the supply and utilization of nitrogen by plants.

The new five-year grant totaling $500,000 was awarded by the National Science Foundation to John Peters, an MSU professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Michael Udvardi of the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, a nonprofit research institute.
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Congrats!

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Community Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in High-Input and Intensively Irrigated Rice Cultivation Systems

Community Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in High-Input and Intensively Irrigated Rice Cultivation Systems | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Application of a mycorrhizal inoculum could be one way to increase the yield of rice plants and reduce the application of fertilizer. We therefore studied arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) collected at the seedling, tillering, heading, and ripening stages in four paddy wetlands that had been under a high-input and intensively irrigated rice cultivation system for more than 20 years. It was found that AMF colonization was mainly established in the heading and ripening stages. The AMF community structure was characterized in rhizosphere soils and roots from two of the studied paddy wetlands. A fragment covering the partial small subunit (SSU), the whole internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and the partial large subunit (LSU) rRNA operon regions of AMF was amplified, cloned, and sequenced from roots and soils. A total of 639 AMF sequences were obtained, and these were finally assigned to 16 phylotypes based on a phylogenetic analysis, including 12 phylotypes from Glomeraceae, one phylotype from Claroideoglomeraceae, two phylotypes from Paraglomeraceae, and one unidentified phylotype. The AMF phylotype compositions in the soils were similar between the two surveyed sites, but there was a clear discrepancy between the communities obtained from root and soil. The relatively high number of AMF phylotypes at the surveyed sites suggests that the conditions are suitable for some species of AMF and that they may have an important function in conventional rice cultivation systems. The species richness of root-colonizing AMF increased with the growth of rice, and future studies should consider the developmental stages of this crop in the exploration of AMF function in paddy wetlands.
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Response of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) To Inoculation with Mycorrhizae

The effect of seed inoculation by Mycorrhizae and different levels of phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of sunflower (Azargol cultivar) was studied in experiment farm of Islamic Azad University, Pars Abad Moghan Branch during 2010 growing season. The experiment treatments were arranged in factorial based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. Four phosphorus fertilizer levels of 25%, 50% 75% and 100% P recommended with two levels of Mycorrhizae: with and without Mycorrhizae (control) were assigned in a factorial combination. Results showed that head diameter, number of seeds per head, seed yield and oil yield were significantly higher in inoculated plants than in non-inoculated plants. Head diameter, number of seeds per head, 1000 seeds weight, biological yield, seed yield and oil yield were increased with increasing P level above 75% P recommended in non-inoculated plants, whereas no significant difference was observed between 75% and 100% P recommended. The positive effect of mycorrhizal inoculation decreased with increasing P levels due to decreased percent root colonization at higher P levels. According to the results of this experiment, application of mycorrhizae in present of 50% P recommended had an appropriate performance and could increase seed yield and oil production to an acceptable level, so it could be considered as a suitable substitute for chemical phosphorus fertilizer in organic agricultural systems.
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Casuarina glauca : A model tree for basic research in actinorhizal symbiosis

Casuarina glauca is a fast-growing multipurpose tree belonging to the Casuarinaceae family and native to Australia. It requires limited use of chemical fertilizers due to the symbiotic association with the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia and with mycorrhizal fungi, which help improve phosphorous and water uptake by the root system. C. glauca can grow in difficult sites, colonize eroded lands and improve their fertility, thereby enabling the subsequent growth of more demanding plant species. As a result, this tree is increasingly used for reforestation and reclamation of degraded lands in tropical and subtropical areas such as China and Egypt. Many tools have been developed in recent years to explore the molecular basis of the interaction between Frankia and C. glauca. These tools include in vitro culture of the host and genetic transformation with Agrobacterium, genome sequencing of Frankia and related studies, isolation of plant symbiotic genes combined with functional analyses (including knock-down expression based on RNA interference), and transcriptome analyses of roots inoculated with Frankia or Rhizophagus irregularis. These efforts have been fruitful since recent results established that many common molecular mechanisms regulate the nodulation process in actinorhizal plants and legumes, thus providing new insights into the evolution of nitrogen-fixing symbioses.
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Extracellular ATP acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signal in plants

Extracellular ATP acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signal in plants | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
As sessile organisms, plants have evolved effective mechanisms to protect themselves from environmental stresses. Damaged (i.e., wounded) plants recognize a variety of endogenous molecules as danger signals, referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). ATP is among the molecules that are released by cell damage, and recent evidence suggests that ATP can serve as a DAMP. Although little studied in plants, extracellular ATP is well known for its signaling roles in animals, including acting as a DAMP during the inflammatory response and wound healing. If ATP acts outside the cell, then it is reasonable to expect that it is recognized by a plasma membrane-localized receptor. Recently, DORN1, a lectin receptor kinase, was shown to recognize extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis. DORN1 is the founding member of a new purinoceptor subfamily, P2K (P2 receptor kinase), which is plant-specific. P2K1 (DORN1) is required for ATP-induced cellular responses (e.g., cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression). Genetic analysis of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines showed that P2K1 participates in the plant wound response, consistent with the role of ATP as a DAMP. In this review, we summarize past research on the roles and mechanisms of extracellular ATP signaling in plants, and discuss the direction of future research on extracellular ATP as a DAMP signal.
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International Congress on Mycorrhizae: mycorrhizal symbiosis a key factor for improving plant productivity and ecosystems restoration

