MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Induced Systemic Resistance by Beneficial Microbes

Induced Systemic Resistance by Beneficial Microbes | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed.

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Ancient genomic changes associated with domestication of the horse

Ancient genomic changes associated with domestication of the horse | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

The domestication of the horse was a seminal event in human cultural evolution. Librado et al. obtained genome sequences from 14 horses from the Bronze and Iron Ages, about 2000 to 4000 years ago, soon after domestication. They identified variants determining coat color and genes selected during the domestication process. They could also see evidence of admixture with archaic horses and the demography of the domestication process, which included the accumulation of deleterious variants. The horse appears to have undergone a different type of domestication process than animals that were domesticated simply for food.

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Spatial heterogeneity of cellulolytic activity and fungal communities within individual decomposing Quercus petraea leaves

Spatial heterogeneity of cellulolytic activity and fungal communities within individual decomposing Quercus petraea leaves | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Heterogeneity within forest topsoils including litter has been described at different scales, but rarely at the small scale. Here we asked whether the spatial heterogeneity of enzymatic activity can be linked to fungal community composition at the scale of a single Quercus petraea leaf. The activity of cellobiohydrolase (exocellulase) was measured over the surface of leaves at different stages of decomposition, and fungal communities from parts with high and low enzyme activity were characterized. Cellobiohydrolase activity increased with time and varied considerably across leaf surfaces. Highly diverse communities of fungi, specific for each stage of decomposition were observed within leaf sections of 1 cm2. In still attached, but senescent leaves, where cellulose hydrolysis occurred only locally, parts of leaves with the highest cellulolytic activity were inhabited by a specific community of fungi, enriched in cellulolytic taxa and different from nonactive parts of the same leaves. In older litter, fungal communities in active and nonactive parts of leaves did not differ significantly.

Via Petr Baldrian
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An annotated translation of Noël Bernard’s 1899 article ‘On the germination of Neottia nidus-avis’

An annotated translation of Noël Bernard’s 1899 article ‘On the germination of Neottia nidus-avis’ | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
We translate Noël Bernard’s discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874–1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard’s career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood. We comment the text of Bernard on the basis of the most recent knowledge on Neottia nidus-avis and on orchid mycorrhizal fungi. Introducing his following papers, we finally discuss the emergence of the concept of peloton digestion, and how Bernard’s work quickly paved the way to a general understanding of mycoheterotrophic germination in orchids and beyond.
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The fungal holobiont: Evidence from early diverging fungi

The fungal holobiont: Evidence from early diverging fungi | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
The endosymbiosis of bacteria is a hallmark in the evolution of eukaryotic cells and it is not limited to the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts (Margulis, 1991). Microbial symbionts contribute to the fitness, development and evolution of eukaryotic hosts. Thus, eukaryotes cannot longer be considered individual entities, but rather holobionts (host plus microbial symbionts) with an hologenome (host + organelles + microbial genomes) in which evolutionary processes act (Bordenstein and Theis, 2015; Rosenberg and Zilber-Rosenberg, 2016). The term holobiont and hologenome has been mostly used in animals and plants (Rosenberg et al., 2007; Vandenkoornhuyse et al., 2015), but as we will highlight here, the investigations by Uehling et al., and Li et al., published now in Environmental Microbiology, together with the advances in the field, demonstrate that fungi can also be considered holobionts.
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A Functional Approach towards Understanding the Role of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain in an Endomycorrhizal Symbiosis

