The black Périgord truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) is a highly prized food today, with its unique scent (i.e., perfume) and texture. Despite these attributes, it remains relatively poorly studied, lacking “omics” information to characterize its biology and biochemistry, especially changes associated with freshness and the proteins/metabolites responsible for its organoleptic properties. In this study, we have functionally annotated the truffle proteome from the 2010 T. melanosporum genome comprising 12 771 putative nonredundant proteins. Using sequential BLAST search strategies, we identified homologues for 2587 proteins with 2486 (96.0%) fungal homologues (available fromhttp://biolinfo.org/protannotator/blacktruffle.php). A combined 1D PAGE and high-accuracy LC–MS/MS proteomic study was employed to validate the results of the functional annotation and identified 836 (6.5%) proteins, of which 47.5% (i.e., 397) were present in our bioinformatics studies. Our study, functionally annotating 6487 black Périgord truffle proteins and confirming 836 by proteomic experiments, is by far the most comprehensive study to date contributing significantly to the scientific community. This study has resulted in the functional characterization of novel proteins to increase our biological understanding of this organism and to uncover potential biomarkers of authenticity, freshness, and perfume maturation.
Heavy metal pollution has become one of the major culprits of environmental disasters. Their toxicity and damaging effects on soils and agricultural lands and direct impact on human health through soils and agricultural lands are considered a major world challenge. Many removal processes, such as mechanical and physicochemical ones have been introduced. However, because of their high cost, attention has been focused on biological solutions, which are less expensive and more efficient. Interestingly, some microorganisms have shown high potential to metal tolerance and removal. Cupriavidus metallidurans is certainly the most known example. The rhizosphere, an important interface between soil and plant, holds a diverse prokaryotic microflora population known as rhizobacteria. An important fraction of these microorganisms have been found to be involved in the removal of heavy metals through a panoply of mechanisms including release of chelating substances, microenvironment acidification, and promotion of redox potentials. The different mechanisms of resistance and interactions with metals have also been discussed. It has been also shown that rhizospheric bacteria may play beneficial roles in phytoremediation processes via facilitating bioavailability of heavy metals to plants such as maize and tomato, as well as for metal stress alleviation along rhizosphere of sensitive crops. In this chapter, we focused on the potentials of rhizobacteria for restoration of metal-affected soils and their role in improving metal uptake for phytoremediation processes. Because of the advantages of being less costly and environmental friendly, microbes are still the best tool for metal removal. But as living organisms, subject to death and decomposition through the geochemical cycles in the soil, their metal cleaning processes are never perfect and the removal may be tentative or not definitive. One of the foci now is on microbial bioengineering and genetic improvement of rhizobacteria and other soil microbial abilities for metal handling. Among the various microbial phyla in the rhizosphere, actinobacteria have drawn great interest due to their high biological compound production, which confer adaptation to a wide spectrum of ecological conditions, including metal contamination in soils. Their extremophilic traits and biological competitiveness in soil present them as possible efficient candidate for bioremediation. We included here their plant growth promotion capacity as well as their potentials for metal bioremediation.
Symbiosis between legume plants and soil rhizobia culminates in the formation of a novel root organ, the ‘nodule’, containing bacteria differentiated as facultative nitrogen-fixing organelles. MtNF-YA1 is aMedicago truncatula CCAAT box-binding transcription factor (TF), formerly called HAP2-1, highly expressed in mature nodules and required for nodule meristem function and persistence. Here a role for MtNF-YA1 during early nodule development is demonstrated. Detailed expression analysis based on RNA sequencing, quantitiative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), as well as promoter–β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions reveal that MtNF-YA1is first induced at the onset of symbiotic development during preparation for, and initiation and progression of, symbiotic infection. Moreover, using a new knock-out mutant, Mtnf-ya1-1, it is shown that MtNF-YA1 controls infection thread (IT) progression from initial root infection through colonization of nodule tissues. Extensive confocal and electronic microscopic observations suggest that the bulbous and erratic IT growth phenotypes observed in Mtnf-ya1-1 could be a consequence of the fact that walls of ITs in this mutant are thinner and less coherent than in the wild type. It is proposed that MtNF-YA1 controls rhizobial infection progression by regulating the formation and the wall of ITs.
