plant-microbe interactions
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Nematodes – A Friend or A Foe? | Web Gardening Tips

Nematodes – A Friend or A Foe? | Web Gardening Tips | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Although plant-parasitic nematodes have been successfully described, there are a lot of other free-living nematodes in the soil whose role, classification and description has not yet been done. Plant-parasitic nematodes.
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Twitter / KamounLab: Effectors target JA pathway...


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Announcing Keystone Symposia’s 2013 Conference on “Plant Immunity: Pathways and Translation”

Announcing Keystone Symposia’s 2013 Conference on “Plant Immunity: Pathways and Translation” | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Keystone Symposia is pleased to announce its conference on “Plant Immunity: Pathways and Translation,” taking place April 7-12, 2013 at Big Sky Resort in Big Sky, Montana, USA.

 

Organized by Sophien Kamoun of Sainsbury Laboratory and Ken Shirasu of RIKEN, the four-day conference will:

 

• Convene with a keynote address by Paul M. Schulze-Lefert of Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, followed by four days of stimulating plenary sessions, workshops and poster sessions;

• Highlight the latest developments in understanding plant immune pathways, how these pathways are perturbed by pathogens, and how plants and their parasites co-evolve;

• Address how basic knowledge on plant immunity can be translated into applications of relevance to agriculture and the profile of translational plant pathology research in an era of looming food crisis.

 

Scholarships are available to students and postdocs and require submission of a brief application and abstract. Short talks will also be selected from submitted abstracts. Discounted student registrations are available. Note that registering by the early registration deadline saves US$150 on later fees.

 

Deadlines:

• Scholarship and Abstract – December 6, 2012

• Late-Breaking Abstract – January 10, 2013

• Early Registration – February 7, 2013

 

To register and for more information, please visit www.keystonesymposia.org/13D5 and for an up-to-date meeting flyer, visit http://www.keystonesymposia.org/index.cfm?e=Web.Meeting.Flyer&MeetingID=1246.


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Differences in the genomes of related plant pathogens

Differences in the genomes of related plant pathogens | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Even in closely related species, lifestyle molds the genetic makeup of pathogens and how their genes are used.
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Animal Cells vs Plant Cells - Java 2D Tower Defence - Community ...

Animal Cells vs Plant Cells - Java 2D Tower Defence - Community ... | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Animal Cells vs Plant Cells - Java 2D Tower Defence - posted in Community Member Projects: Animal Cells vs. Plant Cells Okay, well I got bored a few days ago, so I decided to make a tower defense game, as those are ...
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The rust transferred proteins—a new family of effector proteins exhibiting protease inhibitor function - Pretsch - 2012 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library

The rust transferred proteins—a new family of effector proteins exhibiting protease inhibitor function - Pretsch - 2012 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it
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Innovation in Animal and Plant Production and Performance - The ...

Like animals, plants activate their innate immune system upon recognition of pathogens. Plant activators, compounds that activate a plant's immune system in response to invasion by pathogens, play a crucial role in crop ...
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Book: Effectors in Plant-Microbe Interactions

Book: Effectors in Plant-Microbe Interactions | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Plants and microbes interact in a complex relationship that can have both harmful and beneficial impacts on both plant and microbial communities. Effectors, secreted microbial molecules that alter plant processes and facilitate colonization, are central to understanding the complicated interplay between plants and microbes. Effectors in Plant-Microbe Interactions unlocks the molecular basis of this important class of microbial molecules and describes their diverse and complex interactions with host plants.


Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions is divided into five sections that take stock of the current knowledge on effectors of plant-associated organisms. Coverage ranges from the impact of bacterial, fungal and oomycete effectors on plant immunity and high-throughput genomic analysis of effectors to the function and trafficking of these microbial molecules. The final section looks at effectors secreted by other eukaryotic microbes that are the focus of current and future research efforts.

 

Written by leading international experts in plant-microbe interactions, Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions, will be an essential volume for plant biologists, microbiologists, pathologists, and geneticists.


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Science: Cleavage of Arabidopsis PBS1 by a Bacterial Type III Effector

Science: Cleavage of Arabidopsis PBS1 by a Bacterial Type III Effector | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Plant disease-resistance (R) proteins are thought to function as receptors for ligands produced directly or indirectly by pathogen avirulence (Avr) proteins. The biochemical functions of most Avr proteins are unknown, and the mechanisms by which they activate R proteins have not been determined. In Arabidopsis, resistance to Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing AvrPphB requires RPS5, a member of the class of R proteins that have a predicted nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats, and PBS1, a protein kinase. AvrPphB was found to proteolytically cleave PBS1, and this cleavage was required for RPS5-mediated resistance, which indicates that AvrPphB is detected indirectly via its enzymatic activity.


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PNAS: Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing

PNAS: Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens.


