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ScienceDirect.com - Current Opinion in Microbiology - Roles and delivery mechanisms of fungal effectors during infection development: common threads and new directions

ScienceDirect.com - Current Opinion in Microbiology - Roles and delivery mechanisms of fungal effectors during infection development: common threads and new directions | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Fungal effectors have often been referred as a ‘sea of diversity’, but recently, experiments have shed some light onto effector biology, including discovery that unrelated fungi utilize some common methods for creating a more compatible host environment. A wheat pathogen and a rice pathogen, for example, have evolved mechanisms to suppress chitin-mediated basal defenses in their respective plant hosts. Smut fungi, on the other hand, might have evolved a unique mechanism to manipulate their host environment by altering cell metabolism. Genome mining and bioinformatics pipelines have streamlined the suite of effectors in important pathogen genomes, so researchers can make more targeted strikes on potentially important effectors. This combination of informatics and empirical studies will allow greater insight into effector function.

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Science: Paired Plant Immune Receptors (2014)

Science: Paired Plant Immune Receptors (2014) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Plants are constantly interpreting microbial signals from potential pathogens and potential commensals or mutualists. Because plants have no circulating cells dedicated to this task, every plant cell must, in principle, recognize any microbe as friend, foe, or irrelevant bystander. That tall order is mediated by an array of innate immune system receptors: pattern-recognition receptors outside the plant cell and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)–like receptors (NLRs) inside the cell. Despite their importance for plant health, how NLRs function mechanistically has remained obscure. On page 299 of this issue, Williams et al. (1) reveal a role for heterodimerization between NLRs and show how the rather limited NLR repertoire of any plant genome might be enhanced by combinatorial diversity.

 

Marc T. Nishimura, Jeffery L. Dangl


Via Nicolas Denancé
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Rice oxalate oxidase gene driven by green tissue-specific promoter increases tolerance to sheath blight pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) in transgenic rice

Rice oxalate oxidase gene driven by green tissue-specific promoter increases tolerance to sheath blight pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) in transgenic rice | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Rice sheath blight, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating and intractable diseases of rice, leading to a significant reduction in rice productivity worldwide. In this article, in order to examine sheath blight resistance, we report the generation of transgenic rice lines overexpressing the rice oxalate oxidase 4 (Osoxo4) gene in a green tissue-specific manner which breaks down oxalic acid (OA), the pathogenesis factor secreted by R. solani. Our findings indicate that rice OxO can be utilized effectively in plant genetic manipulation for sheath blight resistance, and possibly for resistance to other diseases caused by necrotrophic fungi, especially those that secrete OA.


Via Elsa Ballini
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Elsa Ballini's curator insight, July 31, 2013 2:26 AM

This transgenic strategy with the oxo4 gene may also be used for the management of the OA-secreting rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Action des stimulateurs des défenses des plantes
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Journal of Applied Microbiology - Trichoderma harzianum elicits induced resistance in sunflower challenged by Rhizoctonia solani

Journal of Applied Microbiology - Trichoderma harzianum elicits induced resistance in sunflower challenged by Rhizoctonia solani | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Abstract:

 

To investigate the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum NBRI-1055 (denoted as “T-1055”) in suppression of seedling blight of sunflower caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and their impact on host defense responses.

Methods and Results

T-1055 was applied as seed treatment, soil application and combined application (seed treatment + soil application). Higher protection afforded by combined application of T-1055 was associated with the marked induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PO) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) activities. The activities of PAL and PPO reached maximum at 10 days after sowing (DAS), while, PO and CAD levels reached maximum at 12 DAS. This was further supported by the accumulation of total phenolic content that showed an increase up to threefold at 14 DAS. In addition, HPLC analysis revealed that the contents of ferulic and p-coumaric acids increased by 6.3 and 4.6 times, respectively at 14 DAS. Amount of gallic acid was also little more than double. Lignin deposition in sunflower root increased by 2.7, 3.4 and 3.7 times through combined application of T-1055 at 16, 18 and 20 DAS, respectively. Combined application also increased the accumulation of PR-2 and PR-3 proteins by 3.3 and 3.9 times, respectively at 12 DAS in followed by seed treatment alone.

Conclusions

The combined application of T-1055 triggered defense responses in an enhanced level in sunflower than the soil and seed alone and provided better protection against Rhizoctonia-seedling blight.


