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Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
Dedicated to the research done on the molecular dialogue between plants and pathogens (but also to any interesting report)
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Hybridization speeds up the emergence and evolution of a new pathogen species : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

Plant pathogens can evolve new host specificities and overcome host resistances over surprisingly few generations, a process that is greatly accelerated by agricultural practices. A new study provides a striking example in which the rapid emergence of a new pathogen via introgressive hybridization mirrors the evolution of a hybrid cereal crop.
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Molecular mechanisms of chitin recognition and immune signaling by LysM-receptors

Publication date: Available online 8 February 2016 Source:Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology Author(s): Hanae Kaku, Naoto Shibuya Plants have the ability to recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and initiate...

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Spore density determines infection strategy by the plant-pathogenic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina

Necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens are resisted by different plant defenses.

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A Small Secreted Virulence-Related Protein Is Essential for the Necrotrophic Interactions of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with Its Host Plants

A Small Secreted Virulence-Related Protein Is Essential for the Necrotrophic Interactions of  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum  with Its Host Plants | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Author Summary To resist biotrophic and hemibiotrophic phytopathogens, plants utilize an innate immune system, mediated through nucleotide binding (NB)-leucine rich repeat (LRR) proteins, to respond to effectors, most of which are small secreted...

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A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

RT @jfgumarc: A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c https://t.co/sVVDc7lHJV

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The Arabidopsis microtubule-associated protein MAP65-3 supports infection by filamentous biotrophic pathogens by down-regulating salicylic acid-dependent defenses

HighlightWe show that MAP65-3 has a dual role in Arabidopsis. The protein stimulates mitosis and cytokinesis during plant development, and inhibits plant defenses during leaf infection by mildews.

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Extracellular Vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei Mediate Virulence Factor Transfer and Cause Host Anemia

Extracellular Vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei Mediate Virulence Factor Transfer and Cause Host Anemia | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Publication date: 14 January 2016
Source:Cell, Volume 164, Issues 1–2
Author(s): Anthony J. Szempruch, Steven E. Sykes, Rudo Kieft, Lauren Dennison, Allison C. Becker, Anzio Gartrell, William J.

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Lignin engineering in field-grown poplar trees affects the endosphere bacterial microbiome

Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway, represents a promising biotechnological target to reduce lignin levels and to improve the commercial viability of lignocellulosic biomass.

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A bacterial parasite effector mediates insect vector attraction in host plants independently of developmental changes

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

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Rapid protocol for visualization of rust fungi structures using fluorochrome Uvitex 2B | Plant Methods

Rapid protocol for visualization of rust fungi structures using fluorochrome Uvitex 2B | Plant Methods | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Fluorescence microscopy coupled with Fluorochrome Uvitex 2B is extensively utilized to study rust fungi structures and host-pathogen interactions. In this study, the authors develop a rapid staining protocol of the rust fungus Puccinia triticina using fluorochrome Uvitex 2B which is six times faster than other protocols


Via Norwich Rust Group, Steve Marek, Rey Thomas
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Arabidopsis late blight: Infection of a nonhost plant by Albugo laibachii enables full colonization by Phytophthora infestans

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

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EffectorP: predicting fungal effector proteins from secretomes using machine learning - Sperschneider - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

EffectorP: predicting fungal effector proteins from secretomes using machine learning - Sperschneider - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Eukaryotic filamentous plant pathogens secrete effector proteins that modulate the host cell to facilitate infection.

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Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales (LRSV - UMR 5546 UPS/CNRS) - Faits marquants

Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales (LRSV - UMR 5546 UPS/CNRS) - Faits marquants | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Découverte des miPEP codés par des microARN et de leur fonction biologique Les microARN sont des petits ARN (environ 21 nucléotides) contrôlant la plupart des processus biologiques, en régulant négativement...

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Un chercheur primé pour avoir réussi à séquencer un ADN en « environ dix minutes » au lieu de trois heures

Un chercheur primé pour avoir réussi à séquencer un ADN en « environ dix minutes » au lieu de trois heures | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Pour sa découverte au potentiel « considérable », Aurélien Bancaud a reçu le premier prix d’instrumentation de la Société française de chimie.

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Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we enhance comparative phylogenomics in Onygenales by adding genomes for Amauroascus mutatus, Amauroascus niger, Byssoonygena ceratinophila, and Chrysosporium queenslandicum—four nonpathogenic Onygenales species, all of which are more closely related to Coccidioides spp. than any other known Onygenales species. Phylogenomic detection of gene family expansion and contraction can provide clues to fungal function but is sensitive to taxon sampling. By adding additional nonpathogens, we show that LysM domain-containing proteins, previously thought to be expanding in some Onygenales, are contracting in the Coccidioides-Uncinocarpus clade, as are the self-nonself recognition Het loci. The denser genome sampling presented here highlights nearly 800 genes unique to Coccidiodes, which have significantly fewer known protein domains and show increased expression in the endosporulating spherule, the parasitic phase unique to Coccidioides spp. These genomes provide insight to gene family expansion/contraction and patterns of individual gene gain/loss in this diverse order—both major drivers of evolutionary change. Our results suggest that gene family expansion/contraction can lead to adaptive radiations that create taxonomic orders, while individual gene gain/loss likely plays a more significant role in branch-specific phenotypic changes that lead to adaptation for species or genera.