The Mycorrhizae and Mediterranean Ecosystems Group (MYCOMED), the African Network on Mycorrhiza (AFRINOM) and the French Mycorrhizologist Network (RAMYF) co-organized an International Congress on “Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor for Improving Plant Productivity and Ecosystems Restoration” in Marrakech, Morocco, October 15–17, 2014. Three hundred participants from 45 different countries attended the congress, which included 65 oral presentations and 100 posters. Abstracts of all talks and posters can be found at the website (http://ic-mycorrhizae2014.uca.ma) of Cadi Ayyad University. The congress was an international forum for exchange of knowledge and expertise between scientists developing fundamental and applied mycorrhizal research as well as companies commercializing mycorrhizal inoculum. The objectives were to update scientific and technical knowledge on mycorrhizal fungi as providers of key ecological services, to valorize the mycorrhizal symbiosis in practices in the socio-economic environment of Mediterranean and tropical areas and to share the experiences of scientists with young researchers, policy makers and end-users. The contents addressed included three topics: (i) biology, ecology and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in tropical and Mediterranean environments; (ii) mycorrhizal symbiosis and plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and (iii) valorization and transfer of mycorrhizal biotechnologies in agro-ecological engineering strategies and the socio-economic environment of tropical and Mediterranean areas.
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Association of Shifting Populations in the Root Zone Microbiome of Millet with Enhanced Crop Productivity in the Sahel Region (Africa)

Association of Shifting Populations in the Root Zone Microbiome of Millet with Enhanced Crop Productivity in the Sahel Region (Africa) | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
This study characterized specific changes in the millet root zone microbiome stimulated by long-term woody-shrub intercropping at different sites in Senegal. At the two study sites, intercropping with woody shrubs and shrub residue resulted in a significant increase in millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] yield (P < 0.05) and associated patterns of increased diversity in both bacterial and fungal communities in the root zone of the crop. Across four experiments, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Chitinophaga were consistently significantly (P < 0.001) enriched in the intercropped samples, and “Candidatus Koribacter” was consistently significantly enriched in samples where millet was grown alone. Those OTUs belonging to Chitinophaga were enriched more than 30-fold in residue-amended samples and formed a distinct subgroup from all OTUs detected in the genus. Additionally, OTUs belonging to 8 fungal genera (Aspergillus, Coniella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, Lasiodiplodia, Penicillium, and Phoma) were significantly (P < 0.005) enriched in all experiments at all sites in intercropped samples. The OTUs of four genera (Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, and Haematonectria) were consistently enriched at sites where millet was grown alone. Those enriched OTUs in intercropped samples showed consistently large-magnitude differences, ranging from 30- to 1,000-fold increases in abundance. Consistently enriched OTUs in intercropped samples in the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium also formed phylogenetically distinct subgroups. These results suggest that the intercropping system used here can influence the recruitment of potentially beneficial microorganisms to the root zone of millet and aid subsistence farmers in producing higher-yielding crops.
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IMARC Group Releases a New Report on the Industry Trends and Manufacturing Process of Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Rhizobium).

IMARC Group Releases a New Report on the Industry Trends and Manufacturing Process of Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Rhizobium). | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
he study provides a detailed project report on setting up a biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Rhizobium) manufacturing plant. It presents the latest data for market size, industry trends, geographical breakup, land, construction, machinery, labour, raw materials, taxes, profits, etc.
IMARC’s latest study “Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Rhizobium) Manufacturing Plant Project Report: Industry Trends, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Cost and Revenue” provides a techno-commercial roadmap for setting up a biofertilizer manufacturing plant. The study, which has been done by one of the world’s leading research and advisory firms, covers all the requisite aspects of the biofertilizer industry. This ranges from macro overview of the market to micro details of the industry performance, processing and manufacturing requirements, project cost, project funding, project economics, expected returns on investment, profit margins, etc. This report is a must-read for entrepreneurs, investors, researchers, consultants, business strategists, and all those who are planning to foray into the biofertilizer industry in any manner.
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#JGI2015 10th Annual DOE Joint Genome Institute Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting, March 2015 (with images, tweets)