Via ELICITRA
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Bacterial tricks for turning plants into zombies

Bacterial tricks for turning plants into zombies | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Microbe deploys proteins that manipulate both the plant it infects and the insects that spread it.

Via Mary Williams
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Mary Williams's curator insight, April 8, 11:41 PM

Here's the article in PLOS Biology http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001835

And an article about the research in the local Norwich newspaper

http://www.edp24.co.uk/news/graphic_scientists_solve_mystery_of_the_zombie_plants_1_3533805

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RbohB, a Phaseolus vulgaris NADPH oxidase gene, enhances symbiosome number, bacteroid size, and nitrogen fixation in nodules and impairs mycorrhizal colonization -

RbohB, a Phaseolus vulgaris NADPH oxidase gene, enhances symbiosome number, bacteroid size, and nitrogen fixation in nodules and impairs mycorrhizal colonization - | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Host-to-Pathogen Gene Transfer Facilitated Infection of Insects by a Pathogenic Fungus

Host-to-Pathogen Gene Transfer Facilitated Infection of Insects by a Pathogenic Fungus | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
by Hong Zhao, Chuan Xu, Hsiao-Ling Lu, Xiaoxuan Chen, Raymond J. St. Leger, Weiguo Fang
Metarhizium robertsii is a plant root colonizing fungus that is also an insect pathogen.

Via IPM Lab
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Microbial Pathogens Trigger Host DNA Double-Strand Breaks Whose Abundance Is Reduced by Plant Defense Responses

Microbial Pathogens Trigger Host DNA Double-Strand Breaks Whose Abundance Is Reduced by Plant Defense Responses | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Immune responses and DNA damage repair are two fundamental processes that have been characterized extensively, but the links between them remain largely unknown. We report that multiple bacterial, fungal and oomycete plant pathogen species induce double-strand breaks (DSBs) in host plant DNA. DNA damage detected by histone γ-H2AX abundance or DNA comet assays arose hours before the disease-associated necrosis caused by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Necrosis-inducing paraquat did not cause detectable DSBs at similar stages after application. Non-pathogenic E. coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria also did not induce DSBs. Elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is common during plant immune responses, ROS are known DNA damaging agents, and the infection-induced host ROS burst has been implicated as a cause of host DNA damage in animal studies. However, we found that DSB formation in Arabidopsis in response to P. syringae infection still occurs in the absence of the infection-associated oxidative burst mediated by AtrbohD and AtrbohF. Plant MAMP receptor stimulation or application of defense-activating salicylic acid or jasmonic acid failed to induce a detectable level of DSBs in the absence of introduced pathogens, further suggesting that pathogen activities beyond host defense activation cause infection-induced DNA damage. The abundance of infection-induced DSBs was reduced by salicylic acid and NPR1-mediated defenses, and by certain R gene-mediated defenses. Infection-induced formation of γ-H2AX still occurred in Arabidopsis atr/atm double mutants, suggesting the presence of an alternative mediator of pathogen-induced H2AX phosphorylation. In summary, pathogenic microorganisms can induce plant DNA damage. Plant defense mechanisms help to suppress rather than promote this damage, thereby contributing to the maintenance of genome integrity in somatic tissues.

 


Via Suayib Üstün
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Planta: Plant systems biology: insights, advances and challenges (review)

Planta: Plant systems biology: insights, advances and challenges  (review) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

"Systems biology offers a comprehensive view of plant systems, by employing a holistic approach integrating the molecular data at various hierarchical levels. In this  review, we discuss the basics of systems biology including the various ‘omics’ approaches and their integration, the modeling aspects and the tools needed for the plant systems research. A particular emphasis is given to the recent analytical advances, updated published examples of plant systems biology studies and the future trends."


