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Plant-Microbe Interaction
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from TAL effector science
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Highly efficient genome editing via 2A-coupled co-expression of two TALEN monomers - BMC Res. Notes

Highly efficient genome editing via 2A-coupled co-expression of two TALEN monomers - BMC Res. Notes | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

(via T. Lahaye, thx)

Mariano et al, 2014

We developed a TALEN scaffold which expresses both TALEN monomers from a single open reading frame in equal molar amount by linking both monomers with a 2A self-cleaving peptide sequence. This TALEN scaffold, named pTAL10, demonstrates higher levels of genome editing than co-transfected TALENs at similar levels of transfection efficiencies when analyzed for TALEN-induced small insertions and deletions.


Via dromius
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Novel findings on the role of signal exchange in arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses

Novel findings on the role of signal exchange in arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

The availability of genome sequences from both arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi and their hosts has, together with elegant biochemical and molecular biological analyses, provided new information on signal exchange between the partners in mycorrhizal associations. The progress in understanding cellular processes has been more rapid in arbuscular than ectomycorrhizal symbiosis due to its similarities of early processes with Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. In ectomycorrhiza, the role of auxin and ethylene produced by both fungus and host plant is becoming understood at the molecular level, although the actual ligands and receptors leading to ectomycorrhizal symbiosis have not yet been discovered. For both systems, the functions of small effector proteins secreted from the respective fungus and taken up into the plant cell may be pivotal in understanding the attenuation of host defense. We review the subject by comparing cross-talk between fungal and plant partners during formation and establishment of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses.


Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Direct purification of detergent-insoluble membranes from Medicago truncatula root microsomes: comparison between floatation and sedimentation

BackgroundMembrane microdomains are defined as highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains that resist to solubilization by non-ionic detergents. In plants, these so-called Detergent Insoluble Membrane (DIM) fractions have been isolated from plasma membrane by using conventional ultracentrifugation on density gradient (G). In animals, a rapid (R) protocol, based on sedimentation at low speed, which avoids the time-consuming sucrose gradient, has also been developed to recover DIMs from microsomes as starting material. In the current study, we sought to compare the ability of the Rapid protocol versus the Gradient one for isolating DIMs directly from microsomes of M. truncatula roots. For that purpose, Triton X-100 detergent-insoluble fractions recovered with the two methods were analyzed and compared for their sterol/sphingolipid content and proteome profiles.ResultsInferred from sterol enrichment, presence of typical sphingolipid long-chain bases from plants and canonical DIM protein markers, the possibility to prepare DIMs from M. truncatula root microsomes was confirmed both for the Rapid and Gradient protocols. Contrary to sphingolipids, the sterol and protein profiles of DIMs were found to depend on the method used. Namely, DIM fractions were differentially enriched in spinasterol and only shared 39% of common proteins as assessed by GeLC-MS/MS profiling. Quantitative analysis of protein indicated that each purification procedure generated a specific subset of DIM-enriched proteins from Medicago root microsomes. Remarkably, these two proteomes were found to display specific cellular localizations and biological functions. In silico analysis of membrane-associative features within R- and G-enriched proteins, relative to microsomes, showed that the most noticeable difference between the two proteomes corresponded to an increase in the proportion of predicted signal peptide-containing proteins after sedimentation (R) compared to its decrease after floatation (G), suggesting that secreted proteins likely contribute to the specificity of the R-DIM proteome.ConclusionsEven though microsomes were used as initial material, we showed that the protein composition of the G-DIM fraction still mostly mirrored that of plasmalemma-originating DIMs conventionally retrieved by floatation. In parallel, the possibility to isolate by low speed sedimentation DIM fractions that seem to target the late secretory pathway supports the existence of plant microdomains in other organelles.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
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Metabolome-genome-wide association study (mGWAS) dissects genetic architecture for generating natural variation in rice secondary metabolism