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Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, June 23, 2012 7:09 AM
Similar effector proteins used by Xanthomonas & plant pathogenic fungi: XacPNP and Ave1. See http://bit.ly/yjdSlf and http://bit.ly/Nkyzb8
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PLoS Pathogens: Molecular Determinants of Resistance Activation and Suppression by Phytophthora infestans Effector IPI-O

PLoS Pathogens: Molecular Determinants of Resistance Activation and Suppression by Phytophthora infestans Effector IPI-O | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have consistently overcome major resistance genes. The potato RB gene, derived from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers resistance to most P. infestans strains through recognition of members of the pathogen effector family IPI-O. While the majority of IPI-O proteins are recognized by RB to elicit resistance (e.g. IPI-O1, IPI-O2), some family members are able to elude detection (e.g. IPI-O4). In addition, IPI-O4 blocks recognition of IPI-O1, leading to inactivation of RB-mediated programmed cell death. Here, we report results that elucidate molecular mechanisms governing resistance elicitation or suppression of RB by IPI-O. Our data indicate self-association of the RB coiled coil (CC) domain as well as a physical interaction between this domain and the effectors IPI-O4 and IPI-O1. We identified four amino acids within IPI-O that are critical for interaction with the RB CC domain and one of these amino acids, at position 129, determines hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation in planta. IPI-O1 mutant L129P fails to induce HR in presence of RB while IPI-O4 P129L gains the ability to induce an HR. Like IPI-O4, IPI-O1 L129P is also able to suppress the HR mediated by RB, indicating a critical step in the evolution of this gene family. Our results point to a model in which IPI-O effectors can affect RB function through interaction with the RB CC domain.


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Current Opinion in Plant Biology: Plant–bacterial pathogen interactions mediated by type III effectors (2012)

Current Opinion in Plant Biology: Plant–bacterial pathogen interactions mediated by type III effectors (2012) | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Effectors secreted by the bacterial type III system play a central role in the interaction between Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and their host plants. Recent advances in the effector studies have helped cementing several key concepts concerning bacterial pathogenesis, plant immunity, and plant–pathogen co-evolution. Type III effectors use a variety of biochemical mechanisms to target specific host proteins or DNA for pathogenesis. The identifications of their host targets led to the identification of novel components of plant innate immune system. Key modules of plant immune signaling pathways such as immune receptor complexes and MAPK cascades have emerged as a major battle ground for host–pathogen adaptation. These modules are attacked by multiple type III effectors, and some components of these modules have evolved to actively sense the effectors and trigger immunity.


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PNAS: Arabidopsis lysin-motif proteins LYM1 LYM3 CERK1 mediate bacterial peptidoglycan sensing and immunity to bacterial infection

PNAS: Arabidopsis lysin-motif proteins LYM1 LYM3 CERK1 mediate bacterial peptidoglycan sensing and immunity to bacterial infection | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Recognition of microbial patterns by host pattern recognition receptors is a key step in immune activation in multicellular eukaryotes. Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are major components of bacterial cell walls that possess immunity-stimulating activities in metazoans and plants. Here we show that PGN sensing and immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana requires three lysin-motif (LysM) domain proteins. LYM1 and LYM3 are plasma membrane proteins that physically interact with PGNs and mediate Arabidopsis sensitivity to structurally different PGNs from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. lym1 and lym3 mutants lack PGN-induced changes in transcriptome activity patterns, but respond to fungus-derived chitin, a pattern structurally related to PGNs, in a wild-type manner. Notably, lym1, lym3, and lym3 lym1 mutant genotypes exhibit supersusceptibility to infection with virulent Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000. Defects in basal immunity in lym3 lym1 double mutants resemble those observed in lym1 and lym3 single mutants, suggesting that both proteins are part of the same recognition system. We further show that deletion of CERK1, a LysM receptor kinase that had previously been implicated in chitin perception and immunity to fungal infection in Arabidopsis, phenocopies defects observed in lym1 and lym3 mutants, such as peptidoglycan insensitivity and enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infection. Altogether, our findings suggest that plants share with metazoans the ability to recognize bacterial PGNs. However, as Arabidopsis LysM domain proteins LYM1, LYM3, and CERK1 form a PGN recognition system that is unrelated to metazoan PGN receptors, we propose that lineage-specific PGN perception systems have arisen through convergent evolution.