Via Mary Williams
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The Pepper SGT1 Interacts with the Receptor-Like Cytoplasmic Kinase 1 and AvrBsT and Promotes Hypersensitive Cell Death Response in a Phosphorylation-Dependent Manner

The Pepper SGT1 Interacts with the Receptor-Like Cytoplasmic Kinase 1 and AvrBsT and Promotes Hypersensitive Cell Death Response in a Phosphorylation-Dependent Manner | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria type III effector protein, AvrBsT, triggers hypersensitive cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum). Here, we have identified the pepper SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1) as a host interactor of AvrBsT and also the pepper PIK1 (receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase 1). PIK1 specifically phosphorylates SGT1 and AvrBsT in vitro. AvrBsT specifically binds to the CS domain of SGT1, resulting in the inhibition of PIK1-mediated SGT1 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear transport of the SGT1-PIK1 complex. Liquid chromatography-tandom mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the proteolytic peptides of SGT1 identified the residues Serine 98 and Serine 279 of SGT1 as the major PIK1-mediated phosphorylation sites. Site directed mutagenesis of SGT1 revealed that the identified SGT1 phosphorylation sites are responsible for the activation of AvrBsT-triggered cell death in planta. SGT1 forms a heterotrimeric complex with both AvrBsT and PIK1 exclusively in the cytoplasm. Agrobacterium-mediated co-expression of SGT1 and PIK1 with avrBsT promotes avrBsT-triggered cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, dependent on PIK1. Virus-induced silencing of SGT1 and/or PIK1 compromises avrBsT-triggered cell death, H2O2 production, defense gene induction and salicylic acid accumulation, leading to the enhanced bacterial pathogen growth in pepper. Together, these results suggest that SGT1 interacts with PIK1 and bacterial effector protein AvrBsT and promotes hypersensitive cell death associated with PIK1-mediated phosphorylation in plants.


Via Suayib Üstün, Nicolas Denancé
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NASA news: Satellite Shows High Productivity from U.S. Corn Belt

NASA news: Satellite Shows High Productivity from U.S. Corn Belt | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
During the U.S. Midwest's growing season, the region boasts more photosynthetic activity than any other spot on Earth.

Via Mary Williams
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Mary Williams's curator insight, April 1, 9:01 AM

This is a summary of a new paper in PNAS that shows "that chlorophyll fluorescence data can be used as a unique benchmark to improve our global models, thus providing more reliable projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields."


www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/03/24/1320008111.abstract

creditrepairaid's comment, April 3, 12:26 AM
<br>Its fabulous
Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plants and Microbes
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MPMI: Single amino acid mutations in the potato immune receptor R3a expand response to Phytophthora effectors (2014)

MPMI: Single amino acid mutations in the potato immune receptor R3a expand response to Phytophthora effectors (2014) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Both plants and animals rely on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NB-LRRs or NLRs) to respond to invading pathogens and activate immune responses. How plant NB-LRR proteins respond to pathogens is poorly understood. We undertook a gain-of-function random mutagenesis screen of the potato NB-LRR immune receptor R3a to study how this protein responds to the effector protein AVR3a from the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. R3a response can be extended to the stealthy AVR3aEM isoform of the effector while retaining recognition of AVR3aKI. Each one of 8 single amino acid mutations is sufficient to expand the R3a response to AVR3aEM and other AVR3a variants. These mutations occur across the R3a protein, from the N-terminus to different regions of the LRR domain. Further characterization of these R3a mutants revealed that at least one of them was sensitized, exhibiting a stronger response than the wild-type R3a protein to AVR3aKI. Remarkably, the N336Y mutation, near the R3a nucleotide-binding pocket, conferred response to the effector protein PcAVR3a4 from the vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici. This work contributes to understanding how NB-LRR receptor specificity can be modulated. Together with knowledge of pathogen effector diversity, this strategy can be exploited to develop synthetic immune receptors.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Stephen Bolus's curator insight, March 29, 11:09 PM

I just really love the idea of synthetic immune receptors!

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Monoubiquitination of Histone 2B at the disease resistance gene locus regulates its expression and impacts immune responses in Arabidopsis

Monoubiquitination of Histone 2B at the disease resistance gene locus regulates its expression and impacts immune responses in Arabidopsis | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Disease resistance (R) genes are key components in plant immunity. Here we show that Arabidopsis E3 ubiquitin ligase genes HUB1 (HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1) and HUB2 regulate the expression of the R genes SNC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF npr1-1, CONSTITUTIVE1)and RPP4 (RESISTANCE TO PERONOSPORA PARASITICA 4). An increase of SNC1 expression induces constitutive immune responses in the bon1 (bonzai1) mutant, and the loss of HUB1 or HUB2 function reduces SNC1 upregulation and suppresses the bon1 autoimmune phenotypes. HUB1 and HUB2 mediate H2B monoubiquitination directly at the SNC1 R gene locus to regulate its expression. In addition, SNC1 and HUB1 transcripts are moderately up-regulated by pathogen infection and H2B monoubiquitination at SNC1 is enhanced by pathogen infection. Together, this study indicates that H2B monoubiquitination at the R gene locus regulates its expression and this histone modification at the R gene locus has an impact on immune responses in plants.