A Functional Approach towards Understanding the Role of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain in an Endomycorrhizal Symbiosis | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called “second green revolution” by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness. Organism fitness and adaptation to the changing environment can be driven by the modulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, strongly connected to the phosphorus processing. Nevertheless, the role of the respiratory function in mycorrhiza remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that the two mitochondrial respiratory chain components, alternative oxidase (AOX) and cytochrome oxidase (COX), are involved in specific mycorrhizal behavior. For this, a complex approach was developed. At the pre-symbiotic phase (axenic conditions), we studied phenotypic responses of Rhizoglomus irregulare spores with two AOX and COX inhibitors [respectively, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and potassium cyanide (KCN)] and two growth regulators (abscisic acid – ABA and gibberellic acid – Ga3). At the symbiotic phase, we analyzed phenotypic and transcriptomic (genes involved in respiration, transport, and fermentation) responses in Solanum tuberosum/Rhizoglomus irregulare biosystem (glasshouse conditions): we monitored the effects driven by ABA, and explored the modulations induced by SHAM and KCN under five phosphorus concentrations. KCN and SHAM inhibited in vitro spore germination while ABA and Ga3 induced differential spore germination and hyphal patterns. ABA promoted mycorrhizal colonization, strong arbuscule intensity and positive mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD). In ABA treated plants, R. irregulare induced down-regulation of StAOX gene isoforms and up-regulation of genes involved in plant COX pathway. In all phosphorus (P) concentrations, blocking AOX or COX induced opposite mycorrhizal patterns in planta: KCN induced higher Arum-type arbuscule density, positive MGD but lower root colonization compared to SHAM, which favored Paris-type formation and negative MGD. Following our results and current state-of-the-art knowledge, we discuss metabolic functions linked to respiration that may occur within mycorrhizal behavior. We highlight potential connections between AOX pathways and fermentation, and we propose new research and mycorrhizal application perspectives.
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Root evolution at the base of the lycophyte clade: insights from an Early Devonian lycophyte

Root evolution at the base of the lycophyte clade: insights from an Early Devonian lycophyte | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Background and Aims The evolution of complex rooting systems during the Devonian had significant impacts on global terrestrial ecosystems and the evolution of plant body plans. However, detailed understanding of the pathways of root evolution and the architecture of early rooting systems is currently lacking. We describe the architecture and resolve the structural homology of the rooting system of an Early Devonian basal lycophyte. Insights gained from these fossils are used to address lycophyte root evolution and homology. Methods Plant fossils are preserved as carbonaceous compressions at Cottonwood Canyon (Wyoming), in the Lochkovian–Pragian (∼411 Ma; Early Devonian) Beartooth Butte Formation. We analysed 177 rock specimens and documented morphology, cuticular anatomy and structural relationships, as well as stratigraphic position and taphonomic conditions. Key Results The rooting system of the Cottonwood Canyon lycophyte is composed of modified stems that bear fine, dichotomously branching lateral roots. These modified stems, referred to as root-bearing axes, are produced at branching points of the above-ground shoot system. Root-bearing axes preserved in growth position exhibit evidence of positive gravitropism, whereas the lateral roots extend horizontally. Consistent recurrence of these features in successive populations of the plant preserved in situ demonstrates that they represent constitutive structural traits and not opportunistic responses of a flexible developmental programme. Conclusions This is the oldest direct evidence for a rooting system preserved in growth position. These rooting systems, which can be traced to a parent plant, include some of the earliest roots known to date and demonstrate that substantial plant–substrate interactions were under way by Early Devonian time. The morphological relationships between stems, root-bearing axes and roots corroborate evidence that positive gravitropism and root identity were evolutionarily uncoupled in lycophytes, and challenge the hypothesis that roots evolved from branches of the above-ground axial system, suggesting instead that lycophyte roots arose as a novel organ.
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Divergent and convergent modes of interaction between wheat and Puccinia graminis f. sp . tritici isolates revealed by the comparative gene co-expression network and genome analyses

Divergent and convergent modes of interaction between wheat and Puccinia graminis f. sp . tritici isolates revealed by the comparative gene co-expression network and genome analyses | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Two opposing evolutionary constraints exert pressure on plant pathogens: one to diversify virulence factors in order to evade plant defenses, and the other to retain virulence factors critical for maintaining a compatible interaction with the plant host. To better understand how the diversified arsenals of fungal genes promote interaction with the same compatible wheat line, the authors performed a comparative genomic analysis of two North American isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). The patterns of inter-isolate divergence in the secreted candidate effector genes were compared with the levels of conservation and divergence of plant-pathogen gene co-expression networks (GCN) developed for each isolate. Comprative genomic analyses revealed substantial level of interisolate divergence in effector gene complement and sequence divergence and suggest that at the intra-species level pathogen populations likely maintain divergent sets of effectors capable of targeting the same plant host pathways. This functional redundancy may play an important role in the dynamic of the “arms-race” between host and pathogen serving as the basis for diverse virulence strategies and creating conditions where mutations in certain effector groups will not have a major effect on the pathogen’s ability to infect the host.