Metabolome-genome-wide association study (mGWAS) dissects genetic architecture for generating natural variation in rice secondary metabolism | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Plants produce structurally diverse secondary (specialized) metabolites to increase their fitness for survival under adverse environments. Several bioactive compounds for new drugs have been identified through screening of plant extracts. In this study, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture behind the natural variation of rice secondary metabolites. GWAS using the metabolome data of 175 rice accessions successfully identified 323 associations among 143 SNPs and 89 metabolites. The data analysis highlighted that levels of many metabolites are tightly associated with a small number of strong QTLs. The tight association may be a mechanism generating strains with distinct metabolic composition through the crossing of 2 different strains. The results indicate that one plant species produce more diverse phytochemicals than previously expected, and plants still contain many useful compounds for human applications.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Rice Blast
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The Wall-associated Kinase gene family in rice genomes

The Wall-associated Kinase gene family in rice genomes | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Highlights•

Rice Wall-Associated Kinases (WAKs) comprise non-RD and RD kinase class.

A functional diversification occurred between A. thaliana and O. sativa WAK genes.

Cold triggers different responses in WAK genes from indica and japonica subspecies.

WAKs are less redundant in recognition of stimuli and activation of different cascades.

Abstract

The environment is a dynamic system in which life forms adapt. Wall-Associated Kinases (WAK) are a subfamily of receptor-like kinases associated with the cell wall. These genes have been suggested as sensors of the extracellular environment and triggers of intracellular signals. They belong to the ePK superfamily with or without a conserved arginine before the catalytic subdomain VIB, which characterizes RD and non-RD WAKs. WAK is a large subfamily in rice. We performed an extensive comparison of WAK genes from A. thaliana (AtWAK), O. sativa japonica and indica subspecies (OsWAK). Phylogenetic studies and WAK domain characterization allowed for the identification of two distinct groups of WAK genes in Arabidopsis and rice. One group corresponds to a cluster containing only OsWAKs that most likely expanded after the monocot–dicot separation, which evolved into a non-RD kinase class. The other group comprises classical RD-kinases with both AtWAK and OsWAK representatives. Clusterization analysis using extracellular and kinase domains demonstrated putative functional redundancy for some genes, but also highlighted genes that could recognize similar extracellular stimuli and activate different cascades. The gene expression pattern of WAKs in response to cold suggests differences in the regulation of the OsWAK genes in the indica and japonica subspecies. Our results also confirm the hypothesis of functional diversification between A. thaliana and O. sativa WAK genes. Furthermore, we propose that plant WAKs constitute two evolutionarily related but independent subfamilies: WAK-RD and WAK-nonRD. Recognition of this structural division will further provide insights to understanding WAK functions and regulations.


Via Christophe Jacquet, Elsa Ballini
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from The science toolbox
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Scientific writing: the online cooperative

Scientific writing: the online cooperative | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Collaborative browser-based tools aim to change the way researchers write and publish their papers.

Via Niklaus Grunwald
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Niklaus Grunwald's curator insight, October 1, 3:01 PM

We recently used WriteLAtex and Authorea for authoring and loved both experiences. 

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from TAL effector science
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Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar vasculorum NCPPB 900 - FEMS Microb. Letters

Harrison and Studholme, 2014

Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar vasculorum strain NCPPB 900 was isolated from sugarcane on Reunion island in 1960. Consistent with its belonging to fatty acid type D, multi-locus sequence analysis confirmed that NCPPB 900 falls within the species X. axonopodis. This genome harbours sequences similar to plasmids pXCV183 from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 and pPHB194 from Burkholderia pseudomallei. Its repertoire of predicted effectors includes homologues of XopAA, XopAD, XopAE, XopB, XopD, XopV, XopZ, XopC and XopI and transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors and it is predicted to encode a novel phosphonate natural product also encoded by the genome of the phylogenetically distant X. vasicola pv. vasculorum. Availability of this novel genome sequence may facilitate the study of interactions between xanthomonads and sugarcane, a host-pathogen system that appears to have evolved several times independently within the genus Xanthomonas and may also provide a source of target sequences for molecular detection and diagnostics.