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Cell Biology of Plant Nematode Parasitism (Plant Cell Monographs): R. Howard Berg,Chris Taylor: 9783642098956: Amazon.com: Books

Cell Biology of Plant Nematode Parasitism (Plant Cell Monographs) [R. Howard Berg,Chris Taylor] on Amazon.com. *FREE* super saver shipping on qualifying offers.
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PNAS: Distinct regions of the Pseudomonas syringae coiled-coil effector AvrRps4 are required for activation of immunity (2012)

PNAS: Distinct regions of the Pseudomonas syringae coiled-coil effector AvrRps4 are required for activation of immunity (2012) | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria translocate effector proteins into plant cells to subvert host defenses. These effectors can be recognized by plant nucleotide-binding–leucine-rich repeat immune receptors, triggering defense responses that restrict pathogen growth. AvrRps4, an effector protein from Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, triggers RPS4-dependent immunity in resistant accessions of Arabidopsis. To better understand the molecular basis of AvrRps4-triggered immunity, we determined the crystal structure of processed AvrRps4 (AvrRps4C, residues 134–221), revealing that it forms an antiparallel α-helical coiled coil. Structure-informed mutagenesis reveals an electronegative surface patch in AvrRps4C required for recognition by RPS4; mutations in this region can also uncouple triggering of the hypersensitive response from disease resistance. This uncoupling may result from a lower level of defense activation, sufficient for avirulence but not for triggering a hypersensitive response. Natural variation in AvrRps4 reveals distinct recognition specificities that involve a surface-exposed residue. Recently, a direct interaction between AvrRps4 and Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 has been implicated in activation of immunity. However, we were unable to detect direct interaction between AvrRps4 and Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 after coexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana or in yeast cells. How intracellular plant immune receptors activate defense upon effector perception remains an unsolved problem. The structure of AvrRps4C, and identification of functionally important residues for its activation of plant immunity, advances our understanding of these processes in a well-defined model pathosystem.


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Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture: Michel Luc,R  Sikora,John Bridge: 9780851997278: Amazon.com: Books

Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture [Michel Luc,R  Sikora,John Bridge] on Amazon.com. *FREE* super saver shipping on qualifying offers.
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Plant Pathology...Plants Diseases: How to control the plant diseases ?

It is neither desirable nor possible to exterminate the plant pathogens altogether.The function of control is to reduce the losses to a low level at the minimum expenses.A knowledge of the cause of the disease,life history of the ...
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Plant & Crop Science Blog: Salk study finds stress triggers ...

Plant & Crop Science Blog: Salk study finds stress triggers ... | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Plants use a sophisticated series of defense mechanisms to restrict the growth of parasitic bacteria upon infection by stimulating various hormonal signals that trigger alterations in gene expression networks.
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News: DuPont supports EFSA call for Potato Cyst Nematodes survey ...

News: DuPont supports EFSA call for Potato Cyst Nematodes survey ... | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it
“The quality and yield of potato crops are not sustainable in the presence of large populations of plant parasitic nematodes.” (Click to enlarge). Potato infested by Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN). The EFSA report also identifies ...
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PLoS Genetics: Computational Prediction and Molecular Characterization of an Oomycete Effector and the Cognate Arabidopsis Resistance Gene

PLoS Genetics: Computational Prediction and Molecular Characterization of an Oomycete Effector and the Cognate Arabidopsis Resistance Gene | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is an obligate biotroph oomycete pathogen of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and contains a large set of effector proteins that are translocated to the host to exert virulence functions or trigger immune responses. These effectors are characterized by conserved amino-terminal translocation sequences and highly divergent carboxyl-terminal functional domains. The availability of the Hpa genome sequence allowed the computational prediction of effectors and the development of effector delivery systems enabled validation of the predicted effectors in Arabidopsis. In this study, we identified a novel effector ATR39-1 by computational methods, which was found to trigger a resistance response in the Arabidopsis ecotype Weiningen (Wei-0). The allelic variant of this effector, ATR39-2, is not recognized, and two amino acid residues were identified and shown to be critical for this loss of recognition. The resistance protein responsible for recognition of the ATR39-1 effector in Arabidopsis is RPP39 and was identified by map-based cloning. RPP39 is a member of the CC-NBS-LRR family of resistance proteins and requires the signaling gene NDR1 for full activity. Recognition of ATR39-1 in Wei-0 does not inhibit growth of Hpa strains expressing the effector, suggesting complex mechanisms of pathogen evasion of recognition, and is similar to what has been shown in several other cases of plant-oomycete interactions. Identification of this resistance gene/effector pair adds to our knowledge of plant resistance mechanisms and provides the basis for further functional analyses.


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Nature Reviews Genetics: Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions

Nature Reviews Genetics:  Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Plants are engaged in a continuous co-evolutionary struggle for dominance with their pathogens. The outcomes of these interactions are of particular importance to human activities, as they can have dramatic effects on agricultural systems. The recent convergence of molecular studies of plant immunity and pathogen infection strategies is revealing an integrated picture of the plant–pathogen interaction from the perspective of both organisms. Plants have an amazing capacity to recognize pathogens through strategies involving both conserved and variable pathogen elicitors, and pathogens manipulate the defence response through secretion of virulence effector molecules. These insights suggest novel biotechnological approaches to crop protection.


