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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Plant pathology on the cover of The Times right there next to a James Bond Special #ashdieback

Plant pathology on the cover of The Times right there next to a James Bond Special #ashdieback | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

A foreign fungus threatens almost a third of British woodland - To plant a tree is to make an investment for somebody else’s future; to chop one down is to call time on the hopes of the past. Soon Britain may be chopping down a great many trees. From Monday the Government will ban the import of ash trees in an attempt to save Britain’s ash population from a fungal parasite called Chalara fraxinea.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Mary Williams
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Colletotrichum orbiculare Regulates Cell Cycle G1/S Progression via a Two-Component GAP and a GTPase to Establish Plant Infection

Cell cycle G1/S arrest regulated by Bub2/Bfa1 GAP during conidial germination of Colletotrichum orbiculare was adapted to fulfill specific plant-pathogenic roles in virulence-associated processes.

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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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FungiFun2: a comprehensive online resource for systematic analysis of gene lists from fungal species

FungiFun2: a comprehensive online resource for systematic analysis of gene lists from fungal species | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Systematically extracting biological meaning from omics data is a major challenge in systems biology. Enrichment analysis is often used to identify characteristic patterns in candidate lists. FungiFun is a user-friendly Web tool for functional enrichment analysis of fungal genes and proteins. The novel tool FungiFun2 uses a completely revised data management system and thus allows enrichment analysis for 298 currently available fungal strains published in standard databases. FungiFun2 offers a modern Web interface and creates interactive tables, charts and figures, which users can directly manipulate to their needs.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted gene disruption in Aspergillus fumigatus [PublishAheadOfPrint]

Low rates of homologous recombination have broadly encumbered genetic studies in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Understanding images: A genetic framework in legumes controls infection of nodules

Understanding images: A genetic framework in legumes controls infection of nodules | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
The soil environment harbors a diverse range of bacteria, many of which could potentially be detrimental if they are able to gain entry to plant tissues. We are interested in determining how the host plant selects which bacteria are able to colonize its tissues and to identify important endophyte factors that allow them to be accommodated by the host plant. In this issue of PLOS Genetics we investigate the genetic components and molecular signals that allow the endophyte Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12 (KAW12) to colonize symbiotically induced nodules on the model legume Lotus japonicus. We have used different symbiotic and endophytic strains and performed mixed inoculations of wild-type or symbiotic L. japonicus mutants in order to identify the respective contributions of the different interacting partners – legume host, symbiont and endophyte.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, August 31, 10:51 AM

Nice commentary on Simona's paper.

Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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PeerJ Collection: Top Microbiology Papers - August 2015

PeerJ Collection: Top Microbiology Papers - August 2015 | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms and includes many sub-disciplines such as virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology. PeerJ is pleased to have published some outstanding work in microbiology and this Collection represents some of the most noteworthy papers we have published, as of August 2015.

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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Planted forest health: The need for a global strategy

Planted forest health: The need for a global strategy | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Several key tree genera are used in planted forests worldwide, and these represent valuable global resources. Planted forests are increasingly threatened by insects and microbial pathogens, which are introduced accidentally and/or have adapted to new host trees. Globalization has hastened tree pest emergence, despite a growing awareness of the problem, improved understanding of the costs, and an increased focus on the importance of quarantine. To protect the value and potential of planted forests, innovative solutions and a better-coordinated global approach are needed. Mitigation strategies that are effective only in wealthy countries fail to contain invasions elsewhere in the world, ultimately leading to global impacts. Solutions to forest pest problems in the future should mainly focus on integrating management approaches globally, rather than single-country strategies. A global strategy to manage pest issues is vitally important and urgently needed.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from WU_Phyto-Publications
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MPMI (2015): Haustorium formation in Medicago truncatula roots infected by Phytophthora palmivora does not involve the common endosymbiotic program shared by AM fungi and rhizobia

MPMI (2015): Haustorium formation in Medicago truncatula roots infected by Phytophthora palmivora does not involve the common endosymbiotic program shared by AM fungi and rhizobia | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

