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The Ubiquitin Ligase PUB22 Targets a Subunit of the Exocyst Complex Required for PAMP-Triggered Responses in Arabidopsis

The Ubiquitin Ligase PUB22 Targets a Subunit of the Exocyst Complex Required for PAMP-Triggered Responses in Arabidopsis | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Plant pathogens are perceived by pattern recognition receptors, which are activated upon binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Ubiquitination and vesicle trafficking have been linked to the regulation of immune signaling. However, little information exists about components of vesicle trafficking involved in immune signaling and the mechanisms that regulate them. In this study, we identified Arabidopsis thaliana Exo70B2, a subunit of the exocyst complex that mediates vesicle tethering during exocytosis, as a target of the plant U-box–type ubiquitin ligase 22 (PUB22), which acts in concert with PUB23 and PUB24 as a negative regulator of PAMP-triggered responses. We show that Exo70B2 is required for both immediate and later responses triggered by all tested PAMPs, suggestive of a role in signaling. Exo70B2 is also necessary for the immune response against different pathogens. Our data demonstrate that PUB22 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of Exo70B2 via the 26S Proteasome. Furthermore, degradation is regulated by the autocatalytic turnover of PUB22, which is stabilized upon PAMPs perception. We therefore propose a mechanism by which PUB22-mediated degradation of Exo70B2 contributes to the attenuation of PAMP-induced signaling.


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Plant-Microbe Interaction
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Google Genomics — Google Developers

Google Genomics — Google Developers | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Gives access to Google Genomics.

Explore genetic variation interactively.Compare entire cohorts in seconds with SQL-like queries. Compute transition/transversion ratios, genome-wide association, allelic frequency and more.


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Chris Upton + helpers's curator insight, July 4, 9:42 AM

Generally...   I hate Google...

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Characterization of the Largest Effector Gene Cluster of Ustilago maydis

Characterization of the Largest Effector Gene Cluster of Ustilago maydis | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
by Thomas Brefort, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Nina Neidig, Gunther Doehlemann, Volker Vincon, Regine Kahmann In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are...

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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Through the doors of perception to function in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses

Through the doors of perception to function in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

The formation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is initiated by the bidirectional exchange of diffusible molecules. While strigolactone hormones, secreted from plant roots, stimulate hyphal branching and fungal metabolism, fungal short-chain chitin oligomers as well as sulfated and nonsulfated lipochitooligosaccharides (s/nsMyc-LCOs) elicit pre-symbiosis responses in the host. Fungal LCO signals are structurally related to rhizobial Nod-factor LCOs. Genome-wide expression studies demonstrated that defined sets of genes were induced by Nod-, sMyc- and nsMyc-LCOs, indicating LCO-specific perception in the pre-symbiosis phase. During hyphopodium formation and the subsequent root colonization, cross-talk between plant roots and AM fungi also involves phytohormones. Notably, gibberellins control arbuscule formation via DELLA proteins, which themselves serve as positive regulators of arbuscule formation. The establishment of arbuscules is accompanied by a substantial transcriptional and post-transcriptional reprogramming of host roots, ultimately defining the unique protein composition of arbuscule-containing cells. Based on cellular expression profiles, key checkpoints of AM development as well as candidate genes encoding transcriptional regulators and regulatory microRNAs were identified. Detailed functional analyses of promoters specified short motifs sufficient for cell-autonomous gene regulation in cells harboring arbuscules, and suggested simultaneous, multi-level regulation of the mycorrhizal phosphate uptake pathway by integrating AM symbiosis and phosphate starvation response signaling.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Evolution of microbial markets

Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions.


Via Francis Martin, Jean-Michel Ané
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Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops

Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

“Intractable proteins” in GM crops cannot be isolated or studied by existing methods.

Intractability results from low expression, membrane association, or other factors.

The established tiered weight-of-evidence approach can be used for safety assessment.

No protein is needed for history of safe use (HOSU) and bioinformatics analyses.

Enriched or substitute proteins may offer alternatives to pure protein dose testing.


Via Elsa Ballini
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Frontiers | Nuclei in motion: movement and positioning of plant nuclei in development, signaling, symbiosis, and disease | Plant Cell Biology

Frontiers | Nuclei in motion: movement and positioning of plant nuclei in development, signaling, symbiosis, and disease | Plant Cell Biology | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
While textbook figures imply nuclei as resting spheres at the center of idealized cells, this picture fits few real situations. Plant nuclei come in many shapes and sizes, and can be actively transported within the cell. In several contexts, this nuclear movement is tightly coupled to a developmental program, the response to an abiotic signal, or a cellular reprogramming during either mutualistic or parasitic plant-microbe interactions. While many such phenomena have been observed and carefully described, the underlying molecular mechanism and the functional significance of the nuclear movement are typically unknown. Here, we survey recent as well as older literature to provide a concise starting point for applying contemporary molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches to this fascinating, yet poorly understood phenomenon.

