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The Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-V.5 Represses Stomatal Immunity Induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

The Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-V.5 Represses Stomatal Immunity Induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Marie Desclos-Theveniau, Dominique Arnaud, Ting-Yu Huang, Grace Jui-Chih Lin, Wei-Yen Chen, Yi-Chia Lin, Laurent Zimmerli Stomata play an important role in plant innate immunity by limiting pathogen entry into leaves but molecular...
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Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
Dedicated to the research done on the molecular dialogue between plants and pathogens (but also to any interesting report)
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Identification of Arabidopsis Candidate Genes in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses Using Comparative Microarrays

Identification of Arabidopsis Candidate Genes in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses Using Comparative Microarrays | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Arjun Sham, Khaled Moustafa, Salma Al-Ameri, Ahmed Al-Azzawi, Rabah Iratni, Synan AbuQamar
Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses.
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DNA Electric Charge Oscillations Govern Protein–DNA Recognition

DNA Electric Charge Oscillations Govern Protein–DNA Recognition | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Josef Štěpánek, Vladimír Kopecký, Pierre-Yves Turpin, Zhenlin Li, Bernard Alpert, Christian Zentz The transcriptional activity of the serum response factor (SRF) protein is triggered by its binding to a 10-base-pair DNA consensus sequence...
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Modulation of the host innate immune and inflammatory response by translocated bacterial proteins

Modulation of the host innate immune and inflammatory response by translocated bacterial proteins | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Summary
Bacterial secretion systems play a central role in interfering with host inflammatory responses to promote replication in tissue sites.
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Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi

Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina , the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current kn
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An optical imaging chamber for viewing living plant cells and tissues at high resolution for extended periods

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Recent developments in both microscopy and fluorescent protein technologies have made live imaging a powerful tool for the study of plant cells.
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CSGM Designer: a platform for designing cross-species intron-spanning genic markers linked with genome information of legumes

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Genetic markers are tools that can facilitate molecular breeding, even in species lacking genomic resources.
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Phytophthora effector targets a novel component of small RNA pathway in plants to promote infection

Phytophthora is a major threat to agriculture. However, the molecular interaction of these severe pathogens with plant hosts is poorly understood. Here, we report that the Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 1 (PSR1) effectively promotes infection in Arabidopsis thaliana by directly targeting an essential protein containing a aspartate–glutamate–alanine–histidine-box RNA helicase domain. This PSR1-Interacting Protein 1 (PINP1) is required for the accumulation of distinct classes of endogenous small RNAs and acts as a positive regulator of plant immunity. Silencing of PINP1 impaired the assembly of microRNA-processing complexes in the nucleus, leading to defects in development and immunity. This study revealed a conserved RNA helicase as a regulator of RNA silencing and provides mechanistic insight into Phytophthora pathogenesis.

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Naturally occurring diversity helps to reveal genes of adaptive importance in legumes

Laurent Gentzbittel, Stieg U Andersen, Cécile Ben, Martina Rickauer, Jens Stougaard and Nevin D Young
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The APSES transcription factor LmStuA is required for sporulation, pathogenic development and effector gene expression in Leptosphaeria maculans

Leptosphaeria maculans causes stem canker of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The APSES transcription factor StuA is a key developmental regulator of fungi, involved in morphogenesis, conidia production and also more recently described as required for secondary metabolite production and for effector gene expression in phytopathogenic fungi. We investigated the involvement of the orthologue of StuA in L. maculans, LmStuA, in morphogenesis, pathogenicity and effector gene expression. LmStuA is induced during mycelial growth and at 14 days after infection, corresponding to the development of pycnidia on oilseed rape leaves, consistent with the function of StuA described so far. We set up the functional characterization of LmStuA using an RNA interference approach. Silenced LmStuA transformants showed typical phenotypic defects of StuA mutants with altered growth in axenic culture and impaired conidia production and perithecia formation. Silencing of LmStuA abolished the pathogenicity of L. maculans on oilseed rape leaves and also resulted in a drastic decrease in expression of at least three effector genes during in planta infection, suggesting either that LmStuA regulates, directly or indirectly, the expression of several effector genes in L. maculans or that the infection stage in which effectors are expressed is not reached when LmStuA expression is silenced.