Via Suayib Üstün
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New Phyt Tansley Review. Putting the brakes on: abscisic acid as a central environmental regulator of stomatal development

"Mature leaves detect environmental signals and relay messages to immature leaves to tell them how to adapt and grow. Stomata on mature leaves may act as stress signal-sensing and transduction centres, locally by aperture adjustment, and at long distance by optimizing stomatal density to maximize future carbon gain while minimizing water loss."


Via Mary Williams
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Science: Structural Basis for Assembly and Function of a Heterodimeric Plant Immune Receptor (2014)

Science: Structural Basis for Assembly and Function of a Heterodimeric Plant Immune Receptor (2014) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Cytoplasmic plant immune receptors recognize specific pathogen effector proteins and initiate effector-triggered immunity. In Arabidopsis, the immune receptors RPS4 and RRS1 are both required to activate defense to three different pathogens. We show that RPS4 and RRS1 physically associate. Crystal structures of the N-terminal Toll–interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TIR) domains of RPS4 and RRS1, individually and as a heterodimeric complex (respectively at 2.05, 1.75, and 2.65 angstrom resolution), reveal a conserved TIR/TIR interaction interface. We show that TIR domain heterodimerization is required to form a functional RRS1/RPS4 effector recognition complex. The RPS4 TIR domain activates effector-independent defense, which is inhibited by the RRS1 TIR domain through the heterodimerization interface. Thus, RPS4 and RRS1 function as a receptor complex in which the two components play distinct roles in recognition and signaling.


See also Perspective by Nishimura and Dangl http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6181/267.short


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Frontiers: The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome

Frontiers: The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

 

Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48%) and Pseudomonadaceae (37%) with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%), Moraxellaceae (16%) and Enterobacteriaceae (25%) with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of action.


Via Stéphane Hacquard
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The polyadenylation factor subunit CPSF30: a key factor of programmed cell death and a regulator of immunity in Arabidopsis

The polyadenylation factor subunit CPSF30: a key factor of programmed cell death and a regulator of immunity in Arabidopsis | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. Indeed, incompatible plant-pathogen interactions are well known to induce the hypersensitive response (HR), a localized cell death. Mutational analyses have identified several key PCD components and we recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is deficient for the key enzyme catalysing the limiting step of myo-inositol (MI) synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to Salicylic Acid (SA)-dependent PCD, revealing roles for MI or inositol derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Here, we identified a regulator of plant PCD by screening for mutants that display transcriptomic profiles opposing that of the mips1 mutant. Our screen identified the oxt6 mutant, which has been described previously as being tolerant to oxidative stress. In the oxt6 mutant, a T-DNA is inserted in the CPSF30 gene, which encodes a polyadenylation factor subunit homolog. We show that CPSF30 is required for lesion formation in mips1 via SA-dependant signalling, that the pro-death function of CPSF30 is not mediated by changes in the glutathione status and that CPSF30 activity is required for Pseudomonas syringae resistance. We also show that the oxt6 mutation suppresses cell death in other lesion mimic mutants, including lsd1, mpk4, cpr5 and cat2, suggesting that CPSF30 and, thus, the control of mRNA 3’ end processing, through the regulation of SA production, is a key component of plant immune responses.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Central Cell–Derived Peptides Regulate Early Embryo Patterning in Flowering Plants

Central Cell–Derived Peptides Regulate Early Embryo Patterning in Flowering Plants | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Plant embryogenesis initiates with the establishment of an apical-basal axis; however, the molecular mechanisms accompanying this early event remain unclear. Here, we show that a small cysteine-rich peptide family is required for formation of the zygotic basal cell lineage and proembryo patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBRYO SURROUNDING FACTOR 1 (ESF1) peptides accumulate before fertilization in central cell gametes and thereafter in embryo-surrounding endosperm cells. Biochemical and structural analyses revealed cleavage of ESF1 propeptides to form biologically active mature peptides. Further, these peptides act in a non–cell-autonomous manner and synergistically with the receptor-like kinase SHORT SUSPENSOR to promote suspensor elongation through the YODA mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our findings demonstrate that the second female gamete and its sexually derived endosperm regulate early embryonic patterning in flowering plants.