Cyanobacteria – known as the “cockroaches” of aquatic environments – have been around for more than 2 billion years. Over their long evolutionary history, they have learned to tolerate many extreme conditions and are one of the toughest microorganisms on Earth. Cyanobacteria are also largely responsible for creating the oxygen-rich conditions that stimulated modern life
Jean-Michel Ané's insight:
The problem is the massive runoff of nutrients due to agricultural and industrial activity.. not the little cute cyanobacteria. There are no cockroaches if the house is clean... Anyway, I find cockroaches cute too!
There is a growing interest amongst community ecologists in functional traits. Response traits determine membership in communities. Effect traits influence ecosystem function. One goal of community ecology is to predict the effect of environmental change on ecosystem function. Environmental change can directly and indirectly affect ecosystem function. Indirect effects are mediated through shifts in community structure. It is difficult to predict how environmental change will affect ecosystem function via the indirect route when the change in effect trait distribution is not predictable from the change in response trait distribution. When response traits function as effect traits, however, it becomes possible to predict the indirect effect of environmental change on ecosystem function. Here we illustrate four examples in which key attributes of ectomycorrhizal fungi function as both response and effect traits. While plant ecologists have discussed response and effect traits in the context of community structuring and ecosystem function, this approach has not been applied to ectomycorrhizal fungi. This is unfortunate because of the large effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on ecosystem function. We hope to stimulate further research in this area in the hope of better predicting the ecosystem- and landscape-level effects of the fungi as influenced by changing environmental conditions.
Jean Garbaye a consacré sa carrière à l’étude de l’écologie forestière et notamment de la symbiose mycorhizienne. Interview avec un chercheur qui a les pieds sur terre.
Vous avez travaillé trois ans sur ce livre, et consacré votre carrière à la symbiose mycorhizienne. Pourquoi tant d’intérêt ?
La symbiose mycorhizienne, bien que connue depuis la fin du XIXème siècle, a très longtemps été considérée comme un phénomène anecdotique. Pourtant l’immense majorité des plantes terrestres ne pourraient pas vivre sans cette association avec les champignons. Elle a permis la colonisation du milieu terrestre par les végétaux il y a plus de 400 millions d’années : la plante fournit le carbone au champignon grâce à la photosynthèse, et le champignon capte dans le milieu l’eau et les minéraux dont a besoin la plante.
Wine grapes present a unique biogeography model, wherein microbial biodiversity patterns across viticultural zones not only answer questions of dispersal and community maintenance, they are also an inherent component of the quality, consumer acceptance, and economic appreciation of a culturally important food product. On their journey from the vineyard to the wine bottle, grapes are transformed to wine through microbial activity, with indisputable consequences for wine quality parameters. Wine grapes harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the surrounding environment, many of which are recognized for their role in grapevine health and wine quality. However, determinants of regional wine characteristics have not been identified, but are frequently assumed to stem from viticultural or geological factors alone. This study used a high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing approach to demonstrate that regional, site-specific, and grape-variety factors shape the fungal and bacterial consortia inhabiting wine-grape surfaces. Furthermore, these microbial assemblages are correlated to specific climatic features, suggesting a link between vineyard environmental conditions and microbial inhabitation patterns. Taken together, these factors shape the unique microbial inputs to regional wine fermentations, posing the existence of nonrandom “microbial terroir” as a determining factor in regional variation among wine grapes.
The mechanisms underpinning broad compatibility in root symbiosis are largely unexplored. The generalist root endophyte Piriformospora indica establishes long-lasting interactions with morphologically and biochemically different hosts, stimulating their growth, alleviating salt stress, and inducing local and systemic resistance to pathogens. Cytological studies and global investigations of fungal transcriptional responses to colonization of barley and Arabidopsis at different symbiotic stages identified host-dependent colonization strategies and host-specifically induced effector candidates. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, P. indica establishes and maintains biotrophic nutrition within living epidermal cells, whereas in barley the symbiont undergoes a nutritional switch to saprotrophy that is associated with the production of secondary thinner hyphae in dead cortex cells. Consistent with a diversified trophic behavior and with the occurrence of nitrogen deficiency at the onset of saprotrophy in barley, fungal genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters were highly induced in this host but not in Arabidopsis. Silencing of the high-affinity ammonium transporter PiAMT1 gene, whose transcripts are accumulating during nitrogen starvation and in barley, resulted in enhanced colonization of this host, whereas it had no effect on the colonization of Arabidopsis. Increased levels of free amino acids and reduced enzymatic activity for the cell-death marker VPE (vacuolar-processing enzyme) in colonized barley roots coincided with an extended biotrophic lifestyle of P. indica upon silencing of PiAMT1. This suggests that PiAmt1 functions as a nitrogen sensor mediating the signal that triggers the in planta activation of the saprotrophic program. Thus, host-related metabolic cues affect the expression of P. indica’s alternative lifestyles.