Via dromius
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dromius's curator insight, October 2, 3:32 AM

This genome contains TAL effectors

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Rice Blast
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Neck blast disease influences grain yield and quality traits of aromatic rice

Neck blast disease influences grain yield and quality traits of aromatic rice | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

A critical investigation was conducted to find out the effect of neck blast disease on yield-contributing characters, and seed quality traits of aromatic rice in Bangladesh. Neck blast disease increased grain sterility percentages, reduced grain size, yield and quality traits of seeds. The degrees of yield and seed quality reduction depended on disease severity and variety's genetic make-up. Unfilled grains were the main source of seed-borne pathogen, especially for blast in the seed lot. Transmission of blast pathogen from neck (panicle base) to seed was very poor. These findings are important, especially concerning the seed certification programme in which seed lots are certified on the basis of field inspection. 


Via Elsa Ballini
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Gibberellin secreting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 modulates the hormonal and stress physiology of soybean to improve the plant growth under saline and drought conditions

Gibberellin secreting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 modulates the hormonal and stress physiology of soybean to improve the plant growth under saline and drought conditions | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
The physiological changes in tolerant soybean plants under salt and drought stress conditions with Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 were investigated. A bacterial isolate H-2-3 was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 by 16S rDNA sequences. The treatment of P. putida H-2-3 significantly increased the length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and chlorophyll content in gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant Waito-c rice seedlings over the control, it might be the presence of GA1, GA4, GA9 and GA20. The soybean plant growth was retarded in salt (120 mM sodium chloride) and drought (15% polyethylene glycol) stress conditions at 10 days treatments, while P. putida H-2-3 effectively enhanced the shoot length and fresh weight of plants suffered at salt and drought stress. The chlorophyll content was lower in abiotic stress conditions and bacterial inoculant P. putida H-2-3 mitigated the stress effects by an evidence of higher quantity of chlorophyll content in plants exposed to salt and drought. The stress hormonal analysis revealed that individual treatment of P. putida H-2-3, salt and drought significantly enhanced the abscisic acid and salicylic acid content than their control. P. putida H-2-3 applied to salt and drought stressed plants showed a lower level of abscisic acid and salicylic acid and a higher level of jasmonic acid content. Under stress condition induced by salt and drought in plants expressed higher level of total polyphenol, superoxide dismutase and radical scavenging activity and no significant changes in flavonoids. The bio-inoculant, P. putida H-2-3 modulated those antioxidants by declining superoxide dismutase, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity. P. putida H-2-3 induced tolerance against abiotic stress was confirmed by a reduction of Na content in abiotic stressed plants. The results suggest that P. putida H-2-3 application reprograms the chlorophyll, stress hormones and antioxidants expression in abiotic stress affected soybean plant and improves their growth under stress environment.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from TAL effector science
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Efficient homologous recombination-mediated genome engineering in zebrafish using TALE nucleases - Development

(via T. Schreiber)

Shin et al, 2014

Precise HR-mediated genome editing is still technically challenging in zebrafish. Here, we establish a GFP reporter system for measuring the frequency of HR events in live zebrafish embryos. By co-injecting a TALE nuclease and GFP reporter targeting constructs with homology arms of different size, we defined the length of homology arms that increases the recombination efficiency. In addition, we found that the configuration of the targeting construct can be a crucial parameter in determining the efficiency of HR-mediated genome engineering. Implementing these modifications improved the efficiency of zebrafish knock-in generation, with over 10% of the injected F0 animals transmitting gene-targeting events through their germline. We generated two HR-mediated insertion alleles of sox2 and gfap loci that express either superfolder GFP (sfGFP) or tandem dimeric Tomato (tdTomato) in a spatiotemporal pattern that mirrors the endogenous loci. This efficient strategy provides new opportunities not only to monitor expression of endogenous genes and proteins and follow specific cell types in vivo, but it also paves the way for other sophisticated genetic manipulations of the zebrafish genome.