Via Jean-Michel Ané, Christophe Jacquet
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, July 7, 7:32 PM

Interesting topic

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
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The involvement of Medicago truncatula non-specific lipid transfer protein N5 in the control of rhizobial infection

The involvement of Medicago truncatula non-specific lipid transfer protein N5 in the control of rhizobial infection | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Cysteine-rich proteins seem to play important regulatory roles in Medicago truncatula/Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis. In particular, a large family of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides is crucial for the differentiation of nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. The Medicago truncatula N5 protein (MtN5) is currently the only reported non-specific lipid transfer protein necessary for successful rhizobial symbiosis; in addition, MtN5 shares several characteristics with NCR peptides: a small size, a conserved cysteine-rich motif, an N-terminal signal peptide for secretion and antimicrobial activity. Unlike NCR peptides, MtN5 expression is not restricted to the root nodules and is induced during the early phases of symbiosis in root hairs and nodule primordia. Recently, MtN5 was determined to be involved in the regulation of root tissue invasion; while, it was dispensable for nodule primordia formation. Here, we discuss the hypothesis that MtN5 participates in linking the progression of bacterial invasion with restricting the competence of root hairs for infection.

Via Jean-Michel Ané, Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
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Gate control: guard cell regulation by microbial stress

Gate control: guard cell regulation by microbial stress | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Terrestrial plants rely on stomata, small pores in the leaf surface, for photosynthetic gas exchange and transpiration of water. The stomata, formed by a pair of guard cells, dynamically increase and decrease their volume to control the pore size in response to environmental cues. Stresses can trigger similar or opposing movements: for example, drought induces closure of stomata, whereas many pathogens exploit stomata and cause them to open to facilitate entry into plant tissues. The latter is an active process as stomatal closure is part of the plant's immune response. Stomatal research has contributed much to clarify the signalling pathways of abiotic stress, but guard cell signalling in response to microbes is a relatively new area of research. In this article, we discuss present knowledge of stomatal regulation in response to microbes and highlight common points of convergence, and differences, compared to stomatal regulation by abiotic stresses. We also expand on the mechanisms by which pathogens manipulate these processes to promote disease, for example by delivering effectors to inhibit closure or trigger opening of stomata. The study of pathogen effectors in stomatal manipulation will aid our understanding of guard cell signalling.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from The science toolbox
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Horizontal genome transfer as an asexual path to the formation of new species : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Horizontal genome transfer as an asexual path to the formation of new species : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Allopolyploidization, the combination of the genomes from two different species, has been a major source of evolutionary innovation and a driver of speciation and environmental adaptation. In plants, it has also contributed greatly to crop domestication, as the superior properties of many modern crop plants were conferred by ancient allopolyploidization events. It is generally thought that allopolyploidization occurred through hybridization events between species, accompanied or followed by genome duplication. Although many allopolyploids arose from closely related species (congeners), there are also allopolyploid species that were formed from more distantly related progenitor species belonging to different genera or even different tribes. Here we have examined the possibility that allopolyploidization can also occur by asexual mechanisms. We show that upon grafting[mdash]a mechanism of plant-plant interaction that is widespread in nature[mdash]entire nuclear genomes can be transferred between plant cells. We provide direct evidence for this process resulting in speciation by creating a new allopolyploid plant species from a herbaceous species and a woody species in the nightshade family. The new species is fertile and produces fertile progeny. Our data highlight natural grafting as a potential asexual mechanism of speciation and also provide a method for the generation of novel allopolyploid crop species.

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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Nutrient transfer in plant–fungal symbioses

Nutrient transfer in plant–fungal symbioses | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Almost all plant species form symbioses with soil fungi, and nutrient transfer to plants is largely mediated through this partnership. Studies of fungal nutrient transfer to plants have largely focused on the transfer of limiting soil nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, by mycorrhizal fungi. However, certain fungal endophytes, such as Metarhizium and Beauveria, are also able to transfer nitrogen to their plant hosts. Here, we review recent studies that have identified genes and their encoded transporters involved in the movement of nitrogen, phosphorous, and nonlimiting soil nutrients between symbionts. These recent advances in our understanding could lead to applications in agricultural and horticultural settings, and to the development of model fungal systems that could further elucidate the role of fungi in these symbioses.


