Plant Immunity
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Rescooped by Raul Zavaliev from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Trends in Plant Science - Plant chemical defense: at what cost?

Trends in Plant Science - Plant chemical defense: at what cost? | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

Just how costly are specialized metabolites? Maybe not very - this opinion article suggests that "secondary metabolites serve auxiliary roles, including functions associated with primary metabolism. ..The costs of plant chemical defense can be offset by multifunctional biosynthesis and the optimization of primary metabolism. These additional benefits may negate the trade-off between primary and secondary metabolism,"


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Phytopathogen type III effectors as probes of biological systems - Microbial Biotechnology

Phytopathogen type III effectors as probes of biological systems - Microbial Biotechnology | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

Amy Huei-Yi Lee; Maggie A. Middleton; David S. Guttman; Darrell Desveaux

 

Summary:

Bacterial phytopathogens utilize a myriad of virulence factors to modulate their plant hosts in order to promote successful pathogenesis. One potent virulence strategy is to inject these virulence proteins into plant cells via the type III secretion system. Characterizing the host targets and the molecular mechanisms of type III secreted proteins, known as effectors, has illuminated our understanding of eukaryotic cell biology. As a result, these effectors can serve as molecular probes to aid in our understanding of plant cellular processes, such as immune signalling, vesicle trafficking, cytoskeleton stability and transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, given that effectors directly and specifically interact with their targets within plant cells, these virulence proteins have enormous biotechnological potential for manipulating eukaryotic systems.


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Freddy Monteiro's curator insight, February 27, 2013 3:34 AM

For quite some time effector proteins started to be regarded as potential molecular tools to investigate cellular processes. This is an expanding field and I hope effector biology may help on our understanding of plant biology and molecular evolution dynamics.

Rescooped by Raul Zavaliev from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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PNAS: Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect antiherbivore defense

PNAS: Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect antiherbivore defense | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

Characterization of the Plant elicitor peptide (Pep) family from maize.

 

"Direct and indirect defenses induced by ZmPep3 contribute to resistance against S. exigua through significant reduction of larval growth and attraction of Cotesia marginiventris parasitoids. ZmPep3 activity is specific to Poaceous species; however, peptides derived from PROPEP orthologs identified in Solanaceous and Fabaceous plants also induce herbivory-associated volatiles in their respective species."


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Plant Phys: Redox modulation of TCP transcription factors

Plant Phys: Redox modulation of TCP transcription factors | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

"TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF) transcription factors participate in plant developmental processes associated with cell proliferation and growth. Most members of class I, one of the two classes that compose the family, have a conserved Cys at position 20 of the TCP DNA binding and dimerization domain. We show that Arabidopsis thaliana class I proteins with Cys20 are sensitive to redox conditions.."

 

"There are several examples of transcription factors whose activity is modified by redox agents in plants. The best studied case is perhaps the NPR1-TGA system (Després et al., 2003; Mou et al., 2003; Lindermayr et al., 2010)."


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Plant Cell: Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease?

Plant Cell: Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease? | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

New review article in Plant Cell.

"Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding RNA silencing and how viruses counter this apparently ubiquitous antiviral defense. In addition, plants also induce hypersensitive and systemic acquired resistance responses, which together limit the virus to infected cells and impart resistance to the noninfected tissues."


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Andres Zurita's curator insight, May 29, 2013 8:28 AM

Open Access pdf

María Serrano's curator insight, June 24, 2014 12:30 PM
Respuesta inmune de las plantas frente a los virus.
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Abnormal Glycosphingolipid Mannosylation Triggers Salicylic Acid–Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis

Abnormal Glycosphingolipid Mannosylation Triggers Salicylic Acid–Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it
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Control of Tobacco mosaic virus Movement Protein Fate by CELL-DIVISION-CYCLE Protein48

Control of Tobacco mosaic virus Movement Protein Fate by CELL-DIVISION-CYCLE Protein48 | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

Like many other viruses, Tobacco mosaic virus replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exploits this membrane network for intercellular spread through plasmodesmata (PD), a process depending on virus-encoded movement protein (MP). The movement process involves interactions of MP with the ER and the cytoskeleton as well as its targeting to PD. Later in the infection cycle, the MP further accumulates and localizes to ER-associated inclusions, the viral factories, and along microtubules before it is finally degraded. Although these patterns of MP accumulation have been described in great detail, the underlying mechanisms that control MP fate and function during infection are not known. Here, we identify CELL-DIVISION-CYCLE protein48 (CDC48), a conserved chaperone controlling protein fate in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and animal cells by extracting protein substrates from membranes or complexes, as a cellular factor regulating MP accumulation patterns in plant cells. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CDC48 is induced upon infection, interacts with MP in ER inclusions dependent on the MP N terminus, and promotes degradation of the protein. We further provide evidence that CDC48 extracts MPfrom ER inclusions to the cytosol, where it subsequently accumulates on and stabilizes microtubules. We show that virus movement is impaired upon overexpression of CDC48, suggesting that CDC48 further functions in controlling virus movement by removal of MP from the ER transport pathway and by promoting interference of MP with microtubule dynamics. CDC48 acts also in response to other proteins expressed in the ER, thus suggesting a general role of CDC48 in ER membrane maintenance upon ER stress.

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LYM2-dependent chitin perception limits molecular flux via plasmodesmata

Chitin acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern from fungal pathogens whose perception triggers a range of defense responses. We show that LYSIN MOTIF DOMAIN-CONTAINING GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-ANCHORED PROTEIN 2 (LYM2), the Arabidopsis homolog of a rice chitin receptor-like protein, mediates a reduction in molecular flux via plasmodesmata in the presence of chitin. For this response, lym2-1 mutants are insensitive to the presence of chitin, but not to the flagellin derivative flg22. Surprisingly, the chitin-recognition receptor CHITIN ELCITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) is not required for chitin-induced changes to plasmodesmata flux, suggesting that there are at least two chitin-activated response pathways in Arabidopsis and that LYM2 is not required for CERK1-mediated chitin-triggered defense responses, indicating that these pathways are independent.