In biotrophic plant-microbe interactions, microbes infect living plant cells where they are hosted in a novel membrane compartment; the host-microbe interface. To create a host-microbe interface, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobia make use of the same endosymbiotic program. It is a long-standing hypothesis that pathogens make use of plant proteins that are dedicated to mutualistic symbiosis to infect plants and form haustoria. In this report, we developed a Phytophthora palmivora pathosystem to study haustorium formation in Medicago truncatula (Medicago) roots. We show that P. palmivora does not require host genes that are essential for symbiotic infection and host-microbe interface formation to infect Medicago roots and form haustoria. Based on these findings, we conclude that P. palmivora does not hijack the ancient intracellular accommodation program used by symbiotic microbes to form a biotrophic host-microbe interface.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Quantitative assessment of the differential impacts of arbuscular and ectomycorrhiza on soil carbon cycling

Quantitative assessment of the differential impacts of arbuscular and ectomycorrhiza on soil carbon cycling | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
A significant fraction of carbon stored in the Earth's soil moves through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and ectomycorrhiza (EM). The impacts of AM and EM on the soil carbon budget are poorly understood.
We propose a method to quantify the mycorrhizal contribution to carbon cycling, explicitly accounting for the abundance of plant-associated and extraradical mycorrhizal mycelium. We discuss the need to acquire additional data to use our method, and present our new global database holding information on plant species-by-site intensity of root colonization by mycorrhizas. We demonstrate that the degree of mycorrhizal fungal colonization has globally consistent patterns across plant species. This suggests that the level of plant species-specific root colonization can be used as a plant trait.
To exemplify our method, we assessed the differential impacts of AM : EM ratio and EM shrub encroachment on carbon stocks in sub-arctic tundra. AM and EM affect tundra carbon stocks at different magnitudes, and via partly distinct dominant pathways: via extraradical mycelium (both EM and AM) and via mycorrhizal impacts on above- and belowground biomass carbon (mostly AM).
Our method provides a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mycorrhizal impact on local and global carbon cycling processes, paving the way towards an improved understanding of the role of mycorrhizas in the Earth's carbon cycle.

Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-microbe interaction
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Subversion of plant cellular functions by bacterial type-III effectors: beyond suppression of immunity - New Phytologist

Subversion of plant cellular functions by bacterial type-III effectors: beyond suppression of immunity - New Phytologist | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins directly inside plant cells. These T3Es manipulate host cellular processes in order to create a permissive niche for bacterial proliferation, allowing development of the disease. An important role of T3Es in plant pathogenic bacteria is the suppression of plant immune responses. However, in recent years, research has uncovered T3E functions different from direct immune suppression, including the modulation of plant hormone signaling, metabolism or organelle function. This insight article discusses T3E functions other than suppression of immunity, which may contribute to the modulation of plant cells in order to promote bacterial survival, nutrient release, and bacterial replication and dissemination.


Via Max-Bernhard Ballhausen, Suayib Üstün
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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A CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox for multiplexed plant genome editing and transcriptional regulation (OPEN)

A CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox for multiplexed plant genome editing and transcriptional regulation (OPEN) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

" we developed and implemented a comprehensive molecular toolbox for multifaceted CRISPR/Cas9 applications in plants. This toolbox provides researchers with a protocol and reagents to quickly and efficiently assemble functional CRISPR/Cas9 T-DNA constructs for monocots and dicots using Golden Gate and Gateway cloning methods. It comes with a full suite of capabilities, including multiplexed gene editing and transcriptional activation or repression of plant endogenous genes. We report the functionality and effectiveness of this toolbox in model plants such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and rice, demonstrating its utility for basic and applied plant research."


Via Mary Williams
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II is promoted in vitro by cationic chaperones, including polyhistidine and wall glycoproteins

Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II is promoted in vitro by cationic chaperones, including polyhistidine and wall glycoproteins | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Summary
Dimerization of rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) via boron cross-links contributes to the assembly and biophysical properties of the cell wall.

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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Probing strigolactone receptors in Striga hermonthica with fluorescence

Probing strigolactone receptors in Striga hermonthica with fluorescence | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Elucidating the signaling mechanism of strigolactones has been the key to controlling the devastating problem caused by the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. To overcome the genetic intractability that has previously interfered with identification of the strigolactone receptor, we developed a fluorescence turn-on probe, Yoshimulactone Green (YLG), which activates strigolactone signaling and illuminates signal perception by the strigolactone receptors. Here we describe how strigolactones bind to and act via ShHTLs, the diverged family of α/β hydrolase-fold proteins in Striga. Live imaging using YLGs revealed that a dynamic wavelike propagation of strigolactone perception wakes up Striga seeds. We conclude that ShHTLs function as the strigolactone receptors mediating seed germination in Striga. Our findings enable access to strigolactone receptors and observation of the regulatory dynamics for strigolactone signal transduction in Striga.

Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
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Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping

Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant’s native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium–Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems.

Via Stéphane Hacquard, Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Structural basis for recognition of diverse transcriptional repressors by the TOPLESS family of corepressors

Structural basis for recognition of diverse transcriptional repressors by the TOPLESS family of corepressors | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

TOPLESS (TPL) and TOPLESS-related (TPR) proteins comprise a conserved family of plant transcriptional corepressors that are related to Tup1, Groucho, and TLE (transducin-like enhancer of split) corepressors in yeast, insects, and mammals. In plants, TPL/TPR corepressors regulate development, stress responses, and hormone signaling through interaction with small ethylene response factor–associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs found in diverse transcriptional repressors. How EAR motifs can interact with TPL/TPR proteins is unknown. We confirm the amino-terminal domain of the TPL family of corepressors, which we term TOPLESS domain (TPD), as the EAR motif–binding domain. To understand the structural basis of this interaction, we determined the crystal structures of the TPD of rice (Os) TPR2 in apo (apo protein) state and in complexes with the EAR motifs from Arabidopsis NINJA (novel interactor of JAZ), IAA1 (auxin-responsive protein 1), and IAA10, key transcriptional repressors involved in jasmonate and auxin signaling. The OsTPR2 TPD adopts a new fold of nine helices, followed by a zinc finger, which are arranged into a disc-like tetramer. The EAR motifs in the three different complexes adopt a similar extended conformation with the hydrophobic residues fitting into the same surface groove of each OsTPR2 monomer. Sequence alignments and structure-based mutagenesis indicate that this mode of corepressor binding is highly conserved in a large set of transcriptional repressors, thus providing a general mechanism for gene repression mediated by the TPL family of corepressors.


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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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The Activation of Phytophthora Effector Avr3b by Plant Cyclophilin is Required for the Nudix Hydrolase Activity of Avr3b

The Activation of Phytophthora Effector Avr3b by Plant Cyclophilin is Required for the Nudix Hydrolase Activity of Avr3b | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
by Guanghui Kong, Yao Zhao, Maofeng Jing, Jie Huang, Jin Yang, Yeqiang Xia, Liang Kong, Wenwu Ye, Qin Xiong, Yongli Qiao, Suomeng Dong, Wenbo Ma, Yuanchao Wang
Plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to impair host immunity.

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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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The Arabidopsis immune regulator SRFR1 dampens defenses against herbivory by Spodoptera exigua and parasitism by Heterodera schachtii - Molecular Plant Pathology -

The Arabidopsis immune regulator SRFR1 dampens defenses against herbivory by Spodoptera exigua and parasitism by Heterodera schachtii - Molecular Plant Pathology - | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to fine-tune defense responses to different types of enemies. Cross-regulation between signaling pathways may allow prioritization of one response over the other. Previously, we identified SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD1 (SRFR1) as a negative regulator of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)-dependent effector-triggered immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 expressing avrRps4. Using multiple stresses is a powerful tool to further define gene function. Here we examined whether SRFR1 also impacts resistance to a herbivorous insect in leaves and to a cyst nematode in roots. Interestingly, srfr1-1 plants showed increased resistance to herbivory by the beet army worm Spodoptera exigua and to parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii compared to the corresponding wild-type Arabidopsis accession RLD. Using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure the transcript levels of SA- and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathway genes, we found that enhanced resistance of srfr1-1 plants to S. exigua correlated with specific upregulation of the MYC2-branch of the JA-pathway concurrent with suppression of the SA-pathway. In contrast, the greater susceptibility of RLD is accompanied by simultaneously increased transcript levels of SA-, JA-, and JA/ET-signaling pathway genes. Surprisingly, mutation of either SRFR1 or EDS1 increased resistance to H. schachtii, indicating that the concurrent presence of both wild-type genes promotes susceptibility. This finding suggests a novel form of resistance in Arabidopsis to the biotrophic pathogen H. schachtii or a root-specific regulation of the SA pathway by EDS1, and places SRFR1 at an intersection between multiple defense pathways.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Random mutagenesis of the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC1 (NB-LRR Required for Hypersensitive Response-Associated Cell Death-1), a downstream signalling nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (N...