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Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops

Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

“Intractable proteins” in GM crops cannot be isolated or studied by existing methods.

Intractability results from low expression, membrane association, or other factors.

The established tiered weight-of-evidence approach can be used for safety assessment.

No protein is needed for history of safe use (HOSU) and bioinformatics analyses.

Enriched or substitute proteins may offer alternatives to pure protein dose testing.


Via Elsa Ballini
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Chimaeric viruses blur the borders between the major groups of eukaryotic ssDNA viruses

Chimaeric viruses blur the borders between the major groups of eukaryotic ssDNA viruses | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Metagenomic studies have uncovered an astonishing diversity of ssDNA viruses encoding replication proteins (Reps) related to those of eukaryotic Circoviridae, Geminiviridae orNanoviridae; however, exact evolutionary relationships among these viruses remain obscure. Recently, a unique chimeric virus (CHIV) genome, which has apparently emerged via recombination between ssRNA and ssDNA viruses, has been discovered. Here we report on the assembly of 13 new CHIV genomes recovered from various environments. Our results indicate a single event of capsid protein (CP) gene capture from an RNA virus in the history of this virus group. The domestication of the CP gene was followed by an unprecedented recurrent replacement of the Rep genes in CHIVs with distant counterparts from diverse ssDNA viruses. We suggest that parasitic and symbiotic interactions between unicellular eukaryotes were central for the emergence of CHIVs and that such turbulent evolution was primarily dictated by incongruence between the CP and Rep proteins.

  


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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, June 30, 4:41 AM

...and we are about to look for some of these in a big way in seawater

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interaction
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The Arabidopsis LecRK-VI.2 associates with the pattern-recognition receptor FLS2 and primes Nicotiana benthamiana pattern-triggered immunity - Huang - 2014 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

The Arabidopsis LecRK-VI.2 associates with the pattern-recognition receptor FLS2 and primes Nicotiana benthamiana pattern-triggered immunity - Huang - 2014 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is broad spectrum and manipulation of PTI is believed to represent an attractive way to engineer plants with broad-spectrum disease resistance. PTI is activated upon perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). We have recently demonstrated that the L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2) positively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Here we show through in vitro pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses that LecRK-VI.2 associates with the PRR FLS2. We also demonstrated that LecRK-VI.2 from the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis remains functional after interfamily transfer to the Solanaceous plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Wild tobacco plants ectopically expressing LecRK-VI.2 were indeed more resistant to virulent hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic bacteria, but not to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea suggesting that, as with Arabidopsis, the LecRK-VI.2 protective effect in N. benthamiana is bacteria specific. Ectopic expression of LecRK-VI.2 in N. benthamiana primed PTI-mediated reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, callose deposition and gene expression upon treatment with the MAMP flagellin. Our findings identified LecRK-VI.2 as a member of the FLS2 receptor complex and suggest that heterologous expression of components of PRR complexes can be used as tools to engineer plant disease resistance to bacteria.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Robert Hooke's Micrographia (audio-annotated flipbook)

Robert Hooke's Micrographia (audio-annotated flipbook) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Here's a nice way to display a 500 year old book!


Via Mary Williams
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
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Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types

Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediate induced plant defences and the corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as has been shown on the transcript and proteine level. Downstream, metabolic changes are important for plant–herbivore interactions. This study investigated metabolic changes in leaf tissue and phloem exudates of Plantago lanceolata after single and combined JA and SA applications as well as consequences on chewing-biting (Heliothis virescens) and piercing-sucking (Myzus persicae) herbivores. Targeted metabolite profiling and untargeted metabolic fingerprinting uncovered different categories of plant metabolites, which were influenced in a specific manner, indicating points of divergence, convergence, positive crosstalk and pronounced mutual antagonism between the signaling pathways. Phytohormone-specific decreases of primary metabolite pool sizes in the phloem exudates may indicate shifts in sink–source relations, resource allocation, nutrient uptake or photosynthesis. Survival of both herbivore species was significantly reduced by JA and SA treatments. However, the combined application of JA and SA attenuated the negative effects at least against H. virescens suggesting that mutual antagonism between the JA and SA pathway may be responsible. Pathway interactions provide a great regulatory potential for the plant that allows triggering of appropriate defences when attacked by different antagonist species.