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Rescooped by Raul Zavaliev from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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McGraw Hill Animations - Phloem Loading, osmosis, water uptake and mineral uptake

McGraw Hill Animations - Phloem Loading, osmosis, water uptake and mineral uptake | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

Just in case you hadn't found these already - useful for teaching about plant transport!


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sonia ramos's comment, February 22, 2013 4:08 AM
Great educational resource!
Mary Williams's comment, February 22, 2013 5:17 AM
I agree - it works better than my usual method, which involves lots of moving my arms up and down and making "whooshing" noises...
Kristin Ruschhaupt's curator insight, December 2, 2013 11:22 AM

must watch clips!!!

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Plant Cell (OA): The Origin of Primary Plastids: A Pas de Deux or a Ménage à Trois?

Plant Cell (OA): The Origin of Primary Plastids: A Pas de Deux or a Ménage à Trois? | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

Fascinating new hypothesis about the origin of primary endosymbiotic plastids. Why, among all of life’s diversity, did one specific lineage make the leap? This commentary provides a critical summary of a recent proposal that primary plastid endosymbiosis was facilitated by the secretion into the host cytosol of effector proteins from intracellular Chlamydiales pathogens that allowed the host to utilize carbohydrates exported from the incipient plastid. In other words, perhaps it involved a three-way interaction. Check out the short commentary and the longer article, here http://www.plantcell.org/content/25/1/7.full.


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Mary Williams's comment, March 12, 2013 12:33 PM
If you're interested in plastid and mitochondrial origins, you'll like the Feb 2013 special issue of Planta (subsription required) http://link.springer.com/journal/425/237/2/page/1
Freddy Monteiro's comment, March 12, 2013 7:26 PM
it is like revisiting the biochemistry course. Now Updated!! =)
Rescooped by Raul Zavaliev from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Frontiers Plant Sci.: Regulate and be regulated: integration of defense and other signals by the AtMYB30 transcription factor (2013)

Frontiers Plant Sci.: Regulate and be regulated: integration of defense and other signals by the AtMYB30 transcription factor (2013) | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

Transcriptional regulation in host cells plays a crucial role in the establishment of plant defense and associated cell death in response to pathogen attack. Here, we review our current knowledge of the transcriptional control of plant defenses with a focus on the MYB family of transcription factors (TFs). Within this family, the Arabidopsis MYB protein AtMYB30 is a key regulator of plant defenses and one of the best characterized MYB regulators directing defense-related transcriptional responses. The crucial role played by AtMYB30 in the regulation of plant disease resistance is underlined by the finding that AtMYB30 is targeted by the Xanthomonas type III effector XopD resulting in suppression of AtMYB30-mediated plant defenses. Moreover, the function of AtMYB30 is also tightly controlled by plant cells through protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications (PTMs). AtMYB30 studies highlight the importance of cellular dynamics for defense-associated gene regulation in plants. Finally, we discuss how AtMYB30 and other MYB TFs mediate the interplay between disease resistance and other stress responses.

 

Sylvain Raffaele and Susana Rivas


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Mary Williams's curator insight, April 14, 2013 4:09 AM

Nice review, thanks for scooping it, Nicolas!

Rescooped by Raul Zavaliev from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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PLOS Pathogens: Plant Virus Ecology

PLOS Pathogens: Plant Virus Ecology | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology

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Raul Zavaliev's comment, May 31, 2013 4:01 AM
curious!..
Rescooped by Raul Zavaliev from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Plant Cell: D6PK Kinases Promote Phototropic Hypocotyl Bending in Arabidopsis

Plant Cell: D6PK Kinases Promote Phototropic Hypocotyl Bending in Arabidopsis | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

"We previously described the D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) subfamily of AGCVIII kinases, which we proposed to directly regulate PIN-mediated auxin transport. Here, we show that phototropic hypocotyl bending is strongly dependent on the activity of D6PKs and the PIN proteins PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7."


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Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease?

Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease? | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it
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Subcellular dynamics and role of Arabidopsis β-1,3-glucanases in cell-to-cell movement of tobamoviruses

Subcellular dynamics and role of Arabidopsis β-1,3-glucanases in cell-to-cell movement of tobamoviruses | Plant Immunity | Scoop.it

β-1,3-glucanases (BGs) have been implicated in enhancing virus spread by degrading callose at plasmodesmata (Pd). Here we investigate the role of Arabidopsis BGs in tobamovirus spread. DuringTurnip vein clearing virus infection the transcription of two pathogenesis related BGs (PR-BGs), AtBG2 and AtBG3, increased, but that of Pd-associated BG, AtBG_pap, did not change. In transgenic plants AtBG2 was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and was not secreted. As a stress response mediated by salicylic acid AtBG2 was secreted and appeared as a free extracellular protein localized in the entire apoplast, but did not accumulate at Pd sites. At the leading edge of Tobacco mosaic virus spread, AtBG2 co-localized with the viral movement protein in the ER-derived bodies, similarly to other ER proteins, but was not secreted to cell wall. In atbg2 mutants callose levels at Pd and virus spread were unaffected. AtBG2 over-expression had no effect on virus spread as well. However, in atbg_pap mutants callose at Pd was increased and virus spread was reduced. Our results demonstrate that the constitutive Pd-associated BGs, but not the stress regulated extracellular PR-BGs, are directly involved in regulation of callose at Pd and cell-to-cell transport in Arabidopsis, including the spread of viruses.

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