Via Norwich Rust Group
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Colloque: Académie des sciences "Symbiose et cohabitation", Paris, 25 avril 2017

Colloque: Académie des sciences "Symbiose et cohabitation", Paris, 25 avril 2017 | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Les interactions symbiotiques sont beaucoup plus répandues que ce que l’on pensait jusqu'à récemment. Ce qui était souvent considéré comme une simple cohabitation avec des microorganismes commensaux se trouve être une véritable association à bénéfices réciproques, avec échanges multiples de signaux entre partenaires. L’essor de la métagénomique et de la biologie cellulaire permet maintenant une analyse beaucoup plus détaillée de ces interactions. Le principal modèle de symbiose étudié au niveau moléculaire a été l’interaction entre légumineuses et la bactérie Sinorhizobium qui aide la plante à fixer l’azote atmosphérique. De nombreuses autres symbioses sont maintenant à l’étude. L’objectif de ce colloque est de faire le point de nos connaissances, notamment sur ces nouveaux modèles d’interaction et d’en comprendre les mécanismes et la signalisation.

-> Mardi 25 avril 2017 de 9h30 à 17h, en Grande salle des séances de l'Institut de France.
 

Via Life Sciences UPSaclay, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Invasive Plants Rapidly Reshape Soil Properties in a Grassland Ecosystem

Invasive Plants Rapidly Reshape Soil Properties in a Grassland Ecosystem | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Plant invasions often reduce native plant diversity and increase net primary productivity. Invaded soils appear to differ from surrounding soils in ways that impede restoration of diverse native plant communities. We hypothesize that invader-mediated shifts in edaphic properties reproducibly alter soil microbial community structure and function. Here, we take a holistic approach, characterizing plant, prokaryotic, and fungal communities and soil physicochemical properties in field sites, invasion gradients, and experimental plots for three invasive plant species that cooccur in the Rocky Mountain West. Each invader had a unique impact on soil physicochemical properties. We found that invasions drove shifts in the abundances of specific microbial taxa, while overall belowground community structure and functional potential were fairly constant. Forb invaders were generally enriched in copiotrophic bacteria with higher 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and showed greater microbial carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic potential. Older invasions had stronger effects on abiotic soil properties, indicative of multiyear successions. Overall, we show that plant invasions are idiosyncratic in their impact on soils and are directly responsible for driving reproducible shifts in the soil environment over multiyear time scales.

IMPORTANCE In this study, we show how invasive plant species drive rapid shifts in the soil environment from surrounding native communities. Each of the three plant invaders had different but consistent effects on soils. Thus, there does not appear to be a one-size-fits-all strategy for how plant invaders alter grassland soil environments. This work represents a crucial step toward understanding how invaders might be able to prevent or impair native reestablishment by changing soil biotic and abiotic properties.
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Regulation of proteinaceous effector expression in phytopathogenic fungi

Effectors are molecules used by microbial pathogens to facilitate infection via effector-triggered susceptibility or tissue necrosis in their host. Much research has been focussed on the identification and elucidating the function of fungal effectors during plant pathogenesis. By comparison, knowledge of how phytopathogenic fungi regulate the expression of effector genes has been lagging. Several recent studies have illustrated the role of various transcription factors, chromosome-based control, effector epistasis, and mobilisation of endosomes within the fungal hyphae in regulating effector expression and virulence on the host plant. Improved knowledge of effector regulation is likely to assist in improving novel crop protection strategies.
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Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change

Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

 The ecology of forest soils is an important field of research due to the role of forests as carbon sinks. Consequently, a significant amount of information has been accumulated concerning their ecology, especially for temperate and boreal forests. Although most studies have focused on fungi, forest soil bacteria also play important roles in this environment. In forest soils, bacteria inhabit multiple habitats with specific properties, including bulk soil, rhizosphere, litter, and deadwood habitats, where their communities are shaped by nutrient availability and biotic interactions. Bacteria contribute to a range of essential soil processes involved in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. They take part in the decomposition of dead plant biomass and are highly important for the decomposition of dead fungal mycelia. In rhizospheres of forest trees, bacteria interact with plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi as commensalists or mycorrhiza helpers. Bacteria also mediate multiple critical steps in the nitrogen cycle, including N fixation. Bacterial communities in forest soils respond to the effects of global change, such as climate warming, increased levels of carbon dioxide, or anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. This response, however, often reflects the specificities of each studied forest ecosystem, and it is still impossible to fully incorporate bacteria into predictive models. The understanding of bacterial ecology in forest soils has advanced dramatically in recent years, but it is still incomplete. The exact extent of the contribution of bacteria to forest ecosystem processes will be recognized only in the future, when the activities of all soil community members are studied simultaneously.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Bob Reeves's curator insight, April 19, 7:28 AM
Our understanding of the highly-integrated microbial communities that constitute the Microbiome in healthy, naturalized soils is increasing daily. When nurtured and allowed to run, this engine of nutrient cycling and capture supports all forests - and can be re-engaged to help urban and agricultural ecosystems as well.
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An improved assembly and annotation of the allohexaploid wheat genome identifies complete families of agronomic genes and provides genomic evidence for chromosomal translocations

Advances in genome sequencing and assembly technologies are generating many high-quality genome sequences, but assemblies of large, repeat-rich polyploid genomes, such as that of bread wheat, remain fragmented and incomplete. We have generated a new wheat whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly using a combination of optimized data types and an assembly algorithm designed to deal with large and complex genomes. The new assembly represents >78% of the genome with a scaffold N50 of 88.8 kb that has a high fidelity to the input data. Our new annotation combines strand-specific Illumina RNA-seq and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) full-length cDNAs to identify 104,091 high-confidence protein-coding genes and 10,156 noncoding RNA genes. We confirmed three known and identified one novel genome rearrangements. Our approach enables the rapid and scalable assembly of wheat genomes, the identification of structural variants, and the definition of complete gene models, all powerful resources for trait analysis and breeding of this key global crop.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Role and functioning of bHLH transcription factors in jasmonate signalling | Journal of Experimental Botany |

Role and functioning of bHLH transcription factors in jasmonate signalling | Journal of Experimental Botany | | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Plant growth, development and interaction with the environment involve the action of multiple phytohormones. Transcription factors (TFs) of diverse families play essential roles in the signalling cascades triggered by the perception of a particular hormone. TFs may act alone or in a combinatorial fashion with other TFs, and may act specifically in a single hormonal signalling cascade or as signalling hubs for multiple hormones. In the signalling cascades triggered by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA), which modulates a diverse, but specific, range of aspects of plant growth, development and defence, the TFs of the basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) family play an essential and often conserved role in the plant kingdom. Here, we first discuss the bHLH TFs involved in all kinds of JA-modulated processes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Secondly, we elaborate on the identity and role of bHLH TFs in the conserved JA-mediated elicitation of specialized metabolism of medicinal and crop species. Finally, we discuss which directions future fundamental research on the functioning of bHLH TFs in JA signalling may head for and how this research can be translated from model plants into crop and medicinal plant species to engineer traits of agronomical and industrial interest.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Mechanism and color modulation of fungal bioluminescence

Mechanism and color modulation of fungal bioluminescence | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Bioluminescent fungi are spread throughout the globe, but details on their mechanism of light emission are still scarce. Usually, the process involves three key components: an oxidizable luciferin substrate, a luciferase enzyme, and a light emitter, typically oxidized luciferin, and called oxyluciferin. We report the structure of fungal oxyluciferin, investigate the mechanism of fungal bioluminescence, and describe the use of simple synthetic α-pyrones as luciferins to produce multicolor enzymatic chemiluminescence. A high-energy endoperoxide is proposed as an intermediate of the oxidation of the native luciferin to the oxyluciferin, which is a pyruvic acid adduct of caffeic acid. Luciferase promiscuity allows the use of simple α-pyrones as chemiluminescent substrates.
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Exploring the binding properties and structural stability of an opsin in the chytrid Spizellomyces punctatus using comparative and molecular modeling

Exploring the binding properties and structural stability of an opsin in the chytrid Spizellomyces punctatus using comparative and molecular modeling | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins) are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes. Opsins characterized in the Dikarya (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) are of the type 1 bacteriorhodopsin family but the early diverging fungal lineages have not been as well surveyed. We identified by sequence similarity a rhodopsin-like GPCR in genomes of early diverging chytrids and examined the structural characteristics of this protein to assess its likelihood to be homologous to animal rhodopsins and bind similar chromophores.


