Diseases caused by various pathogenic fungi pose a serious threat to global food security. Despite their differences in life cycles, fungal pathogens use well-conserved genetic mechanisms to regulate different developmental and infection processes. This review focuses on the key signaling pathways and recent advances in Magnaporthe oryzae, which is a model for studying fungal–plant interactions. In addition to the core components, a number of upstream genes and downstream targets of the cAMP–PKA and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) pathways have been identified. Recent advances in studies with cytoskeleton organization, effector biology, and ROS signaling in M. oryzae and future directions also are discussed.