Random mutagenesis of the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC1 (NB-LRR Required for Hypersensitive Response-Associated Cell Death-1), a downstream signalling nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (N... | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins confer immunity to pathogens possessing the corresponding avirulence proteins. Activation of NB-LRR proteins is often associated with induction of the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death.
NRC1 (NB-LRR Required for HR-Associated Cell Death-1) is a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NB-LRR protein that participates in the signalling cascade leading to resistance to the pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Verticillium dahliae.
To identify mutations in NRC1 that cause increased signalling activity, we generated a random library of NRC1 variants mutated in their nucleotide-binding domain and screened them for the ability to induce an elicitor-independent HR in Nicotiana tabacum. Screening of 1920 clones retrieved 11 gain-of-function mutants, with 10 of them caused by a single amino acid substitution.
All substitutions are located in or very close to highly conserved motifs within the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting modulation of the signalling activity of NRC1. Three-dimensional modelling of the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC1 revealed that the targeted residues are centred around the bound nucleotide. Our mutational approach has generated a wide set of novel gain-of-function mutations in NRC1 and provides insight into how the activity of this NB-LRR is regulated.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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An introduction to synthetic biology in plant systems - Carmichael - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

...Plant synthetic biology is a burgeoning field that is attracting attention from both the synthetic biology and plant science communities (Osbourn et al., 2012; Cook et al., 2014), as illustrated by the recent funding of OpenPlant by the UK government through the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), to develop foundational technologies for plant synthetic biology. The development of this new field is in part due to rapid technological advances allowing quick, easy and efficient manipulation of genomic and transgenic plant DNA, and therefore the summer school mainly focussed on these cutting-edge tools and applications, with the aim of encouraging their use by up-and-coming researchers.

The 20 summer school participants had a variety of research backgrounds and levels of experience, from theorists and computer scientists to molecular, plant and synthetic biologists, and from new PhD students to postdoctoral researchers. Some of the participants had no previous plant science knowledge, so the major challenge was to devise a programme that would be engaging and instructive. As a result, participants were trained through a diverse course of lectures, practical sessions and group projects, covering a wide range of theoretical, technical and ethical content in this expanding discipline.
Lectures: cutting-edge training from world-leading experts

The lecture programme was designed to teach the participants about synthetic biology concepts and new technologies both in theory and application, as well as introducing them to several model plant systems. In addition, technical talks provided practical details including plant transformation, bioinformatics and metabolite analysis. Discussion was encouraged following the talks, with participants taking the opportunity to meet and question world-leading experts.

Claes Gustafsson, from the San Francisco-based DNA synthesis company DNA2.0, set the scene by introducing the theory behind the application of engineering values to synthetic biology, including the experimental cycle of designing, building, testing and learning that underpins effective synthetic biology research. Consistent with recent developments in plant synthetic biology, DNA assembly and genome engineering techniques were at the forefront of the more technical talks, and, importantly, illustrated with recent applications. Golden Gate cloning, a newly developed technique for assembling multigene DNA constructs in a modular fashion, was highlighted by several speakers, including Aymeric Leveau (Osbourn Laboratory, John Innes Centre, UK), who discussed its use in his work in metabolic engineering of wheat, whilst Samantha Fox (Coen laboratory, John Innes Centre, UK) explained how she had used Golden Gate cloning to develop a modular Cre-Lox system for inducible expression of a gene of interest in Arabidopsis thaliana. The talks were compiled to introduce the participants to cutting-edge methodologies driving the development of the plant synthetic biology field – notably, Diego Orzaez (Technical University of Valencia, Spain) outlined the GoldenBraid cloning system he has developed, based on Golden Gate, for iterative modular DNA assembly for plant biotechnology applications (Sarrion-Perdigones et al., 2011), and Jim Haseloff (University of Cambridge/OpenPlant, UK) promoted the simple liverwort plant Marchantia polymorpha as a new, tractable model system for plant synthetic biology.

Genome editing in plants was also emphasized in the lectures as an increasingly invaluable and widespread synthetic biology tool, due to its relatively straightforward and efficient application. Sebastian Schornack (University of Cambridge, UK) described how the code for recognition of target DNA by TAL effectors was discovered (Boch et al., 2009) and how TAL effector proteins have been repurposed for genome engineering functions, while the extension of the ubiquitous CRISPR/Cas9 system to plants was outlined in a technical talk from Kate Caves (DNA2.0, USA), and exemplified in work described by Jen Sheen (Havard University, MA, USA) (Li et al., 2013)....