Methods. We used template-based structure modeling, automated ligand docking, and molecular modeling to assess the structural and binding properties of an identified opsin-like protein found in Spizellomyces punctatus, a unicellular, flagellated species belonging to Chytridiomycota, one of the earliest diverging fungal lineages. We tested if the sequence and inferred structure were consistent with a solved crystal structure of a type 2 rhodopsin from the squid Todarodes pacificus.


Results. Our results indicate that the Spizellomyces opsin has structural characteristics consistent with functional animal type 2 rhodopsins and is capable of maintaining a stable structure when associated with the retinaldehyde chromophore, specifically the 9-cis-retinal isomer. Together, these results support further the homology of Spizellomyces opsins to animal type 2 rhodopsins.

Discussion. This represents the first test of structure/function relationship of a type 2 rhodopsin identified in early branching fungal lineages, and provides a foundation for future work exploring pathways and components of photoreception in early fungi.

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Integrated proteomics and metabolomics suggests symbiotic metabolism and multimodal regulation in a fungal-endobacterial system

Integrated proteomics and metabolomics suggests symbiotic metabolism and multimodal regulation in a fungal-endobacterial system | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Many plant-associated fungi host endosymbiotic endobacteria with reduced genomes. While endobacteria play important roles in these tri-partite plant–fungal–endobacterial systems, the active physiology of fungal endobacteria has not been characterized extensively by systems biology approaches. Here, we use integrated proteomics and metabolomics to characterize the relationship between the endobacterium Mycoavidus sp. and the root-associated fungus Mortierella elongata. In nitrogen-poor media, M. elongata had decreased growth but hosted a large and growing endobacterial population. The active endobacterium likely extracted malate from the fungal host as the primary carbon substrate for energy production and biosynthesis of phospho-sugars, nucleobases, peptidoglycan and some amino acids. The endobacterium obtained nitrogen by importing a variety of nitrogen-containing compounds. Further, nitrogen limitation significantly perturbed the carbon and nitrogen flows in the fungal metabolic network. M. elongata regulated many pathways by concordant changes on enzyme abundances, post-translational modifications, reactant concentrations and allosteric effectors. Such multimodal regulations may be a general mechanism for metabolic modulation.
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Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus): the Iceman’s polypore fungus with modern biotechnological potential

Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus): the Iceman’s polypore fungus with modern biotechnological potential | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Higher Basidiomycota have been used in natural medicine throughout the world for centuries. One of such fungi is Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus), which causes brown rot of birch wood. Annual white to brownish fruiting bodies of the species can be found on trees in the northern hemisphere but F. betulina can also be cultured as a mycelium and fruiting body. The fungus has a long tradition of being applied in folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent. Probably due to the curative properties, pieces of its fruiting body were carried by Ötzi the Iceman. Modern research confirms the health-promoting benefits of F. betulina. Pharmacological studies have provided evidence supporting the antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, and immunomodulating activities of F. betulina preparations. Biologically active compounds such as triterpenoids have been isolated. The mushroom is also a reservoir of valuable enzymes and other substances such as cell wall (1→3)-α-d-glucan which can be used for induction of microbial enzymes degrading cariogenic dental biofilm. In conclusion, F. betulina can be considered as a promising source for the development of new products for healthcare and other biotechnological uses.
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Phylogeny, divergence time and historical biogeography of Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales)

Phylogeny, divergence time and historical biogeography of Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Background

The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular relationship, origin and historical biogeography of the species in important brown rot fungal genus Laetiporus from East Asia, Europe, Pan-America, Hawaii and South Africa. We used six genetic markers to estimate a genus-level phylogeny including (1) the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), (2) nuclear large subunit rDNA (nrLSU), (3) nuclear small subunit rDNA (nrSSU), (4) translation elongation factor 1-α (EF-1α), (5) DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (RPB2), and (6) mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU).
Results