Via Francis Martin
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Export of malaria proteins requires co-translational processing of the PEXEL motif independent of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate binding : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Export of malaria proteins requires co-translational processing of the PEXEL motif independent of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate binding : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Export of Plasmodium falciparum proteins into infected erythrocytes relies upon the PEXEL motif in target proteins. Here Boddey et al.

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bioRxiv: Cell re-entry assays do not support models of pathogen- independent translocation of AvrM and AVR3a effectors into plant cells (2016)

bioRxiv: Cell re-entry assays do not support models of pathogen- independent translocation of AvrM and AVR3a effectors into plant cells (2016) | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

The cell re-entry assay is widely used to evaluate pathogen effector protein uptake into plant cells. The assay is based on the premise that effector proteins secreted out of a leaf cell would translocate back into the cytosol of the same cell via a yet unknown host-derived uptake mechanism. Here, we critically assess this assay by expressing domains of the effector proteins AvrM-A of Melampsora lini and AVR3a of Phytophthora infestans fused to a signal peptide and fluorescent proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. We found that the secreted fusion proteins do not re-enter plant cells from the apoplast and that the assay is prone to false-positives. We therefore emit a cautionary note on the use of the cell re-entry assay for protein trafficking studies.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Pectin Biosynthesis is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

Plant cell walls constitute important barriers against microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cell walls contain three major types of polysaccharides - cellulose, various hemicelluloses and pectins.

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Identification and characterization of virulence-related effectors in the cucumber anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare

Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016 Source:Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology Author(s): Hiroki Irieda, Yoshitaka Takano The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare invades hosts and establishes biotrophy,...

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eLife: An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor (2015)

eLife: An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor (2015) | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy related processes is unknown. Here we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor in order to counteract host defenses.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

Beat Keller, Thomas Wicker and colleagues compare the genomes of 46 isolates of powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis. They find that B. graminis f. sp. triticale, a pathogen growing on triticale (a wheat [times] rye hybrid plant), is a hybrid of B.

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Nuclear Function of Subclass I Actin Depolymerizing Factor Contributes to Susceptibility in Arabidopsis to an Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungus

Actin depolymerization factors (ADFs) are conserved proteins that function in regulating the structure and dynamics of actin microfilaments (AFs) in eukaryotes.

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Identification of a Novel Nematotoxic Protein by Challenging the Model Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea with a Fungivorous Nematode

Identification of a Novel Nematotoxic Protein by Challenging the Model Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea with a Fungivorous Nematode | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it
The dung of herbivores, the natural habitat of the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, is a nutrient-rich but also very competitive environment for a saprophytic fungus. We showed previously that C. cinerea expresses constitutive, tissue-specific armories against antagonists such as animal predators and bacterial competitors. In order to dissect the inducible armories against such antagonists, we sequenced the poly(A)-positive transcriptome of C. cinerea vegetative mycelium upon challenge with fungivorous and bacterivorous nematodes, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and mechanical damage. As a response to the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae, C. cinerea was found to specifically induce the transcription of several genes encoding previously characterized nematotoxic lectins. In addition, a previously not characterized gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein with several predicted Ricin B-fold domains, was found to be strongly upregulated under this condition. Functional analysis of the recombinant protein revealed a high toxicity toward the bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Challenge of the mycelium with A. avenae also lead to the induction of several genes encoding putative antibacterial proteins. Some of these genes were also induced upon challenge of the mycelium with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. These results suggest that fungi have the ability to induce specific innate defense responses similar to plants and animals.

Via Francis Martin
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CRN13 candidate effectors from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens are DNA-binding proteins which trigger host DNA damage response - Ramirez-Garcés - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

CRN13 candidate effectors from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens are DNA-binding proteins which trigger host DNA damage response - Ramirez-Garcés - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors | Scoop.it

CRN13 candidate effectors from eukaryot. pathogens are DNA-binding proteins which trigger host DNA damage response https://t.co/zK00CzPE4x

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Plant nuclei move to escape ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and cell death

A striking feature of plant nuclei is their light-dependent movement. In Arabidopsis thaliana leaf mesophyll cells, the nuclei move to the side walls of cells within 1-3 h after blue-light reception, although the reason is unknown.

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