#JGI2015 10th Annual DOE Joint Genome Institute Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting, March 23 – 26, 2015 in Walnut Creek, California http://usermeeting.jgi.doe.gov
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Primary transcripts of microRNAs encode regulatory peptides : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Primary transcripts of microRNAs encode regulatory peptides : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules that inhibit the expression of specific target genes by binding to and cleaving their messenger RNAs or otherwise inhibiting their translation into proteins1. miRNAs are transcribed as much larger primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), the function of which is not fully understood. Here we show that plant pri-miRNAs contain short open reading frame sequences that encode regulatory peptides. The pri-miR171b of Medicago truncatula and the pri-miR165a of Arabidopsis thaliana produce peptides, which we term miPEP171b and miPEP165a, respectively, that enhance the accumulation of their corresponding mature miRNAs, resulting in downregulation of target genes involved in root development. The mechanism of miRNA-encoded peptide (miPEP) action involves increasing transcription of the pri-miRNA. Five other pri-miRNAs of A. thaliana and M. truncatula encode active miPEPs, suggesting that miPEPs are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. Synthetic miPEP171b and miPEP165a peptides applied to plants specifically trigger the accumulation of miR171b and miR165a, leading to reduction of lateral root development and stimulation of main root growth, respectively, suggesting that miPEPs might have agronomical applications.
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Congrats Jean-Philippe!

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Identification and characterization of a novel group of legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized WRKY and Exo70 proteins from soybean

Identification and characterization of a novel group of legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized WRKY and Exo70 proteins from soybean | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Many plant genes belong to families that arise from extensive proliferation and diversification allowing the evolution of functionally new proteins. Here we report the characterization of a group of proteins evolved from WRKY and exocyst complex subunit Exo70 proteins through fusion with a novel transmembrane (TM) domain in soybean (Glycine max). From the soybean genome, we identified a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) that contains a WRKY domain with no binding activity for W-box sequences. GFP fusion revealed that GmWRP1 was targeted to the Golgi apparatus through its N-terminal TM domain. Similar Golgi-targeting TM domains were also identified in members of a new subfamily of Exo70J proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. The novel TM domains are structurally most similar to the endosomal cytochrome b561 from birds and close homologues of GmWRP1 and GmEx070J proteins with the novel TM domain have only been identified in legumes. Transient expression of some GmExo70J proteins or the Golgi-targeting TM domain in tobacco altered the subcellular structures labelled by a fluorescent Golgi marker. GmWRP1 transcripts were detected at high levels in roots, flowers, pods, and seeds, and the expression levels of GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes were elevated with increased age in leaves. The legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins are probably involved in Golgi-mediated vesicle trafficking of biological molecules that are uniquely important to legumes.
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Future of Agricultural Microbials Market Growing at 15.3% CAGR Globally to 2019

The agricultural microbials market is estimated to worth $2,182.78 million in 2014, and is projected to reach $4,556.37 million by 2019, at a CAGR of 15.3%. In 2013, North America was the largest market; this market is projected to grow to $1,759.84 million by 2019, at a CAGR of 15.1%, as studied from 2014. Europe is the second-largest market of agricultural microbials, and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 15.4% during the period under review. Complete report on Agricultural Microbials Market by Type (bacteria, fungi, virus, and protozoa), Crop Type (Cereals & grains, oilseeds, & pulses, fruit & vegetable) & Region - Global Trends & Forecast to 2019 available at http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/agricultural-microbials-market-by-type-bacteria-fungi-virus-and-protozoa-crop-type-cereals-grains-oilseeds-pulses-fruit-vegetable-region-global-trends-forecast-to-2019-market-report.html .
The agricultural microbials market consists of four crop types: cereals & grains, oilseeds & pulses, fruits & vegetables, and other crops (turf, forage, and ornamental & plantation crops).

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The Soil Microbiome Influences Grapevine-Associated Microbiota

The Soil Microbiome Influences Grapevine-Associated Microbiota | Plant-Microbe Symbioses | Scoop.it
Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterial reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.

IMPORTANCE Vine-associated bacterial communities may play specific roles in the productivity and disease resistance of their host plant. Also, the bacterial communities on grapes have the potential to influence the organoleptic properties of the wine, contributing to a regional terroir. Understanding that factors that influence these bacteria may provide insights into management practices to shape and craft individual wine properties. We show that soil serves as a key source of vine-associated bacteria and that edaphic factors and vineyard-specific properties can influence the native grapevine microbiome preharvest.
Jean-Michel Ané's insight:

It always ticks me off when people claim the presence of "diazotrophic bacteria" based on that kind of study... They have no idea if these bacteria fix nitrogen and, in fact, it is very likely that they don't in the grape rhizoshere. 

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Stijn Spaepen's comment, March 26, 1:09 PM
Totally agree with your comment, Jean-Michel!