Via Christophe Jacquet, Mary Williams
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Differential Function of Arabidopsis SERK Family Receptor-like Kinases in Stomatal Patterning: Current Biology

Differential Function of Arabidopsis SERK Family Receptor-like Kinases in Stomatal Patterning: Current Biology | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Highlights

•SERK family receptor-like kinases redundantly regulate stomatal patterning
•SERKs act downstream of EPF ligands and upstream of the YDA MAPKKK
•SERKs associate with ERECTA family receptors in a ligand-induced manner
•SERKs regulate stomatal patterning independent of brassinosteroid signaling

Summary

Plants use cell-surface-resident receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to sense diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues and elicit distinct biological responses. In Arabidopsis, ERECTA family RLKs recognize EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTORS (EPFs) to specify stomatal patterning. However, little is known about the molecular link between ERECTA activation and intracellular signaling. We report here that the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SERK) family RLKs regulate stomatal patterning downstream of EPF ligands and upstream of a MAP kinase cascade. EPF ligands induce the heteromerization of ERECTA and SERK family RLKs. SERK and ERECTA family RLKs transphosphorylate each other. In addition, SERKs associate with the receptor-like protein (RLP) TMM, a signal modulator of stomata development, in a ligand-independent manner, suggesting that ERECTA, SERKs, and TMM form a multiprotein receptorsome consisting of different RLKs and RLP perceiving peptide ligands to regulate stomatal patterning. In contrast to the differential requirement of individual SERK members in plant immunity, cell-death control, and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, all four functional SERKs are essential but have unequal genetic contributions to stomatal patterning, with descending order of importance from SERK3/BAK1 to SERK2 to SERK1 to SERK4. Although BR signaling connects stomatal development via multiple components, the function of SERKs in stomatal patterning is uncoupled from their involvement in BR signaling. Our results reveal that the SERK family is a shared key module in diverse Arabidopsis signaling receptorsomes and that different combinatorial codes of individual SERK members regulate distinct functions.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Differential Function of Arabidopsis SERK Family Receptor-like Kinases in Stomatal Patterning: Current Biology

Differential Function of Arabidopsis SERK Family Receptor-like Kinases in Stomatal Patterning: Current Biology | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Highlights

•SERK family receptor-like kinases redundantly regulate stomatal patterning
•SERKs act downstream of EPF ligands and upstream of the YDA MAPKKK
•SERKs associate with ERECTA family receptors in a ligand-induced manner
•SERKs regulate stomatal patterning independent of brassinosteroid signaling

Summary

Plants use cell-surface-resident receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to sense diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues and elicit distinct biological responses. In Arabidopsis, ERECTA family RLKs recognize EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTORS (EPFs) to specify stomatal patterning. However, little is known about the molecular link between ERECTA activation and intracellular signaling. We report here that the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SERK) family RLKs regulate stomatal patterning downstream of EPF ligands and upstream of a MAP kinase cascade. EPF ligands induce the heteromerization of ERECTA and SERK family RLKs. SERK and ERECTA family RLKs transphosphorylate each other. In addition, SERKs associate with the receptor-like protein (RLP) TMM, a signal modulator of stomata development, in a ligand-independent manner, suggesting that ERECTA, SERKs, and TMM form a multiprotein receptorsome consisting of different RLKs and RLP perceiving peptide ligands to regulate stomatal patterning. In contrast to the differential requirement of individual SERK members in plant immunity, cell-death control, and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, all four functional SERKs are essential but have unequal genetic contributions to stomatal patterning, with descending order of importance from SERK3/BAK1 to SERK2 to SERK1 to SERK4. Although BR signaling connects stomatal development via multiple components, the function of SERKs in stomatal patterning is uncoupled from their involvement in BR signaling. Our results reveal that the SERK family is a shared key module in diverse Arabidopsis signaling receptorsomes and that different combinatorial codes of individual SERK members regulate distinct functions.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Fungal endophyte infection of ryegrass reprograms host metabolism and alters development