Via Francis Martin, Mary Williams
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Botany: Special issue: The microbiota of plants

In this Special Issue, we have tried to capture the diversity of plant–microbe research that is on-going, and that might not normally be marketed under the banner of “plant microbiome research”. Nevertheless, it belongs under this banner and we highlight some of this research here, including a variety of plant “habitats” such as roots, leaves, and floral parts, as well as a variety of microbes, from bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to dark septate fungi. Of course, the field is broader than what we are able present in a single issue, but we hope that it inspires researchers of overlooked aspects of plant microbiota research to get in on the game, and contribute to a more complete picture of this complex “ecosystem”.


Via Stéphane Hacquard, Francis Martin
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Multiple functional polymorphisms in a single disease resistance gene in rice enhance durable resistance to blast

Multiple functional polymorphisms in a single disease resistance gene in rice enhance durable resistance to blast | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Here we show that map-based cloning of Pi35 identifies multiple functional polymorphisms that allow effective control of the disease, and thatPi35 is allelic to Pish, which mediates race-specific resistance to blast and encodes a protein containing a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Analysis using Pish–Pi35 chimeric genes demonstrated that multiple functional polymorphisms cumulatively enhance resistance, and that an amino acid residue in a LRR of Pi35 is strongly associated with the gene's mediation of quantitative but consistent resistance to pathogen isolates in Japan, in contrast to Pish, which mediates resistance to only a single isolate. Our results reinforce the substantial importance of mining allelic variation for crop breeding.


Via Elsa Ballini
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Disruption and Molecular Characterization of Calpains-Related (MoCAPN1, MoCAPN3 and MoCAPN4) Genes in Magnaporthe oryzae

Disruption and Molecular Characterization of Calpains-Related (MoCAPN1, MoCAPN3 and MoCAPN4) Genes in Magnaporthe oryzae | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Calpains-related MoCAPN1 (MGG_14872), MoCAPN3 (MGG_15810) and MoCAPN4 (MGG_04818) genes from M. oryzae genome. All the mutants except those for MoCAPN1 showed normal phenotypes. In pathogenicity test, the mutants did not lead to any visible changes in phenotypes causing similar blast lesions on blast susceptible rice . Germ tubes formation, appressorium formation, mycelium radial growth and mating with 2539 strain were indistinguishable among the mutants . Cell wall integrity (congo red) test, stress response under chemical pressure (ZnSO4, CuSO4 and CdCl2), osmotic and oxidative (NaCl and H2O2) stress response, growth response on glucose and nitrogen deficient media resulted in similar results in the mutants and Guy-11 strains. However, mutants for ΔMoCAPN1 gene produced reduced (0.57 ± 0.15B and 0.54 ± 0.05B) conidia compared to that (1.69 ± 0.13A) of the Guy-11 strain showing its involvement in conidiation.


Via Elsa Ballini
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A guide to genome engineering with programmable nucleases - Nature Rev. Gen.

A guide to genome engineering with programmable nucleases - Nature Rev. Gen. | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

(via T. Lahaye, thx)

Kim & Kim 2014

Programmable nucleases — including zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) derived from the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–Cas (CRISPR-associated) system — enable targeted genetic modifications in cultured cells, as well as in whole animals and plants. The value of these enzymes in research, medicine and biotechnology arises from their ability to induce site-specific DNA cleavage in the genome, the repair (through endogenous mechanisms) of which allows high-precision genome editing. However, these nucleases differ in several respects, including their composition, targetable sites, specificities and mutation signatures, among other characteristics. Knowledge of nuclease-specific features, as well as of their pros and cons, is essential for researchers to choose the most appropriate tool for a range of applications.


