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Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
Dedicated to the research done on the molecular dialogue between plants and pathogens (but also to any interesting report)
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Bacteria-triggered systemic immunity in barley appears to be associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs but not with salicylic acid

Leaf-to-leaf, systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants.
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Comprendre la colère des chercheurs en 4 questions

Comprendre la colère des chercheurs en 4 questions | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Des chercheurs par centaines sont arrivés à Paris vendredi après une marche de trois semaines à travers la France pour faire entendre leur colère. Quelles sont leurs revendications ?
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Perception of root-derived peptides by shoot LRR-RKs mediates systemic N-demand signaling

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Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid

Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Shuta Asai, Ghanasyam Rallapalli, Sophie J. M. Piquerez, Marie-Cécile Caillaud, Oliver J. Furzer, Naveed Ishaque, Lennart Wirthmueller, Georgina Fabro, Ken Shirasu, Jonathan D. G.
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Salicylic Acid Regulates Arabidopsis Microbial Pattern Receptor Kinase Levels and Signaling

This work shows that pattern receptors are dynamically regulated by salicylic acid signaling and that pattern receptors are also needed for cell wall-based defense activated by salicylic acid.
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Elucidating mechanisms of mycorrhiza-induced resistance against Thielaviopsis basicola via targeted transcript analysis of petunia hybrida genes

Publication date: Available online 2 October 2014 Source:Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology Author(s): Soukayna Hayek , Vivienne Gianinazzi-Pearson , Silvio Gianinazzi , Philipp Franken One important function of the arbuscular...
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The beneficial fungus Piriformospora indica protects Arabidopsis from Verticillium dahliae infection by downregulation plant defense responses

Background:
Verticillium dahliae (Vd) is a soil-borne vascular pathogen which causes severe wilt symptoms in a wide range of plants. The microsclerotia produced by the pathogen survive in soil for more than 15?
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The fungal perspective of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in ‘nonmycorrhizal’ plants

The fungal perspective of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in ‘nonmycorrhizal’ plants | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
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ABA promotion of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization requires a component of the PP2A Protein Phosphatase Complex

Legumes can establish intracellular interactions with symbiotic microbes to enhance their fitness, including the interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM fungi colonize root epidermal cells to gain access to the root cortex and this requires the recognition by the host plant of fungal made Myc factors. Genetic dissection has revealed the symbiosis signaling pathway that allows recognition of AM fungi, but the downstream processes that are required to promote fungal infection are poorly understood. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to promote arbuscule formation in tomato. Here we show that ABA modulates the establishment of the AM symbiosis in Medicago truncatula by promoting fungal colonization at low concentrations and impairing it at high concentrations. We show that the positive regulation of AM colonization via ABA requires a PP2A holoenzyme subunit PP2AB’1. Mutations in PP2AB'1 cause reduced levels of AM colonization which cannot be rescued with permissive ABA application. The action of PP2AB’1 in response to ABA is unlinked to the generation of calcium oscillations as the pp2aB’1 mutant displays a normal calcium response. This contrasts with application of high concentrations of ABA that impairs Myc factor induced calcium oscillations suggesting different modes of action of ABA on the AM symbiosis. Our work reveals that ABA functions at multiple levels to regulate the AM symbiosis and that a PP2A phosphatase is required for ABA promotion of AM colonization.

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Long-distance endosome trafficking drives fungal effector production during plant infection

Long-distance endosome trafficking drives fungal effector production during plant infection | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

To cause plant disease, pathogenic fungi can secrete effector proteins into plant cells to suppress plant immunity and facilitate fungal infection. Most fungal pathogens infect plants using very long strand-like cells, called hyphae, that secrete effectors from their tips into host tissue. How fungi undergo long-distance cell signalling to regulate effector production during infection is not known. Here we show that long-distance retrograde motility of early endosomes (EEs) is necessary to trigger transcription of effector-encoding genes during plant infection by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. We demonstrate that motor-dependent retrograde EE motility is necessary for regulation of effector production and secretion during host cell invasion. We further show that retrograde signalling involves the mitogen-activated kinase Crk1 that travels on EEs and participates in control of effector production. Fungal pathogens therefore undergo long-range signalling to orchestrate host invasion.