Fungal endophyte infection of ryegrass reprograms host metabolism and alters development | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Beneficial associations between plants and microbes play an important role in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. For example, associations between fungi of the genus Epichloë, and cool-season grasses are known for their ability to increase resistance to insect pests, fungal pathogens and drought. However, little is known about the molecular changes induced by endophyte infection.To study the impact of endophyte infection, we compared the expression profiles, based on RNA sequencing, of perennial ryegrass infected with Epichloë festucae with noninfected plants.We show that infection causes dramatic changes in the expression of over one third of host genes. This is in stark contrast to mycorrhizal associations, where substantially fewer changes in host gene expression are observed, and is more similar to pathogenic interactions. We reveal that endophyte infection triggers reprogramming of host metabolism, favouring secondary metabolism at a cost to primary metabolism. Infection also induces changes in host development, particularly trichome formation and cell wall biogenesis.Importantly, this work sheds light on the mechanisms underlying enhanced resistance to drought and super-infection by fungal pathogens provided by fungal endophyte infection. Finally, our study reveals that not all beneficial plant–microbe associations behave the same in terms of their effects on the host.


Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Fungal endophyte infection of ryegrass reprograms host metabolism and alters development

Fungal endophyte infection of ryegrass reprograms host metabolism and alters development | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Summary
Beneficial associations between plants and microbes play an important role in both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

Via IPM Lab
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plants and Microbes
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BMC Evolutionary Biology: Phylogeography and virulence structure of the powdery mildew population on its 'new' host triticale (2012)

BMC Evolutionary Biology: Phylogeography and virulence structure of the powdery mildew population on its 'new' host triticale (2012) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Background - Powdery mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major problem in cereal production as it can reduce quality and yield. B. graminis has evolved eight distinct formae speciales (f.sp.) which display strict host specialization. In the last decade, powdery mildew has emerged on triticale, the artificial intergeneric hybrid between wheat and rye. This emergence is probably triggered by a host range expansion of the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici. To gain more precise information about the evolutionary processes that led to this host range expansion, we pursued a combined pathological and genetic approach.

 

Results - B. graminis isolates were sampled from triticale, wheat and rye from different breeding regions in Europe. Pathogenicity tests showed that isolates collected from triticale are highly pathogenic on most of the tested triticale cultivars. Moreover, these isolates were also able to infect several wheat cultivars (their previous hosts), although a lower aggressiveness was observed compared to isolates collected from wheat. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene regions identified two statistically significant clades, which to a certain extent correlated with pathogenicity. No differences in virulence profiles were found among the sampled regions, but the distribution of genetic variation demonstrated to be geography dependent. A multilocus haplotype network showed that haplotypes pathogenic on triticale are distributed at different sites in the network, but always clustered at or near the tips of the network.

 

Conclusions - This study reveals a genetic structure in B. graminis with population differentiation according to geography and host specificity. In addition, evidence is brought forward demonstrating that the host range expansion of wheat isolates to the new host triticale occurred recently and multiple times at different locations in Europe.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from Plants and Microbes
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New Disease Reports: A bacterial leaf spot of aquilegia caused by Pseudomonas syringae (2014)

New Disease Reports: A bacterial leaf spot of aquilegia caused by Pseudomonas syringae (2014) | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it

Aquilegia vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) (Columbine) is a flowering herbaceous perennial native to Europe and widely cultivated in UK gardens. It is an important crop for some commercial nurseries that produce large numbers of potted plants for retail sale in garden centres. In 2008, 100% crop loss due to a bacterial disease was reported by one grower. Subsequently, during a survey of bacterial diseases of herbaceous perennials on commercial nurseries carried out during 2010 (Roberts, 2011), symptoms consisting of black spots or larger lesions with a water-soaked margin were observed on the leaves and stems of plants at two nurseries in different regions of the UK.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Guogen Yang from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Plant microbiome blueprints

Plant microbiome blueprints | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Scoop.it
Just as the number of petals in a flower or the number of limbs on an animal follow predictable rules, host-associated microbial communities (“microbiomes”) have predictable compositions. At the level of bacterial phylum, the structure of the host-associated microbiome is conserved across individuals of a species (1, 2). The consistency and predictability of host-associated microbiomes—like many of the phenotypes of a particular multicellular organism—suggest that they too may, in part, be under the regulation of a genetic blueprint. Indeed, evidence in animals shows that through production of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, the innate immune system shapes the composition of the gut microbiome (3, 4). On page 860 of this issue, Lebeis et al. (5) reveal a critical role of the plant hormone salicylic acid in determining the higher-order organization of the root-associated microbiome of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

Via Francis Martin
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