Results of multi-locus phylogenetic analyses show clade support for at least seventeen species-level lineages including two new Laetiporus in China. Molecular dating using BEAST estimated the present crown group diverged approximately 20.16 million years ago (Mya) in the early Miocene. Biogeographic analyses using RASP indicated that Laetiporus most likely originated in temperate zones with East Asia and North America having the highest probability (48%) of being the ancestral area.
Conclusions

Four intercontinental dispersal routes and a possible concealed dispersal route were established for the first time.
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Leaf rust infection reduces herbivore‐induced volatile emission in black poplar and attracts a generalist herbivore

Leaf rust infection reduces herbivore‐induced volatile emission in black poplar and attracts a generalist herbivore | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it

Plants release complex volatile blends after separate attack by herbivores and pathogens, which play many roles in interactions with other organisms. Large perennials are often attacked by multiple enemies, but the effect of combined attacks on volatile emission is rarely studied, particularly in trees. The authors inoculated Populus nigra trees with the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina, and Lymantria dispar caterpillars alone and in combination. They subsequently investigated poplar volatile emission and its regulation, as well as the behavior of the caterpillars towards volatiles from rust-infected and uninfected trees. Both the rust fungus and the caterpillars alone induced volatile emission from poplar trees. However, the herbivore-induced volatile emission was significantly reduced when trees were under combined attack by the herbivore and the fungus. Herbivory induced terpene synthase transcripts as well as jasmonate concentrations, but these increases were suppressed when the tree was additionally infected with rust. Caterpillars preferred volatiles from rust-infected over uninfected trees. Our results suggest a defense hormone crosstalk upon combined herbivore–pathogen attack in poplar trees which results in lowered emission of herbivore-induced volatiles. This influences the preference of herbivores, and might have other far-reaching consequences for the insect and pathogen communities in natural poplar forests.


Via Norwich Rust Group
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Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt

Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Fungi have recently been found to comprise a significant part of the deep biosphere in oceanic sediments and crustal rocks. Fossils occupying fractures and pores in Phanerozoic volcanics indicate that this habitat is at least 400 million years old, but its origin may be considerably older. A 2.4-billion-year-old basalt from the Palaeoproterozoic Ongeluk Formation in South Africa contains filamentous fossils in vesicles and fractures. The filaments form mycelium-like structures growing from a basal film attached to the internal rock surfaces. Filaments branch and anastomose, touch and entangle each other. They are indistinguishable from mycelial fossils found in similar deep-biosphere habitats in the Phanerozoic, where they are attributed to fungi on the basis of chemical and morphological similarities to living fungi. The Ongeluk fossils, however, are two to three times older than current age estimates of the fungal clade. Unless they represent an unknown branch of fungus-like organisms, the fossils imply that the fungal clade is considerably older than previously thought, and that fungal origin and early evolution may lie in the oceanic deep biosphere rather than on land. The Ongeluk discovery suggests that life has inhabited submarine volcanics for more than 2.4 billion years.
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SAR202 Genomes from the Dark Ocean Predict Pathways for the Oxidation of Recalcitrant Dissolved Organic Matter

SAR202 Genomes from the Dark Ocean Predict Pathways for the Oxidation of Recalcitrant Dissolved Organic Matter | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Deep-ocean regions beyond the reach of sunlight contain an estimated 615 Pg of dissolved organic matter (DOM), much of which persists for thousands of years. It is thought that bacteria oxidize DOM until it is too dilute or refractory to support microbial activity. We analyzed five single-amplified genomes (SAGs) from the abundant SAR202 clade of dark-ocean bacterioplankton and found they encode multiple families of paralogous enzymes involved in carbon catabolism, including several families of oxidative enzymes that we hypothesize participate in the degradation of cyclic alkanes. The five partial genomes encoded 152 flavin mononucleotide/F420-dependent monooxygenases (FMNOs), many of which are predicted to be type II Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) that catalyze oxygen insertion into semilabile alicyclic alkanes. The large number of oxidative enzymes, as well as other families of enzymes that appear to play complementary roles in catabolic pathways, suggests that SAR202 might catalyze final steps in the biological oxidation of relatively recalcitrant organic compounds to refractory compounds that persist.
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Managing and manipulating the rhizosphere microbiome for plant health: A systems approach