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The Nicotiana attenuata GLA1 lipase controls the accumulation of Phytophthora parasitica-induced oxylipins and defensive secondary metabolites

The Nicotiana attenuata GLA1 lipase controls the accumulation of Phytophthora parasitica-induced oxylipins and defensive secondary metabolites | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Nicotiana attenuata plants silenced in the expression of GLYCEROLIPASE A1 (ir-gla1 plants) are compromised in the herbivore- and wound-induced accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA). However, these plants accumulate wild-type (WT) levels of JA and divinyl-ethers during Phytophthora parasitica infection. By profiling oxylipin-enriched fractions with targeted and untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry approaches, we demonstrate that the accumulation of 9-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9-OH-18:2) and additional C18 and C19 oxylipins is reduced by ca. 20-fold in P. parasitica-infected ir-gla1 leaves compared with WT. This reduced accumulation of oxylipins was accompanied by a reduced accumulation of unsaturated free fatty acids and specific lysolipid species. Untargeted metabolic profiling of total leaf extracts showed that 87 metabolites accumulated differentially in leaves of P. parasitica-infected ir-gla1 plants with glycerolipids, hydroxylated-diterpene glycosides and phenylpropanoid derivatives accounting together for ca. 20% of these 87 metabolites. Thus, P. parasitica-induced oxylipins may participate in the regulation of metabolic changes during infection. Together, the results demonstrate that GLA1 plays a distinct role in the production of oxylipins during biotic stress responses, supplying substrates for 9-OH-18:2 and additional C18 and C19 oxylipin formation during P. parasitica infection, whereas supplying substrates for the biogenesis of JA during herbivory and mechanical wounding.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Robert Hooke's Micrographia (audio-annotated flipbook)

Robert Hooke's Micrographia (audio-annotated flipbook) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Here's a nice way to display a 500 year old book!


Via Mary Williams
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
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Plant Pathogen Silences Host’s Immune Genes

Plant Pathogen Silences Host’s Immune Genes | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
by S. Marvin Friedman | As more and more information becomes available, one marvels (and also frets) at the sophisticated strategies that pathogens have evolved in order to evade their hosts’ defense mechanisms. Many pathogens of plants and animals deliver effectors into their hosts in order to suppress immune responses. To date, the vast majority of…

Via Ken Yaw Agyeman-Badu
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Rice Blast
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Development and Characterization of Rice Mutants for Functional Genomics Studies and Breeding

Development and Characterization of Rice Mutants for Functional Genomics Studies and Breeding | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Approximately 100 000 putative mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) have been generated by mutagens. Mutant genes involved in plant architecture, grain quality and disease resistance have been isolated and characterized. In this review, we described the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), irradiation, and fast neutron methods used to create rice mutants; methods for the analysis of rice genes that are responsible for mutations; the use of new mutants for rice breeding and functional genomics; and the molecular mechanisms of blast resistance gene-mediated defence responses.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Agroinfection of sweet potato by vacuum infi ltration of an infectious sweepovirus

Agroinfection of sweet potato by vacuum infi ltration of an infectious sweepovirus | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Abstract: Sweepovirus is an important monopartite begomovirus that infects plants of the genusIpomoea worldwide. Development of artifi cial infection methods for sweepovirus using agroinoculation is a highly efficient means of studying infectivity in sweet potato. Unlike other begomoviruses, it has proven difficult to infect sweet potato plants with sweepoviruses using infectious clones. A novel sweepovirus, called Sweet potato leaf curl virus-Jiangsu (SPLCV-JS), was recently identifi ed in China. In addition, the infectivity of the SPLCV-JS clone has been demonstrated in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here we describe the agroinfection of the sweet potato cultivar Xushu 22 with the SPLCV-JS infectious clone using vacuum infi ltration. Yellowing symptoms were observed in newly emerged leaves. Molecular analysis confirmed successful inoculation by the detection of viral DNA. A synergistic effect of SPLCV-JS and the heterologous betasatellite DNA-β of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus isolate Y10 (TYLCCNV-Y10) on enhanced symptom severity and viral DNA accumulation was confi rmed. The development of a routine agroinoculation system in sweet potato with SPLCV-JS using vacuum infi ltration should facilitate the molecular study of sweepovirus in this host and permit the evaluation of virus resistance of sweet potato plants in breeding programs. 