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Jason Noon's curator insight, October 9, 10:11 AM

Wow, thanks Bielska and colleagues for providing such novel insights into the control of effector gene expression. This might spark a new research avenue to explore for all plant-microbe systems. I'm already imagining it for plant-nematode interactions.

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L’appel des biologistes à soutenir la recherche

L’appel des biologistes à soutenir la recherche | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Plusieurs sociétés savantes de biologie ont adressé une lettre ouverte à leurs ministres. Leur message : pour empêcher le déclin de la France, soutenez la recherche fondamentale.
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Phosphite-induced changes of the transcriptome and secretome in Solanum tuberosum leading to resistance against Phytophthora infestans

Background:
Potato late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans can lead to immense yield loss. We investigated the transcriptome of Solanum tubersoum (cv.
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Le premier zoo à microbes ouvre à Amsterdam

Le premier zoo à microbes ouvre à Amsterdam | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Les plus amoureux pourront s'embrasser devant le « Kiss-o-Meter » qui indique combien de microbes ont été échangés sur la durée du baiser.
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Anthocyanin leaf markings are regulated by a family of R2R3-MYB genes in the genus Trifolium

Anthocyanin leaf markings are regulated by a family of R2R3-MYB genes in the genus Trifolium | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Summary
Anthocyanin pigments accumulate to form spatially restricted patterns in plants, particularly in flowers, but also occur in vegetative tissues.
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Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
by Yigal Cohen, Avia E. Rubin, Mariana Galperin, Sebastian Ploch, Fabian Runge, Marco Thines Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported...
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A Saturated Genetic Linkage Map of Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Developed Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing Is Highly Syntenous with the Medicago truncatula Genome

A Saturated Genetic Linkage Map of Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Developed Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing Is Highly Syntenous with the Medicago truncatula Genome | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
A genetic linkage map is a valuable tool for quantitative trait locus mapping, map-based gene cloning, comparative mapping, and whole-genome assembly. Alfalfa, one of the most important forage crops in the world, is autotetraploid, allogamous, and highly heterozygous, characteristics that have impeded the construction of a high-density linkage map using traditional genetic marker systems. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we constructed low-cost, reasonably high-density linkage maps for both maternal and paternal parental genomes of an autotetraploid alfalfa F1 population. The resulting maps contain 3591 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers on 64 linkage groups across both parents, with an average density of one marker per 1.5 and 1.0 cM for the maternal and paternal haplotype maps, respectively. Chromosome assignments were made based on homology of markers to the M. truncatula genome. Four linkage groups representing the four haplotypes of each alfalfa chromosome were assigned to each of the eight Medicago chromosomes in both the maternal and paternal parents. The alfalfa linkage groups were highly syntenous with M. truncatula, and clearly identified the known translocation between Chromosomes 4 and 8. In addition, a small inversion on Chromosome 1 was identified between M. truncatula and M. sativa. GBS enabled us to develop a saturated linkage map for alfalfa that greatly improved genome coverage relative to previous maps and that will facilitate investigation of genome structure. GBS could be used in breeding populations to accelerate molecular breeding in alfalfa.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Genomic Characterization of the LEED..PEEDs, a Gene Family Unique to the Medicago Lineage

The LEED..PEED (LP) gene family in Medicago truncatula (A17) is composed of 13 genes coding small putatively secreted peptides with one to two conserved domains of negatively charged residues.
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Jean Tirole wins Nobel prize for economics 2014

Jean Tirole wins Nobel prize for economics 2014 | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
French economics professor wins for his work on market power and regulation, and his work taming powerful firms
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Frontiers | Foliar treatments with Gaultheria procumbens essential oil induce defense responses and resistance against a fungal pathogen in Arabidopsis