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on plants through induced plant defense. This model organism has provided much understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PGPR-induced plant defense. However, this knowledge can only be appreciated at full value once we know to what extent these mechanisms also occur under more realistic, species-diverse conditions as are occurring in the plant rhizosphere. To provide the necessary ecological context, we review the literature to compare the effect of P. fluorescens on induced plant defense when it is present as a single species or in combination with other soil dwelling species. Specifically, we discuss combinations with other plant mutualists (bacterial or fungal), plant pathogens (bacterial or fungal), bacterivores (nematode or protozoa), and decomposers. Synergistic interactions between P. fluorescens and other plant mutualists are much more commonly reported than antagonistic interactions. Recent developments have enabled screenings of P. fluorescens genomes for defense traits and this could help with selection of strains with likely positive interactions on biocontrol. However, studies that examine the effects of multiple herbivores, pathogens, or herbivores and pathogens together on the effectiveness of PGPR to induce plant defenses are underrepresented and we are not aware of any study that has examined interactions between P. fluorescens and bacterivores or decomposers. As co-occurring soil organisms can enhance but also reduce the effectiveness of PGPR, a better understanding of the biotic factors modulating P. fluorescens–plant interactions will improve the effectiveness of introducing P. fluorescens to enhance plant production and defense.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important plant symbionts that have long been considered evolutionary anomalies because of their apparent long-term lack of sexuality, but recent explorations of available DNA sequence have challenged this notion by revealing the presence of homologues of fungal mating type–high-mobility group (MATA-HMG) and core meiotic genes in these organisms.To obtain more insights into the sexual potential of AMF, homologues of MATA-HMGs were sought in the transcriptome of three AMF isolates, and their functional and evolutionary trajectories were studied in genetically divergent strains of Rhizophagus irregularisusing conventional and quantitative PCR procedures.Our analyses revealed the presence of at least 76 homologues of MATA-HMGs in R. irregularis isolates. None of these was found to be surrounded by genes generally found near other known fungal mating type loci, but here we report the presence of a 9-kb-long region in the AMF R. irregularis harbouring a total of four tandem-repeated MATA-HMGs; a feature that highlights a potentially elevated intragenomic diversity in this AMF species.The present study provides intriguing insights into the genome evolution of R. irregularis, and represents a stepping stone for understanding the potential of these fungi to undergo cryptic sex.
The importance of plant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) in multiple cellular processes has been evidenced by their unusual abundance and diversity; however, little is known about their biological role. Here, we characterized the in vitro chaperone activity and subcellular localization of nodulin 22 of Phaseolus vulgaris (PvNod22; common bean) and explored its cellular function through a virus-induced gene silencing–based reverse genetics approach. We established that PvNod22 facilitated the refolding of a model substrate in vitro, suggesting that it acts as a molecular chaperone in the cell. Through microscopy analyses of PvNod22, we determined its localization in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, we found that silencing of PvNod22resulted in necrotic lesions in the aerial organs of P. vulgaris plants cultivated under optimal conditions and that downregulation ofPvNod22 activated the ER-unfolded protein response (UPR) and cell death. We also established that PvNod22 expression in wild-type bean plants was modulated by abiotic stress but not by chemicals that trigger the UPR, indicating PvNod22 is not under UPR control. Our results suggest that the ability of PvNod22 to suppress protein aggregation contributes to the maintenance of ER homeostasis, thus preventing the induction of cell death via UPR in response to oxidative stress during plant-microbe interactions.