Managing and manipulating the rhizosphere microbiome for plant health: A systems approach | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Plants co-evolved with microbes, and plant genotypes that supported microbiomes that increased their own health likely had a fitness advantage under natural selection. Plant domestication and crop breeding under fertilization have largely decoupled the rhizosphere microbiome from plant selection. If important interactions have been lost as a result, there is an exciting opportunity to re-engineer characteristics of beneficial rhizosphere microbiomes back into agricultural cropping systems. New tools will allow us to engineer the rhizosphere with increasing sophistication in the future, but must recognize that the rhizosphere is a highly connected and interactive system.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Scooped by Francis Martin
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Building a better foundation: improving root-trait measurements to understand and model plant and ecosystem processes

Building a better foundation: improving root-trait measurements to understand and model plant and ecosystem processes | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
Trait-based approaches provide a useful framework to investigate plant strategies for resource acquisition, growth, and competition, as well as plant impacts on ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress capturing trait variation within and among stems and leaves, identification of trait syndromes within fine-root systems and between fine roots and other plant organs is limited. Here we discuss three underappreciated areas where focused measurements of fine-root traits can make significant contributions to ecosystem science. These include assessment of spatiotemporal variation in fine-root traits, integration of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root-trait frameworks, and the need for improved scaling of traits measured on individual roots to ecosystem-level processes. Progress in each of these areas is providing opportunities to revisit how below-ground processes are represented in terrestrial biosphere models. Targeted measurements of fine-root traits with clear linkages to ecosystem processes and plant responses to environmental change are strongly needed to reduce empirical and model uncertainties. Further identifying how and when suites of root and whole-plant traits are coordinated or decoupled will ultimately provide a powerful tool for modeling plant form and function at local and global scales.
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Rescooped by Francis Martin from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree (Pinus armandii)

Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree (Pinus armandii) | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tuber indicum) on the diversity of microbial communities associated with an indigenous tree, Pinus armandii, and the microbial communities in the surrounding ectomycorhizosphere soil. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the richness of microbial communities in the roots or rhizosphere of treatments with or without ectomycorrhizae. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of ectomycorhizosphere soil was significantly lower compared with the control soil. Presumably, the dominance of truffle mycelia in ectomycorhizosphere soil (80.91%) and ectomycorrhizae (97.64%) was the main factor that resulted in lower diversity and abundance of endophytic pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium, Monographella, Ustilago and Rhizopus and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Amanita, Lactarius and Boletus. Bacterial genera Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium, Nordella, Pseudomonas and fungal genera, Cuphophyllus, Leucangium, Histoplasma were significantly more abundant in ectomycorrhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the similarities between rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere soil based on the soil properties differed significantly, indicating the mycorrhizal synthesis may have a feedback effect on soil properties. Meanwhile, some soil properties were significantly correlated with bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere or root tips. Overall, this work illustrates the interactive network that exists among ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil properties and microbial communities associated with the host plant and furthers our understanding of the ecology and cultivation of T. indicum.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jasmonates: biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription | Journal of Experimental Botany | Oxford Academic

Jasmonates: biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription | Journal of Experimental Botany | Oxford Academic | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Scoop.it
The lipid-derived phytohormone jasmonate (JA) regulates plant growth, development, secondary metabolism, defense against insect attack and pathogen infection, and tolerance to abiotic stresses such as wounding, UV light, salt, and drought. JA was first identified in 1962, and since the 1980s many studies have analyzed the physiological functions, biosynthesis, distribution, metabolism, perception, signaling, and crosstalk of JA, greatly expanding our knowledge of the hormone’s action. In response to fluctuating environmental cues and transient endogenous signals, the occurrence of multilayered organization of biosynthesis and inactivation of JA, and activation and repression of the COI1–JAZ-based perception and signaling contributes to the fine-tuning of JA responses. This review describes the JA biosynthetic enzymes in terms of gene families, enzymatic activity, location and regulation, substrate specificity and products, the metabolic pathways in converting JA to activate or inactivate compounds, JA signaling in perception, and the co-existence of signaling activators and repressors.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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