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Transcriptional Dynamics of Phytophthora infestans During Sequential Stages of Hemibiotrophic Infection of Tomato

Transcriptional Dynamics of Phytophthora infestans During Sequential Stages of Hemibiotrophic Infection of Tomato | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Hemibiotrophic plant pathogens, such as the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, employ a biphasic infection strategy, initially behaving as biotrophs where minimal symptoms are exhibited by the plant, and subsequently as necrotrophs, feeding on dead plant tissue. The regulation of this transition and the breadth of molecular mechanisms that modulate plant defenses are not well understood, although effector proteins secreted by the pathogen are thought to play a key role. We examined the transcriptional dynamics of P. infestans in a compatible interaction with its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), at three infection stages: biotrophy; the transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy; and necrotrophy. The expression data suggested a tight temporal regulation of many pathways associated with suppression of plant defense mechanisms and pathogenicity, including the induction of putative cytoplasmic and apoplastic effectors. Twelve of these were experimentally evaluated to determine their ability to suppress necrosis caused by the P. infestans necrosis-inducing protein PiNPP1.1 in Nicotiana benthamiana. Four effectors suppressed necrosis, suggesting that they might prolong the biotrophic phase. This study suggests that a complex regulation of effector expression modulates the outcome of the interaction.

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Vegetative Hyphal Fusion and Subsequent Nuclear Behavior in Epichloë Grass Endophytes

Vegetative Hyphal Fusion and Subsequent Nuclear Behavior in  Epichloë  Grass Endophytes | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium ) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen fro
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Novel Disease Susceptibility Factors for Fungal Necrotrophic Pathogens in Arabidopsis

Novel Disease Susceptibility Factors for Fungal Necrotrophic Pathogens in Arabidopsis | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Albor Dobón, Juan Vicente Canet, Javier García-Andrade, Carlos Angulo, Lutz Neumetzler, Staffan Persson, Pablo Vera
Host cells use an intricate signaling system to respond to invasions by pathogenic microorganisms.
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The Elicitin-Like Glycoprotein, ELI025, Is Secreted by the Pathogenic Oomycete Pythium insidiosum and Evades Host Antibody Responses

The Elicitin-Like Glycoprotein, ELI025, Is Secreted by the Pathogenic Oomycete Pythium insidiosum and Evades Host Antibody Responses | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Tassanee Lerksuthirat, Tassanee Lohnoo, Ruchuros Inkomlue, Thidarat Rujirawat, Wanta Yingyong, Rommanee Khositnithikul, Narumon Phaonakrop, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Thomas D.
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Hyperspectral phenotyping on the microscopic scale: towards automated characterization of plant-pathogen interactions

Background:
The detection and characterization of resistance reactions of crop plants against fungal pathogens are essential to select resistant genotypes.
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Identification of a molecular dialogue between developing seeds of Medicago truncatula and seedborne xanthomonads

Identification of a molecular dialogue between developing seeds of Medicago truncatula and seedborne xanthomonads | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
HighlightThis study identifies a cross-talk between seed development and defence activation upon infection by xanthomonads, which appears to implicate ABA-signalling pathways.
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«La plante peut se protéger naturellement»

«La plante peut se protéger naturellement» | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Et si les plantes ou les grandes cultures céréalières n'avaient plus besoin de pesticides et autres engrais pour se développer et résister aux prédateurs ? Des chercheurs toulousains du Laboratoire de recherche en sciences végétales (LRSV), installé dans les locaux de l'Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) à Auzeville, sont en passe de faire tomber un «dogme scientifique». Les résultats de leurs recherches, commencées en 2011, ont été publiés le 25 mars dans la revue scientifique de renommée internationale Nature. Jean-Philippe Combier, chercheur au LRSV (université Paul-Sabatier/CNRS), est à l'initiative de cette avancée majeure.

Via Isabelle Pélissié
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Rhizobial root hair infection requires auxin signaling

Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
Source:Trends in Plant Science
Author(s): Laurent Laplaze , Mikaël Lucas , Antony Champion
Legumes can enter into a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria.
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Characterization of the Carbohydrate Binding Module 18 gene family in the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Characterization of the Carbohydrate Binding Module 18 gene family in the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

The recently expanded cbm18 family has more than 60 copies of the CBM18 domain.