Via dromius
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Effects of elevated [CO2] on maize defense against mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides

Effects of elevated [CO2] on maize defense against mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Maize is by quantity the most important C4 cereal crop; however, future climate changes are expected to increase maize susceptibility to mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens and reduce productivity. While rising atmospheric [CO2] is a driving force behind the warmer temperatures and drought, which aggravate fungal disease and mycotoxin accumulation, our understanding of how elevated [CO2] will effect maize defenses against such pathogens is limited. Here we report that elevated [CO2] increases maize susceptibility to Fusarium verticillioides proliferation but mycotoxin levels are unaltered. Fumonisin production is not proportional to the increase in F. verticillioides biomass, and the amount of fumonisin produced per unit pathogen is reduced at elevated [CO2]. Following F. verticillioides stalk inoculation, the accumulation of sugars, free fatty acids, lipoxygenase (LOX) transcripts, phytohormones and downstream phytoalexins is dampened in maize grown at elevated [CO2]. The attenuation of maize 13-LOXs and JA production correlates with reduced terpenoid phytoalexins and increased susceptibility. Furthermore, the attenuated induction of 9-LOXs, which have been suggested to stimulate mycotoxin biosynthesis, is consistent with reduced fumonisin per unit fungal biomass at elevated [CO2]. Our findings suggest that elevated [CO2] will compromise maize LOX-dependent signaling which will influence the interactions between maize and mycotoxigenic fungi.

 

 


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Plant peptides in defense and signaling

Plant peptides in defense and signaling | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

This review focuses on plant peptides involved in defense against pathogen infection and those involved in the regulation of growth and development. Defense peptides, defensins, cyclotides and anti-microbial peptides are compared and contrasted. Signaling peptides are classified according to their major sites of activity. Finally, a network approach to creating an interactomic peptide map is described.


Via Jean-Michel Ané, Christophe Jacquet
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Brachypodium distachyon is a pathosystem model for the study of the wheat disease Rhizoctonia root rot - Schneebeli - Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library

Brachypodium distachyon is a pathosystem model for the study of the wheat disease Rhizoctonia root rot - Schneebeli - Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) is increasingly being used as a model for cereal diseases and to study cereal root architecture. Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 is a necrotrophic root pathogen that infects wheat soon after germination resulting in reduced plant growth and yield loss. Genetic resistance to R. solani AG 8 is not available in commercial wheat cultivars, although some quantitative levels of resistance have previously been found in mutant lines and grass relatives. Resistance mechanisms in cereals remain unknown. The ability to use Bd as a model to study the wheat - R. solani AG 8 pathosystem was investigated. The results presented show that Bd is susceptible to R. solani AG 8 and that the pathogen infects both species to a similar degree, producing comparable disease symptoms. Root length reduction was the primary indicator of disease, with shoots also affected. The second objective was to develop a repeatable phenotyping method to screen Bd populations for resistance to R. solani AG 8. Results of a preliminary experiment provide evidence for variation in resistance between Bd inbred lines. This is the first report showing the potential of Bd as a model plant for discovery of quantitative genetic variation in resistance to a necrotrophic cereal root pathogen.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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N-Glycosylation of Effector Proteins by an α-1,3-Mannosyltransferase Is Required for the Rice Blast Fungus to Evade Host Innate Immunity

N-Glycosylation of Effector Proteins by an α-1,3-Mannosyltransferase Is Required for the Rice Blast Fungus to Evade Host Innate Immunity | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Plant pathogenic fungi deploy secreted effectors to suppress plant immunity responses. These effectors operate either in the apoplast or within host cells, so they are putatively glycosylated, but the posttranslational regulation of their activities has not been explored. In this study, the ASPARAGINE-LINKED GLYCOSYLATION3 (ALG3)-mediated N-glycosylation of the effector, Secreted LysM Protein1 (Slp1), was found to be essential for its activity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. ALG3 encodes an α-1,3-mannosyltransferase for protein N-glycosylation. Deletion of ALG3 resulted in the arrest of secondary infection hyphae and a significant reduction in virulence. We observed that Δalg3 mutants induced massive production of reactive oxygen species in host cells, in a similar manner to Δslp1 mutants, which is a key factor responsible for arresting infection hyphae of the mutants. Slp1 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to avoid their recognition by the rice (Oryza sativa) chitin elicitor binding protein CEBiP and the induction of innate immune responses, including reactive oxygen species production. We demonstrate that Slp1 has three N-glycosylation sites and that simultaneous Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of each site is required to maintain protein stability and the chitin binding activity of Slp1, which are essential for its effector function. These results indicate that Alg3-mediated N-glycosylation of Slp1 is required to evade host innate immunity.


Via Suayib Üstün
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