Via dromius
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Rice Blast
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Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists | The Scientist Magazine®

Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists | The Scientist Magazine® | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Academia is not producing sufficient PhDs in the plant sciences to solve the crop production challenges facing a rapidly growing population.

Via Elsa Ballini
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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How to read a scientific paper / How to read a paper in Plant Physiology

How to read a scientific paper / How to read a paper in Plant Physiology | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

We posted these last year and have had excellent feedback.

"How to Read a Scientific Paper"

(https://journalaccess.aspb.org/ReadaSciPaper/How%20to%20Read%20a%20Scientific%20Paper%20M%20Williams%20Mar%202013.pdf)

 

"How to read a paper in Plant Physiology"

https://journalaccess.aspb.org/CaseStudy/CaseStudy%20for%20How%20to%20Read%20a%20Sci%20Paper%20M%20Williams%20Mar%202013.pdf


Via Mary Williams
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Orchids and fungi: An unexpected case of symbiosis

Orchids and fungi: An unexpected case of symbiosis | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
The majority of orchids are found in habitats where light may be a limiting factor. However, orchids are found in a wide range of habitats and range in their photosynthetic capabilities. For those orchids that are fully photosynthetic, and presumably capable of acquiring their own organic carbon, are they less reliant on a specific suite of mycorrhizal fungi? A new study that examines fungal diversity in orchids in open sunny habitats, questions this assumption.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
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Infection by a foliar endophyte elicits novel arabidopside-based plant defence reactions in its host, Cirsium arvense

Infection by a foliar endophyte elicits novel arabidopside-based plant defence reactions in its host, Cirsium arvense | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Endophytic fungi live asymptomatically within plants. They are usually regarded as nonpathogenic or even mutualistic, but whether plants respond antagonistically to their presence remains unclear, particularly in the little-studied associations between endophytes and nongraminoid herbaceous plants.We investigated the effects of the endophyte Chaetomium cochlioides on leaf chemistry in Cirsium arvense. Plants were sprayed with spores; leaf material from both subsequent new growth and the sprayed leaves was analysed 2 wk later. Infection frequency was 91% and 63% for sprayed and new growth, respectively, indicating that C. cochlioides rapidly infects new foliage.Metabolomic analyses revealed marked changes in leaf chemistry with infection, especially in new growth. Changes in several novel oxylipin metabolites were detected, including arabidopsides reported here for the first time in a plant species other than Arabidopsis thaliana, and a jasmonate-containing galactolipid.The production of these metabolites in response to endophyte presence, particularly in newly infected foliage, suggests that endophytes elicit similar chemical responses in plants to those usually produced following wounding, herbivory and pathogen invasion. Whether endophytes benefit their hosts may depend on a complex series of chemically mediated interactions between the plant, the endophyte, other microbial colonists and natural enemies.

 

 


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
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Splicing of Receptor-like kinase-encoding SNC4 and CERK1 is regulated by two conserved splicing factors that are required for plant immunity

Plant immune receptors belonging to the receptor-like kinase (RLK) family play important roles in the recognition of microbial pathogens and activation of downstream defense responses. The Arabidopsis mutant snc4-1D contains a gain-of-function mutation in the RLK SNC4 (SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1, CONSTITUTIVE4), which leads to constitutive activation of defense responses. Analysis of suppressor mutants of snc4-1D identified two conserved splicing factors, SUA (SUPPRESSOR OF ABI3-5) and RSN2 (REQUIRED FOR SNC4-1D 2), that are required for the constitutive defense responses in snc4-1D. In sua and rsn2 mutants, SNC4 splicing is altered and the amount of SNC4 transcripts is reduced. Further analysis showed that SUA and RSN2 are also required for the proper splicing of CERK1 (CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1), which encodes another RLK that functions as a receptor for chitin. In sua and rsn2 mutants, induction of reactive oxygen species by chitin is reduced and the non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC grows to higher titers than in wild type plants. Our study suggests that pre-mRNA splicing plays important roles in the regulation of plant immunity mediated by the RLKs SNC4 and CERK1.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Symbiosis Plasmids Bring Their Own Mutagen to the Wedding Party