The black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) is an important natural resource due to its relevance as a delicacy in gastronomy. Different aspects of this hypogeous fungus species have been studied, including population genetics of French and Italian distribution ranges. Although those studies include some Spanish populations, this is the first time that the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the wide geographical range of the natural Spanish populations have been analysed. To achieve this goal, 23 natural populations were sampled across the Spanish geographical distribution. ISSR technique demonstrated its reliability and capability to detect high levels of polymorphism in the species. Studied populations showed high levels of genetic diversity (h N = 0.393, h S = 0.678, Hs = 0.418), indicating a non threatened genetic conservation status. These high levels may be a consequence of the wide distribution range of the species, of its spore dispersion by animals, and by its evolutionary history. AMOVA analysis showed a high degree of genetic structure among populations (47.89 %) and other partitions as geographical ranges. Bayesian genetic structure analyses differentiated two main Spanish groups separated by the Iberian Mountain System, and showed the genetic uniqueness of some populations. Our results suggest the survival of some of these populations during the last glaciation, the Spanish southern distribution range perhaps surviving as had occurred in France and Italy, but it is also likely that specific northern areas may have acted as a refugia for the later dispersion to other calcareous areas in the Iberian Peninsula and probably France.
In continuous agricultural systems, crop yields are directly dependent on the inherent soil fertility with microbial processes that governs the mineralization and mobilization of nutrients required for plant growth. The impact of different crop species that are used in various combinations is likely to be an important factor in determining the structure of plant benign microbial communities that function in nutrient cycling, the production of plant growth hormones, and suppression of root diseases. In the present scenario, a perceived role of biotechnology is to introduce multiple choreographed genes into plants that would elicit multiple benefits to the plants such as resistance to stress, productivity, and quality. Microbial genomes that have coevolved with native plant species may already be choreographed and compatible with a wide range of plant genomes and available in this vast unexplored genetic reservoir. Understanding of microbial genome and how it communicates with plant genome for their mutual welfare could lead to innovative methods of plant improvement. Increased adverse effects of abiotic and biotic stresses impacting productivity in principal crops are being witnessed all over the world. Extreme events like prolonged droughts, intense rains and flooding, heat waves, and frost damages are likely to further increase in future due to climate change. A wide range of adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with such impacts. Efficient resource management and crop improvement for evolving better breeds can help to overcome abiotic stresses to some extent. However, such strategies being long drawn and cost intensive, there is a need to develop simple and low cost-effective biological methods for the management of abiotic stress, which can be used on long-term basis. Therefore, studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that result from treatment of plants with benign microbes under stress conditions and only then will the full benefits of plant-microbe interaction be understood
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule which plays both regulatory and defense roles in animals and plants. In the symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia, NO has been shown to be involved in bacterial infection and nodule development steps as well as in mature nodule functioning. We recently showed that an increase in NO level inside Medicago truncatula root nodules also could trigger premature nodule senescence. Here we discuss the importance of the bacterialSinorhizobium meliloti flavohemoglobin to finely tune the NO level inside nodules and further, we demonstrate that S. meliloti possesses at least two non redundant ways to control NO and that both systems are necessary to maintain efficient nitrogen fixing activity.
Rhizobia, the root-nodule endosymbionts of leguminous plants, also form natural endophytic associations with roots of important cereal plants. Despite its widespread occurrence, much remains unknown about colonization of cereals by rhizobia. We examined the infection, dissemination, and colonization of healthy rice plant tissues by four species of gfp-tagged rhizobia and their influence on the growth physiology of rice. The results indicated a dynamic infection process beginning with surface colonization of the rhizoplane (especially at lateral root emergence), followed by endophytic colonization within roots, and then ascending endophytic migration into the stem base, leaf sheath, and leaves where they developed high populations. In situ CMEIAS image analysis indicated local endophytic population densities reaching as high as 9 × 1010 rhizobia per cm3 of infected host tissues, whereas plating experiments indicated rapid, transient or persistent growth depending on the rhizobial strain and rice tissue examined. Rice plants inoculated with certain test strains of gfp-tagged rhizobia produced significantly higher root and shoot biomass; increased their photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration velocity, water utilization efficiency, and flag leaf area (considered to possess the highest photosynthetic activity); and accumulated higher levels of indoleacetic acid and gibberellin growth-regulating phytohormones. Considered collectively, the results indicate that this endophytic plant-bacterium association is far more inclusive, invasive, and dynamic than previously thought, including dissemination in both below-ground and above-ground tissues and enhancement of growth physiology by several rhizobial species, therefore heightening its interest and potential value as a biofertilizer strategy for sustainable agriculture to produce the world's most important cereal crops.
If you have ever enjoyed the shade of an oak, decorated a pine, spruce or Douglas fir as a Christmas tree, admired the beauty of an orchid, or eaten a blueberry or chanterelle mushroom, you have benefited from the hidden world of mycorrhizal fungi, a world which makes the survival of most of earth's land plants possible.