Some Bd CBM18 proteins expressed in S. cerevisiae localize to cell surface.

The Bd CBM18 lectin-like protein binds chitin but not cellulose or xylan.

We show that Bd CBM18 proteins can protect fungi from chitinases.

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Automated phenotyping of plant shoots using imaging methods for analysis of plant stress responses – a review

Current methods of in-house plant phenotyping are providing a powerful new tool for plant biology studies.
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Genomic signature of selective sweeps illuminates adaptation of Medicago truncatula to root-associated microorganisms

Genomic signature of selective sweeps illuminates adaptation of Medicago truncatula to root-associated microorganisms | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Medicago truncatula is a model legume species used to investigate plant-microorganism interactions, notably root symbioses. Massive population genomic and transcriptomic data now available for this species open the way for a comprehensive investigation of genomic variations associated with adaptation of M. truncatula to its environment. Here we performed a fine-scale genome scan of selective sweep signatures in Medicago truncatula using more than 15 million SNPs identified on 283 accessions from two populations (Circum and Far West), and exploited annotation and published transcriptomic data to identify biological processes associated with molecular adaptation. We identified 58 swept genomic regions with a 15 kb average length and comprising 3.3 gene models on average. The unimodal sweep state probability distribution in these regions enabled us to focus on the best single candidate gene per region. We detected two unambiguous species-wide selective sweeps, one of which appears to underlie morphological adaptation. Population genomic analyses of the remaining 56 sweep signatures indicate that sweeps identified in the Far West population are less population-specific and probably more ancient than those identified in the Circum population. Functional annotation revealed a predominance of immunity-related adaptations in the Circum population. Transcriptomic data from accessions of the Far West population allowed inference of four clusters of co-regulated genes putatively involved in the adaptive control of symbiotic carbon flow and nodule senescence, as well as in other root adaptations upon infection with soil microorganisms. We demonstrate that molecular adaptations in Medicago truncatula were primarily triggered by selective pressures from root-associated micro-organisms.

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Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Summary
The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking.
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U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB17 acts in the nucleus to promote specific immune pathways triggered by Phytophthora infestans

Ubiquitination regulates many processes in plants, including immunity. The E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB17 is a positive regulator of programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by resistance proteins CF4/9 in tomato. Its role in immunity to the potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, was investigated here. Silencing StPUB17 in potato by RNAi and NbPUB17 in Nicotiana benthamiana by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) each enhanced P. infestans leaf colonization. PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) transcriptional responses activated by flg22, and CF4/Avr4-mediated PCD were attenuated by silencing PUB17. However, silencing PUB17 did not compromise PCD triggered by P. infestans PAMP INF1, or co-expression of R3a/AVR3a, demonstrating that not all PTI- and PCD-associated responses require PUB17. PUB17 localizes to the plant nucleus and especially in the nucleolus. Transient over-expression of a dominant-negative StPUB17V314I,V316I mutant, which retained nucleolar localization, suppressed CF4-mediated cell death and enhanced P. infestans colonization. Exclusion of the StPUB17V314I,V316I mutant from the nucleus abolished its dominant-negative activity, demonstrating that StPUB17 functions in the nucleus. PUB17 is a positive regulator of immunity to late blight that acts in the nucleus to promote specific PTI and PCD pathways.

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AG Hofmann's curator insight, April 27, 6:42 AM

PUB17 is a ubiquitin ligase that contains a HeLo domain!!

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A review on computational systems biology of pathogen–host interactions

Saliha Durmus, Tunahan Cakir, Arzucan Ozgur and Reinhard Guthke
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GRACOMICS: software for graphical comparison of multiple results with omics data

Background:
Analysis of large-scale omics data has become more and more challenging due to high dimensionality. More complex analysis methods and tools are required to handle such data.
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Germline-Transmitted Genome Editing in Arabidopsis thaliana Using TAL-Effector-Nucleases

Germline-Transmitted Genome Editing in Arabidopsis thaliana Using TAL-Effector-Nucleases | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Joachim Forner, Anne Pfeiffer, Tobias Langenecker, Pablo Manavella, Jan U.
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