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MPP: The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

MPP: The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international community, and resulted in the generation of a Top 10 fungal plant pathogen list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Magnaporthe oryzae; (2) Botrytis cinerea; (3) Puccinia spp.; (4) Fusarium graminearum; (5) Fusarium oxysporum; (6) Blumeria graminis; (7) Mycosphaerella graminicola; (8) Colletotrichum spp.; (9) Ustilago maydis; (10) Melampsora lini, with honourable mentions for fungi just missing out on the Top 10, including Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Rhizoctonia solani. This article presents a short resumé of each fungus in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant mycology community, as well as laying down a bench-mark. It will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and what fungi will comprise any future Top 10.


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mcgiraldo's comment, March 7, 2012 11:23 AM
Magnaporthe is the number one in my interest list too, that is a great new for all the rice and cereals consumers and researchers!
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MPMI: Qualitative and quantitative late blight resistance in the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira is determined by the perception of five distinct RXLR effectors

MPMI: Qualitative and quantitative late blight resistance in the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira is determined by the perception of five distinct RXLR effectors | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Potato defends against Phytophthora infestans infection by R-gene-based qualitative resistance as well as a quantitative field resistance. R genes are renowned to be rapidly overcome by this oomycete, and potato cultivars with a decent and durable resistance to current P. infestans populations are hardly available. However, potato cultivar Sarpo Mira has retained resistance in the field over several years. We dissected the resistance of cultivar Sarpo Mira in a segregating population by matching the responses to P. infestans RXLR effectors with race-specific resistance to differential strains. The resistance is based on the combination of four pyramided qualitative R genes and a quantitative R gene that was associated with field resistance. The qualitative R genes include R3a, R3b, R4 and the newly identified Rpi-Smira1. The qualitative resistances matched responses to AVR3a, AVR3b, AVR4 and AVRSmira1 RXLR effectors and were overcome by particular P. infestans strains. The quantitative resistance was determined to be conferred by a novel gene Rpi-Smira2. It was only detected under field conditions and was associated with responses to the RXLR effector AvrSmira2. We foresee that effector-based resistance breeding will facilitate selecting and combining qualitative and quantitative resistances that may lead to a more durable resistance to late blight.


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Nature Precedings: Ligand induced cleavage and nuclear localization of the rice XA21 immune receptor

Nature Precedings: Ligand induced cleavage and nuclear localization of the rice XA21 immune receptor | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

The rice XA21 receptor confers immunity to the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) upon recognition of the conserved microbial signature AxYS22. Here, we demonstrate that the intracellular kinase domain of XA21 translocates to the nucleus upon AxYS22-mediated perception and that this translocation event is required for XA21-mediated immunity.


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dromius's comment, March 31, 2012 6:44 PM
Paper states that "XA21-GFP is primarily localized to the plasma membrane in the absence of AxYS22 (Fig.1a)" - I disagree. There is a lot of GFP signal surrounding the nucleus in the top panel and the bottom panel. This looks like cytoplasmic distribution to me, why dont they show the GFP alone control...
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PLoS ONE: A Role in Immunity for Arabidopsis Cysteine Protease RD21, the Ortholog of the Tomato Immune Protease C14

PLoS ONE: A Role in Immunity for Arabidopsis Cysteine Protease RD21, the Ortholog of the Tomato Immune Protease C14 | plant-microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Secreted papain-like Cys proteases are important players in plant immunity. We previously reported that the C14 protease of tomato is targeted by cystatin-like EPIC proteins that are secreted by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Pinf) during infection. C14 has been under diversifying selection in wild potato species coevolving with Pinf and reduced C14 levels result in enhanced susceptibility for Pinf. Here, we investigated the role C14-EPIC-like interactions in the natural pathosystem of Arabidopsis with the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa). In contrast to the Pinf-solanaceae pathosystem, the C14 orthologous protease of Arabidopsis, RD21, does not evolve under diversifying selection in Arabidopsis, and rd21 null mutants do not show phenotypes upon compatible and incompatible Hpa interactions, despite the evident lack of a major leaf protease. Hpa isolates express highly conserved EPIC-like proteins during infections, but it is unknown if these HpaEPICs can inhibit RD21 and one of these HpaEPICs even lacks the canonical cystatin motifs. The rd21 mutants are unaffected in compatible and incompatible interactions with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, but are significantly more susceptible for the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, demonstrating that RD21 provides immunity to a necrotrophic pathogen.


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Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, January 7, 2012 10:46 AM
I suppose rd21 null mutant lack of phenotypes upon compatible and incompatible Hpa interactions could be because the protease is efficiently inhibited or suppressed by the pathogen.