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Manipulation of two α-endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes, AtCel6 and GmCel7, reduces susceptibility to Heterodera glycines in soybean roots

Manipulation of two α-endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes, AtCel6 and GmCel7, reduces susceptibility to Heterodera glycines in soybean roots | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Plant endo-β-1,4-glucanases (EGases) include cell wall-modifying enzymes that are involved in nematode-induced growth of syncytia (feeding structures) in nematode-infected roots. EGases in the α- and β-subfamilies contain signal peptides and are secreted, whereas those in the γ-subfamily have a membrane-anchoring domain and are not secreted. The Arabidopsis α-EGase At1g48930, designated asAtCel6, is known to be down-regulated by beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) in Arabidopsis roots, whereas another α-EGase,AtCel2, is up-regulated. Here, we report that the ectopic expression of AtCel6 in soybean roots reduces susceptibility to both soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Suppression of GmCel7, the soybean homologue of AtCel2, in soybean roots also reduces the susceptibility to SCN. In contrast, in studies on two γ-EGases, both ectopic expression of AtKOR2 in soybean roots and suppression of the soybean homologue of AtKOR3 had no significant effect on SCN parasitism. Our results suggest that secreted α-EGases are likely to be more useful than membrane-bound γ-EGases in the development of an SCN-resistant soybean through gene manipulation. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that Arabidopsis shares molecular events of cyst nematode parasitism with soybean, and confirms the suitability of the Arabidopsis–H. schachtii interaction as a model for the soybean–H. glycines pathosystem.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Root exudates mediated interactions belowground

Root exudates mediated interactions belowground | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

The root exudate composition reflects the contradictory-concomitantly attractive and repulsive-behaviour of plants towards soil microorganisms. Plants produce antimicrobial, insecticide and nematicide compounds to repel pathogens and invaders. They also produce border cells that detach from roots and play an important role as biological and physical barrier against aggressors. Plants produce also metabolites used as carbon source resulting in the attraction of phytobeneficial soil microorganisms that help plants in controlling diseases directly via the production of antimicrobial compounds or indirectly via the induction of plant systemic resistance. The root exudates may have a direct impact on carbon and nitrogen cycling, as they exhibit a rhizosphere priming effect towards soil organic matter degraders, and may inhibit nitrification process by soil nitrifying microorganisms. They also contain signalling molecules required for the establishment of ‘plant-microorganisms’ interactions. The composition of root exudates is therefore broad ranging, consisting of feeding, antimicrobial and signalling molecules. We thus focused this review on current research concerning the role of the root exudate composition in ‘plant-microorganisms’ interactions and functioning of the rhizosphere.


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Nuclei in motion: movement and positioning of plant nuclei in development, signaling, symbiosis, and disease | Plant Cell Biology

Nuclei in motion: movement and positioning of plant nuclei in development, signaling, symbiosis, and disease | Plant Cell Biology | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
While textbook figures imply nuclei as resting spheres at the center of idealized cells, this picture fits few real situations. Plant nuclei come in many shapes and sizes, and can be actively transported within the cell. In several contexts, this nuclear movement is tightly coupled to a developmental program, the response to an abiotic signal, or a cellular reprogramming during either mutualistic or parasitic plant-microbe interactions. While many such phenomena have been observed and carefully described, the underlying molecular mechanism and the functional significance of the nuclear movement are typically unknown. Here, we survey recent as well as older literature to provide a concise starting point for applying contemporary molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches to this fascinating, yet poorly understood phenomenon.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, July 7, 7:32 PM

Interesting topic

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Fungi borrowed bacterial gene again and again

Fungi borrowed bacterial gene again and again | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Multiple independent gene transfers gave fungi ability to colonize plant roots.

Muller and his colleagues scanned the genomes of 149 eukaryotes, and found acdS-like genes in 65 of them — 61 in fungi and 4 in parasitic microorganisms called oomycetes, including Phytophthora infestans, the microbe responsible for the Irish potato famine. After analysing the organisms' genetic family trees, the researchers determined that the most likely explanation was that three different kinds of bacterium had donated the gene to the fungi and oomycetes in a total of 15 different horizontal-gene-transfer events.


Via Francis Martin
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A field guide to whole-genome sequencing, assembly and annotation

A field guide to whole-genome sequencing, assembly and annotation | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Genome sequencing projects were long confined to biomedical model organisms and required the concerted effort of large consortia. Rapid progress in high-throughput sequencing technology and the simultaneous development of bioinformatic tools have democratized the field. It is now within reach for individual research groups in the eco-evolutionary and conservation community to generate de novo draft genome sequences for any organism of choice. Because of the cost and considerable effort involved in such an endeavour, the important first step is to thoroughly consider whether a genome sequence is necessary for addressing the biological question at hand. Once this decision is taken, a genome project requires careful planning with respect to the organism involved and the intended quality of the genome draft. Here, we briefly review the state of the art within this field and provide a step-by-step introduction to the workflow involved in genome sequencing, assembly and annotation with particular reference to large and complex genomes. This tutorial is targeted at scientists with a background in conservation genetics, but more generally, provides useful practical guidance for researchers engaging in whole-genome sequencing projects.


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