Plant Microbe Interactions
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Frontiers | Bespoke microbiome therapy to manage plant diseases | Frontiers in Plant-Microbe Interaction

Advanced biological technologies are revealing that the microbiome, located in gut and rhizosphere, is responsible for maintaining the health of human beings and plants, respectively.
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Want to Feed Your Microbiome? Eat More Veggies! | The Kitchn

Want to Feed Your Microbiome? Eat More Veggies! | The Kitchn | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
[Microbiome researcher Jeff] Leach recommends getting it from vegetables. Eat a variety of veggies, and eat the whole thing, he recommends. "If you're going to eat asparagus, eat the whole plant, not just the tips," he says.
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The Future of Organic Foods | OMTimes Magazine

The Future of Organic Foods | OMTimes Magazine | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
In Organic Foods: Organic food production is a self-regulated industry with government oversight in some countries, distinct from private gardening.
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Rescooped by Ian Graham from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions

Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by soil microorganisms influence plant growth and pathogen resistance. Yet, very little is known about their influence on herbivores and higher trophic levels. We studied the origin and role of a major bacterial VOC, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), on plant growth, pathogen and herbivore resistance and the attraction of natural enemies in maize. One of the major contributors to 2,3-BD in the headspace of soil grown maize seedlings was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, an endophytic bacterium that colonizes the plants. The production of 2,3-BD by E. aerogenes rendered maize plants more resistant against the Northern corn leaf blight fungus Setosphaeria turcica. On the other hand, E. aerogenes-inoculated plants were less resistant against the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. The effect of 2,3-BD on the attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris was more variable: 2,3-BD application to the headspace of the plants had no effect on the parasitoids, but application to the soil increased parasitoid attraction. Also, inoculation of seeds with Enterobacter aerogenes decreased plant attractiveness, whereas inoculating soil with a total extract of soil microbes increased parasitoid attraction, suggesting that the effect of 2,3-BD on the parasitoid are indirect and depend on the composition of the microbial community.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Inside the root microbiome: Bacterial root endophytes and plant growth promotion

Bacterial root endophytes reside in a vast number of plant species as part of their root microbiome, with some being shown to positively influence plant growth. Endophyte community structure (species diversity: richness and relative abundances) within the plant is dynamic and is influenced by abiotic and biotic factors such as soil conditions, biogeography, plant species, microbe–microbe interactions and plant–microbe interactions, both at local and larger scales. Plant-growth-promoting bacterial endophytes (PGPBEs) have been identified, but the predictive success at positively influencing plant growth in field conditions has been limited. Concurrent to the development of modern molecular techniques, the goal of predicting an organism’s ability to promote plant growth can perhaps be realized by more thorough examination of endophyte community dynamics. This paper reviews the drivers of endophyte community structure relating to plant growth promotion, the mechanisms of plant growth promotion, and the current and future use of molecular techniques to study these communities.


Via Stijn Spaepen
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Rescooped by Ian Graham from Plants and Microbes
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Nature Reviews Microbiology: Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere (2013)

Nature Reviews Microbiology: Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere (2013) | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

The rhizosphere is the interface between plant roots and soil where interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and invertebrates affect biogeochemical cycling, plant growth and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. The rhizosphere is intriguingly complex and dynamic, and understanding its ecology and evolution is key to enhancing plant productivity and ecosystem functioning. Novel insights into key factors and evolutionary processes shaping the rhizosphere microbiome will greatly benefit from integrating reductionist and systems-based approaches in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. Here, we discuss recent developments in rhizosphere research in relation to assessing the contribution of the micro- and macroflora to sustainable agriculture, nature conservation, the development of bio-energy crops and the mitigation of climate change.


Via Francis Martin, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from Pea Fields in ...

Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from Pea Fields in ... | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
ISRN Soil Science is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of soil science.
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The secret life of underground microbes: Plant root microbiomes rule ...

The secret life of underground microbes: Plant root microbiomes rule ... | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
We often ignore what we cannot see, and yet organisms below the soil's surface play a vital role in plant functions and ecosystem well-being. These microbes can influence a plant's genetic structure, its health, and its ...
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Rescooped by Ian Graham from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Root Systems Biology: Integrative Modeling across Scales, from Gene Regulatory Networks to the Rhizosphere

Root Systems Biology: Integrative Modeling across Scales, from Gene Regulatory Networks to the Rhizosphere | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Genetic and genomic approaches in model organisms have advanced our understanding of root biology over the last decade. Recently, however, systems biology and modeling have emerged as important approaches, as our understanding of root regulatory pathways has become more complex and interpreting pathway outputs has become less intuitive. To relate root genotype to phenotype, we must move beyond the examination of interactions at the genetic network scale and employ multiscale modeling approaches to predict emergent properties at the tissue, organ, organism, and rhizosphere scales. Understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and the complex interplay between systems at these different scales requires an integrative approach. Here, we describe examples of such approaches and discuss the merits of developing models to span multiple scales, from network to population levels, and to address dynamic interactions between plants and their environment.


Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Ian Graham from Rhizobium Research
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The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms

The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Microbial communities play a pivotal role in the functioning of plants by influencing their physiology and development. While many members of the rhizosphere microbiome are beneficial to plant growth, also plant pathogenic microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere striving to break through the protective microbial shield and to overcome the innate plant defense mechanisms in order to cause disease. A third group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere are the true and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria, which can be carried on or in plant tissue and may cause disease when introduced into debilitated humans. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, for the vast majority of rhizosphere microorganisms no knowledge exists. To enhance plant growth and health, it is essential to know which microorganism is present in the rhizosphere microbiome and what they are doing. Here, we review the main functions of rhizosphere microorganisms and how they impact on health and disease. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we highlight several strategies to redirect or reshape the rhizosphere microbiome in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health.


Via Francis Martin, Praveen Rahi, Jean-Michel Ané, IvanOresnik
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Rescooped by Ian Graham from Rhizobium Research
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High phosphate reduces host ability to develop mycorrhizal symbiosis without affecting calcium spiking

High phosphate reduces host ability to develop  mycorrhizal symbiosis without affecting calcium spiking | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis associates soil fungi with the roots of the majority of plants species and represents a major source of soil phosphorus acquisition. Mycorrhizal interactions begin with an exchange of molecular signals between the two partners. A root signaling pathway is recruited, for which the perception of fungal signals triggers oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration. High phosphate availability is known to inhibit the establishment and/or persistence of this symbiosis, thereby favoring the direct, non-symbiotic uptake of phosphorus by the root system. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were used to investigate the effects of phosphate supply on the early stages of the interaction. When plants were supplied with high phosphate fungal attachment to the roots was drastically reduced. An experimental system was designed to individually study the effects of phosphate supply on the fungus, on the roots, and on root exudates. These experiments revealed that the most important effects of high phosphate supply were on the roots themselves, which became unable to host mycorrhizal fungi even when these had been appropriately stimulated. The ability of the roots to perceive their fungal partner was then investigated by monitoring nuclear calcium spiking in response to fungal signals. This response did not appear to be affected by high phosphate supply. In conclusion, high levels of phosphate predominantly impact the plant host, but apparently not in its ability to perceive the fungal partner.

 

Balzergue C, Chabaud M, Barker DG, Bécard G, Rochange SF. (2014).  Front Plant Sci. Oct 29;4:426


Via IvanOresnik
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Rescooped by Ian Graham from Plant microbiome studies
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Rhizosphere microbiome assemblage is affected b...

Rhizosphere microbiome assemblage is affected b... | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
There is a concerted understanding of the ability of root exudates to influence the structure of rhizosphere microbial communities.

Via Nina Dombrowski
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Rescooped by Ian Graham from Plant roots and rhizosphere
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Auxin and the integration of environmental signals into plant root development

Auxin and the integration of environmental signals into plant root development | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Abstract

Background Auxin is a versatile plant hormone with important roles in many essential physiological processes. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards understanding the roles of this hormone in plant growth and development. Recent evidence also points to a less well-known but equally important role for auxin as a mediator of environmental adaptation in plants.

Scope This review briefly discusses recent findings on how plants utilize auxin signalling and transport to modify their root system architecture when responding to diverse biotic and abiotic rhizosphere signals, including macro- and micro-nutrient starvation, cold and water stress, soil acidity, pathogenic and beneficial microbes, nematodes and neighbouring plants. Stress-responsive transcription factors and microRNAs that modulate auxin- and environment-mediated root development are also briefly highlighted.

Conclusions The auxin pathway constitutes an essential component of the plant's biotic and abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms. Further understanding of the specific roles that auxin plays in environmental adaptation can ultimately lead to the development of crops better adapted to stressful environments.

 

 


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Soil Microbiome Patterns Point to Past Diversity of Native Tallgrass Prairie - GenomeWeb

Soil Microbiome Patterns Point to Past Diversity of Native Tallgrass Prairie - GenomeWeb | Plant Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Soil Microbiome Patterns Point to Past Diversity of Native Tallgrass Prairie GenomeWeb NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) – In a study published online today in Science, researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of Kentucky at...
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