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The Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-V.5 Represses Stomatal Immunity Induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

The Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-V.5 Represses Stomatal Immunity Induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Marie Desclos-Theveniau, Dominique Arnaud, Ting-Yu Huang, Grace Jui-Chih Lin, Wei-Yen Chen, Yi-Chia Lin, Laurent Zimmerli Stomata play an important role in plant innate immunity by limiting pathogen entry into leaves but molecular...
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Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
Dedicated to the research done on the molecular dialogue between plants and pathogens (but also to any interesting report)
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The Root Hair "Infectome" of Medicago truncatula Uncovers Changes in Cell Cycle Genes and Reveals a Requirement for Auxin Signaling in Rhizobial Infection

Transcriptome profiling of M. truncatula root hairs during the initial stages of rhizobial infection helps to interpret two decades of research on Medicago and provides a foundation for future studies on host-symbiont interactions in the rhizosphere.
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Pivoting from Arabidopsis to wheat to understand how agricultural plants integrate responses to biotic stress

HighlightWe argue for a research initiative on the integration of plant responses to agents of biotic stress, including pathogens, nematodes, and arthropods. Wheat is proposed as a study system.
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Analysis of a Plant Complex Resistance Gene Locus Underlying Immune-Related Hybrid Incompatibility and Its Occurrence in Nature

Analysis of a Plant Complex Resistance Gene Locus Underlying Immune-Related Hybrid Incompatibility and Its Occurrence in Nature | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Rubén Alcázar, Marcel von Reth, Jaqueline Bautor, Eunyoung Chae, Detlef Weigel, Maarten Koornneef, Jane E.
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The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters represent hotspots for the generation of fungal metabolic diversity.

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Pepper Heat Shock Protein 70a Interacts with the Type III Effector AvrBsT and Triggers Plant Cell Death and Immunity

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) function as molecular chaperones and are essential for the maintenance and/or restoration of protein homeostasis. The Xanthomonas type III effector AvrBsT induces hypersensitive cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum).
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Adaptive genomic structural variation in the grape powdery mildew pathogen, Erysiphe necator

Background:
Powdery mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Erysiphe necator, is an economically important disease of grapevines worldwide.
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Improving crop disease resistance: lessons from research on Arabidopsis and tomato

Sophie J.M. Piquerez, Sarah E. Harvey, Jim L Beynon and Vardis Ntoukakis
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Interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans Extracellular Vesicles with the Cell Wall [Articles]

Cryptococcus neoformans produces extracellular vesicles containing a variety of cargo, including virulence factors.
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Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins

Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Summary
Microbial pathogens and pests of animals and plants secrete effector proteins into host cells, altering cellular physiology to the benefit of the invading parasite.
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Species-wide Genetic Incompatibility Analysis Identifies Immune Genes as Hot Spots of Deleterious Epistasis: Cell

Species-wide Genetic Incompatibility Analysis Identifies Immune Genes as Hot Spots of Deleterious Epistasis: Cell | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
A species-wide genetic analysis identifies incompatibility hot spots in the genome•Antagonistic epistasis involving plant NLR immune receptors is a common cause•Polymorphic NLR tandem arrays can generate multiple incompatibility alleles•Deleterious epistasis limits the accessible space of immune receptor combinations
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Priming crops against biotic and abiotic stresses: MSB as a tool for studying mechanisms

Andrés A. Borges, David Jiménez-Arias, Marino Exposito Rodriguez, Luisa M. Sandalio and José A. Pérez
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Molecular Profiling of the Phytophthora plurivora Secretome: A Step towards Understanding the Cross-Talk between Plant Pathogenic Oomycetes and Their Hosts

Molecular Profiling of the Phytophthora plurivora Secretome: A Step towards Understanding the Cross-Talk between Plant Pathogenic Oomycetes and Their Hosts | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

The understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying host–pathogen interactions in plant diseases is of crucial importance to gain insights on different virulence strategies of pathogens and unravel their role in plant immunity. Among plant pathogens, Phytophthora species are eliciting a growing interest for their considerable economical and environmental impact. Plant infection by Phytophthora phytopathogens is a complex process coordinated by a plethora of extracellular signals secreted by both host plants and pathogens. The characterization of the repertoire of effectors secreted by oomycetes has become an active area of research for deciphering molecular mechanisms responsible for host plants colonization and infection. Putative secreted proteins by Phytophthora species have been catalogued by applying high-throughput genome-based strategies and bioinformatic approaches. However, a comprehensive analysis of the effective secretome profile of Phytophthora is still lacking. Here, we report the first large-scale profiling of P. plurivora secretome using a shotgun LC-MS/MS strategy. To gain insight on the molecular signals underlying the cross-talk between plant pathogenic oomycetes and their host plants, we also investigate the quantitative changes of secreted protein following interaction of P. plurivora with the root exudate of Fagus sylvatica which is highly susceptible to the root pathogen. We show that besides known effectors, the expression and/or secretion levels of cell-wall-degrading enzymes were altered following the interaction with the host plant root exudate. In addition, a characterization of the F. sylvatica root exudate was performed by NMR and amino acid analysis, allowing the identification of the main released low-molecular weight components, including organic acids and free amino acids. This study provides important insights for deciphering the extracellular network involved in the highly susceptible P. plurivora-F. sylvatica interaction.

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Fusion of Legionella pneumophila outer membrane vesicles with eukaryotic membrane systems is a mechanism to deliver pathogen factors to host cell membranes

Fusion of Legionella pneumophila outer membrane vesicles with eukaryotic membrane systems is a mechanism to deliver pathogen factors to host cell membranes | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Summary
The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon observed in many bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila.
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Oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene mutants of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum do not accumulate oxalic acid, but do produce limited lesions on host plants

Oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene mutants of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum do not accumulate oxalic acid, but do produce limited lesions on host plants | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Summary
The oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH, EC 3.7.1.1)-encoding gene Ss-oah1 was cloned and functionally characterized from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
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Medicago truncatula symbiosis mutants affected in the interaction with a biotrophic root pathogen

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Molecular Analysis of Colletotrichum Species in the Carposphere and Phyllosphere of Olive

Molecular Analysis of Colletotrichum Species in the Carposphere and Phyllosphere of Olive | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Saveria Mosca, Maria G. Li Destri Nicosia, Santa O.
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Rapid identification of the Leptosphaeria maculans avirulence gene AvrLm2, using an intraspecific comparative genomics approach

Summary
Five avirulence genes from Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of blackleg of canola (Brassica napus), have previously been identified through map-based cloning.
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Modulation of RNA Polymerase II Phosphorylation Downstream of Pathogen Perception Orchestrates Plant Immunity

Publication date: Available online 26 November 2014
Source:Cell Host & Microbe
Author(s): Fangjun Li , Cheng Cheng , Fuhao Cui , Marcos V.V. de Oliveira , Xiao Yu , Xiangzong Meng , Aline C.
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The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii

The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Summary
Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus.
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Two cytoplasmic effectors of Phytophthora sojae regulate plant cell death via interactions with plant catalases

Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora sojae, secrete an arsenal of host cytoplasmic effectors to promote infection. We have shown previously that P.
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Frog microbiome disturbance by a fungal pathogen [Ecology]

Symbiotic microbial communities may interact with infectious pathogens sharing a common host. The microbiome may limit pathogen infection or, conversely, an invading pathogen can disturb the microbiome.
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pENCODE: A Plant Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

ENCODE projects exist for many eukaryotes, including humans, but as of yet no defined project exists for plants. A plant ENCODE would be invaluable to the research community and could be more readily produced than its metazoan equivalents by capitalizing on the preexisting infrastructure provided from similar projects. Collecting and normalizing plant epigenomic data for a range of species will facilitate hypothesis generation, cross-species comparisons, annotation of genomes, and an understanding of epigenomic functions throughout plant evolution. Here, we discuss the need for such a project, outline the challenges it faces, and suggest ways forward to build a plant ENCODE.

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The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition

The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Marie-Cécile Caillaud, Lennart Wirthmueller, Jan Sklenar, Kim Findlay, Sophie J. M. Piquerez, Alexandra M. E. Jones, Silke Robatzek, Jonathan D. G.
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Bacterial effector modulation of host E3 ligase activity suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity in rice

Article
The mechanisms by which pathogen effector proteins target host defence responses remain poorly understood. Here, Ishikawa et al.
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