Essential oil from Gaultheria procumbens is mainly composed of methylsalicylate (>96%), a compound which can be metabolized in plant tissues to salicylic acid, a phytohormone inducing plant immunity against microbial pathogens. The potential use of G. procumbens essential oil as a biocontrol agent was evaluated on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of a selection of defence genes was detected 1, 6 and 24 hours after essential oil treatment (0.1 ml/L) using a high-throughput qPCR-based microfluidic technology. Control treatments included methyl jasmonate and a commercialized salicylic acid analog, benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7carbothiolic acid (BTH). Strong induction of defence markers known to be regulated by the salicylic acid pathway was observed after the treatment with G. procumbens essential oil. Treatment induced the accumulation of total salicylic acid in the wild -type Arabidopsis line Col-0 and analysis of the Arabidopsis line sid2, mutated in a salicylic acid biosynthetic gene, revealed that approximately 30% of methylsalicylate sprayed on the leaves penetrated inside plant tissues and was demethylated by endogenous esterases. Induction of plant resistance by G. procumbens essential oil was tested following inoculation with a GFP-expressing strain of the Arabidopsis fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Flurorescence measurement of infected tissues revealed that treatments led to a strong reduction (60%) of pathogen development and that the efficacy of the G. procumbens essential oil was similar to the commercial product BION®. Together, these results show that the G. procubens essential oil is a natural source of methylsalicylate which can be formulated to develop new biocontrol products.
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Des solutions pour rendre la recherche française plus efficace

Des solutions pour rendre la recherche française plus efficace | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
Tribune. Face à l’échec des réformes engagées depuis dix ans visant à rendre la recherche française plus compétitive sur le plan international, les assises de la recherche ont formulé des propositions, simples et peu coûteuses.
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Agroinfiltration by Cytokinin-Producing Agrobacterium sp. Strain GV3101 Primes Defense Responses in Nicotiana tabacum

Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, Volume 27, Issue 11, Page 1175-1185, November 2014.
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Probing formation of cargo/importin-α transport complexes in plant cells using a pathogen effector

Probing formation of cargo/importin-α transport complexes in plant cells using a pathogen effector | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Importin-αs are essential adapter proteins that recruit cytoplasmic proteins destined for active nuclear import to the nuclear transport machinery. Cargo proteins interact with the importin-α armadillo repeat domain via nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), short amino acids motifs enriched in Lys and Arg residues. Plant genomes typically encode several importin-α paralogs that can have both specific and partially redundant functions. Although some cargos are preferentially imported by a distinct importin-α, it remains unknown how this specificity is generated and to what extent cargos compete for binding to nuclear transport receptors. Here we report that the effector protein HaRxL106 from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis co-opts the host cell's nuclear import machinery. We use HaRxL106 as a probe to determine redundant and specific functions of importin-α paralogs from Arabidopsis thaliana. A crystal structure of the importin-α3/MOS6 armadillo repeat domain suggests that five of the six Arabidopsis importin-αs expressed in rosette leaves have an almost identical NLS binding site. Comparison of the importin-α binding affinities of HaRxL106 and other cargos in vitro and in plant cells suggests that relatively small affinity differences in vitro affect the rate of transport complex formation in vivo. Our results suggest that cargo affinity for importin-α, sequence variation at the importin-α NLS binding sites and tissue-specific expression levels of importin-αs determine formation of cargo/importin-α transport complexes in plant cells.

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[Editorial] Building agricultural research

Nine billion people are expected to inhabit Planet Earth by 2050. Without agricultural research, there is little hope of sustaining this population surge, given that arable land and water supplies are fixed commodities.
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The Scientist: Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists (2014)

The Scientist: Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists (2014) | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Academia is not producing sufficient PhDs in the plant sciences to solve the crop production challenges facing a rapidly growing population.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Jean-Michel Ané
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Peter Buckland's curator insight, October 2, 6:34 AM

Yet more evidence of the decline in plant sciences

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Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model

Paz Aranega Bou, Maria de la O Leyva, Ivan Finiti, Pilar García Agustín and Carmen González Bosch
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