Symbiosis Plasmids Bring Their Own Mutagen to the Wedding Party | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Entering into a symbiotic relationship is not something to be taken lightly. Previously free-living organisms become beholden to each other and have to tolerate invasion of their personal space to accommodate varying degrees of intimacy, especially when one partner lives within the body or even the cells of the other. Symbiosis brings with it so many potential mutual benefits that it has arisen independently many times in evolution, but overcoming these barriers requires some encouragement.

 
Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, September 30, 9:34 PM

Good commentary on Catherine Masson-Boivin's outstanding work.

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
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The life of the peroxisome: from birth to death

The life of the peroxisome: from birth to death | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Highlights



New biosynthetic functions for peroxisomes have been discovered.


Plant viruses may be useful tools in studying de novo peroxisome biogenesis.


Peroxisome proteins may be degraded within peroxisomes or exported for degradation.


Peroxisomes can be selectively degraded by autophagy.


These degradation pathways work in parallel to adjust peroxisome function.

Peroxisomes are dynamic and metabolically plastic organelles. Their multiplicity of functions impacts on many aspects of plant development and survival. New functions for plant peroxisomes such as in the synthesis of biotin, ubiquinone and phylloquinone are being uncovered and their role in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as signalling hubs in defence and development is becoming appreciated. Understanding of the biogenesis of peroxisomes, mechanisms of import and turnover of their protein complement, and the wholesale destruction of the organelle by specific autophagic processes is giving new insight into the ways that plants can adjust peroxisome function in response to changing needs.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Chemistry: Chemical con artists foil drug discovery

Chemistry: Chemical con artists foil drug discovery | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Naivety about promiscuous, assay-duping molecules is polluting the literature and wasting resources, warn Jonathan Baell and Michael A. Walters.

Via Mary Williams
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Mary Williams's curator insight, October 1, 12:27 PM

Don't you love Roz Chast cartoons? Good article.

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model

Paz Aranega Bou, Maria de la O Leyva, Ivan Finiti, Pilar García Agustín and Carmen González Bosch

Via IPM Lab
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Genome Biology | Abstract | The small RNA diversity from Medicago truncatula roots under biotic interactions evidences the environmental plasticity of the miRNAome

Genome Biology | Abstract | The small RNA diversity from Medicago truncatula roots under biotic interactions evidences the environmental plasticity of the miRNAome | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Background

Legume roots show a remarkable plasticity to adapt their architecture to biotic and abiotic constraints, including symbiotic interactions. However, global analysis of miRNA regulation in roots is limited, and a global view of the evolution of miRNA-mediated diversification in different ecotypes is lacking.ResultsIn the model legume Medicago truncatula, we analyze the small RNA transcriptome of roots submitted to symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. Genome mapping and a computational pipeline identify 416 miRNA candidates, including known and novel variants of 78 miRNA families present in miRBase. Stringent criteria of pre-miRNA prediction yield 52 new mtr-miRNAs, including 27 miRtrons. Analyzing miRNA precursor polymorphisms in 26?M. truncatula ecotypes identifies higher sequence polymorphism in conserved rather than Medicago-specific miRNA precursors. An average of 19 targets, mainly involved in environmental responses and signalling, is predicted per novel miRNA. We identify miRNAs responsive to bacterial and fungal pathogens or symbionts as well as their related Nod and Myc-LCO symbiotic signals. Network analyses reveal modules of new and conserved co-expressed miRNAs that regulate distinct sets of targets, highlighting potential miRNA-regulated biological pathways relevant to pathogenic and symbiotic interactions.