The term mycorrhizae describes the symbiotic relationship between specialized soil fungi and the roots of most plants on Earth. In part one of his three-part series, Dr. Robert G. Linderman provides the straight scoop on mycorrhizal fungi and what they are good for. Greetings plant people! As a retired research plant pathologist, I have conducted research on diseases affecting ornamental and nursery crops for nearly 50 years and studied root diseases with the goal of developing an understanding of the role soil microbes play in plant growth and health. I help many growers better understand how to improve the quality and health of soil by highlighting the three interactive soil factors: soil chemistry, soil structure and soil microbiology. These three factors are like a three-legged stool that must be in balance for optimal results in growing plants. Currently, I am the science guy for two companies and consult with nurseries and other companies on the development of technology to apply beneficial microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi and associated rhizobacteria, and contribute microbiological technology that will aid in achieving sustainability in agricultural crop production. My role within these companies is to develop and transfer knowledge to production staff and provide them guidance and methodology so we can continue to produce the highest quality mycorrhizal fungal inoculum and other organic bio-based products for crop production systems. This boils down to biological farming, both philosophically and functionally. The following article is part one of a three-part series that aims to give the straight story on the biology and application of mycorrhizal fungi. I start with a description of these amazing fungi, and in future articles I will address application technology and my views on information and misinformation that growers might have been given.
Sexual reproduction is pervasive among eukaryotic organisms, yet many species have never been observed to undergo sex in the laboratory or in nature. Whether these species are asexual or sexual is a central question in biology. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the fungal Glomeromycota phylum have been thought to be ancient asexual species, but a recent study by Riley et al. published in this issue of New Phytologist (pp. 254–268) challenges this view by identifying a very large family of high mobility group (HMG) domain proteins, which function as sex determinants and in sexual reproduction in other fungi. This study opens a window onto the possible sexual nature of this highly successful group of species long thought to be asexual.
Mushrooms are one of the most powerful items in the Super Mario video game franchise, providing extra lives and making characters stronger. So wouldn’t it be great if real-life mushrooms could help the fight against climate change by boosting carbon sequestration?
Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.
Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Prymnesiophyceae) is a coastal coccolithophore with a long fossil record, extending back to the late Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma). A recent study revealed close phylogenetic relationships between B. bigelowii, Chrysochromulina parkeae(Prymnesiophyceae), and a prymnesiophyte that forms a symbiotic association with the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A. In order to further examine these relationships, we conducted transmission electron microscopic and molecular phylogenetic studies of B. bigelowii. TEM studies showed that, in addition to organelles, such as the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria, B. bigelowii contains one or two spheroid bodies with internal lamellae. In the 18S rDNA tree of the Prymnesiophyceae, C. parkeae fell within the B. bigelowiiclade, and was close to B. bigelowii Genotype III (99.89% similarity). Plastid 16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were close to the unidentified sequences from the oligotrophic SE Pacific Ocean (e.g. HM133411) (99.86% similarity). Bacterial16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were identical to the UCYN-A sequence AY621693 from Arabian Sea, and fell in the UCYN-A clade. From these results, we suggest that; 1) C. parkeaeis the alternate life cycle stage of B. bigelowii sensu stricto or that of a sibling species of B. bigelowii, and 2) the spheroid body of B. bigelowii originated from endosymbiosis of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A.
Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress.
3.5 billion people are alive today because of a single chemical process. The Haber-Bosch process takes Nitrogen from the air and makes ammonia, from which synthetic fertilizers allow farmers to feed our massive population.
Ammonia is a source of highly reactive nitrogen, suitable not just for fertilizer but also as an ingredient in bomb making and thousands of other applications.
Now we make around 100 million tonnes of ammonia annually, and spread most of it on our fields.
But this is a very inefficient way to use what amounts to 1-2% of the planet's energy needs. Only around 20% of fertilizer made ends up in our food.
Prof. Andrea Sella explores some of the alternative ways we might make fertilizer.
Legumes, such as peas and beans, allow certain cells in their roots to become infected by a specific type of bacteria. In return, these bacteria provide them with their own fertilizer.
Could we infect the plants we want to grow for food - such as cereals - in a similar way to cut down the climatic and environmental impact of Haber-Bosch?
Jean-Michel Ané's insight:
Worth listening to. Really good... with a few exceptions. I will let you figure out which ones!