Conclusions

We identify 52 novel genuine miRNAs and large plasticity of the root miRNAome in response to the environment, and also in response to purified Myc/Nod signaling molecules. The new miRNAs identified and their sequence variation across M. truncatula ecotypes may be crucial to understand the adaptation of root growth to the soil environment, notably in the agriculturally important legume crops.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Reactive oxygen species and plant resistance to fungal pathogens

Reactive oxygen species and plant resistance to fungal pathogens | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Highlights•

The methods of detection of ROS.

A discussion of the modes of action of ROS.

An assessment of the importance of ROS in relation to fungal resistance.

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been studied for their role in plant development as well as in plant immunity. ROS were consistently observed to accumulate in the plant after the perception of pathogens and microbes and over the years, ROS were postulated to be an integral part of the defence response of the plant. In this article we will focus on recent findings about ROS involved in the interaction of plants with pathogenic fungi. We will describe the ways to detect ROS, their modes of action and their importance in relation to resistance to fungal pathogens. In addition we include some results from works focussing on the fungal interactor and from studies investigating roots during pathogen attack.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from TAL effector science
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JCI - Expanding the genetic editing tool kit: ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR-Cas9 - JCI

Gupta and Musunuru, 2014

This review will outline the recent development of genome-editing technology, culminating with the use of CRISPR-Cas9 to generate novel mammalian models of disease. While the road to using this same technology for treatment of human disease is long, the pace of innovation over the past five years and early successes in model systems build anticipation for this prospect.


Via dromius
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Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: aspects of biosynthesis and function

Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: aspects of biosynthesis and function | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins are two types of glycomolecules whose glycans are structurally complex. They are both assembled and modified within the endomembrane system, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, before their transport to their final locations within or outside the cell. In contrast to extensins (EXTs), the O-glycan chains of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly heterogeneous consisting mostly of (i) a short oligo-arabinoside chain of three to four residues, and (ii) a larger β-1,3-linked galactan backbone with β-1,6-linked side chains containing galactose, arabinose and, often, fucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid. The fine structure of arabinogalactan chains varies between, and within plant species, and is important for the functional activities of the glycoproteins. With regards to N-glycans, ER-synthesizing events are highly conserved in all eukaryotes studied so far since they are essential for efficient protein folding. In contrast, evolutionary adaptation of N-glycan processing in the Golgi apparatus has given rise to a variety of organism-specific complex structures. Therefore, plant complex-type N-glycans contain specific glyco-epitopes such as core β,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose residues, and Lewisa substitutions on the terminal position of the antenna. Like O-glycans, N-glycans of proteins are essential for their stability and function. Mutants affected in the glycan metabolic pathways have provided valuable information on the role of N-/O-glycoproteins in the control of growth, morphogenesis and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. With regards to O-glycoproteins, only EXTs and AGPs are considered herein. The biosynthesis of these glycoproteins and functional aspects are presented and discussed in this review.

 

 


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plants and Microbes
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PLOS Pathogens: Adaptive Prediction As a Strategy in Microbial Infections (2014)

PLOS Pathogens: Adaptive Prediction As a Strategy in Microbial Infections (2014) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Microorganisms need to sense and respond to constantly changing microenvironments, and adapt their transcriptome, proteome, and metabolism accordingly to survive [1]. However, microbes sometimes react in a way which does not make immediate biological sense in light of the current environment—for example, by up-regulating an iron acquisition system in times of metal abundance. The reason for this seemingly nonsensical behavior can lie in the microbe's ability to predict a coming change in conditions by cues from the current environment. If the microbe (pre-)adapts accordingly, it will increase its fitness and chances of survival under subsequent selection pressures—a concept known as adaptive prediction.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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