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Rescooped by Joseph Charlton from Plants and Microbes
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MPMI: Colonization of barley by the broad-host hemibiotrophic pathogen Phytophthora palmivora uncovers a leaf development dependent involvement of MLO (2016)

MPMI: Colonization of barley by the broad-host hemibiotrophic pathogen Phytophthora palmivora uncovers a leaf development dependent involvement of MLO (2016) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

The discovery of barley MLO demonstrated that filamentous pathogens rely on plant genes to achieve entry and lifecycle completion in barley leaves. Whilst having a dramatic effect on foliar pathogens, it is unclear whether overlapping or distinct mechanisms affect filamentous pathogen infection of roots. To remove the bias connected with using different pathogens to understand colonisation mechanisms in different tissues we have utilized the aggressive hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. P. palmivora colonises root as well as leaf tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The infection is characterized by a transient biotrophy phase with formation of haustoria. Barley accessions varied in degree of susceptibility, with some accessions fully resistant to leaf infection. Notably, there was no overall correlation between degree of susceptibility in roots compared to leaves suggesting that variation in different genes influences host susceptibility above- and belowground. In addition, a developmental gradient influenced infection, with more extensive colonisation observed in mature leaf sectors. Only in young leaf tissues, the mlo5 mutation attenuates P. palmivora infection. The barley - P. palmivora interaction represents a simple system to identify and compare genetic components governing quantitative colonisation in diverse types of barley tissues.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Plant Immunity | The Scientist Magazine®

Plant Immunity | The Scientist Magazine® | plant immunity | Scoop.it
How plants fight off pathogens
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Genomic and Post-Translational Modification Analysis of Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases in Brassica rapa. - PubMed - NCBI

Genomic and Post-Translational Modification Analysis of Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases in Brassica rapa. - PubMed - NCBI | plant immunity | Scoop.it
PLoS One. 2015 Nov 20;10(11):e0142255. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142255.
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Engineering Virus-Resistant Plants | The Scientist Magazine®

Engineering Virus-Resistant Plants | The Scientist Magazine® | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Researchers use CRISPR to create plants that resist infection by DNA viruses.
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Rescooped by Joseph Charlton from Effectors and Plant Immunity
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Cell Host Microbe: The Decoy Substrate of a Pathogen Effector and a Pseudokinase Specify Pathogen-Induced Modified-Self Recognition and Immunity in Plants (2015)

Cell Host Microbe: The Decoy Substrate of a Pathogen Effector and a Pseudokinase Specify Pathogen-Induced Modified-Self Recognition and Immunity in Plants (2015) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

In plants, host response to pathogenic microbes is driven both by microbial perception and detection of modified-self. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein AvrAC/XopAC uridylylates the Arabidopsis BIK1 kinase to dampen basal resistance and thereby promotes bacterial virulence. Here we show that PBL2, a paralog of BIK1, is similarly uridylylated by AvrAC. However, in contrast to BIK1, PBL2 uridylylation is specifically required for host recognition of AvrAC to trigger immunity, but not AvrAC virulence. PBL2 thus acts as a decoy and enables AvrAC detection. AvrAC recognition also requires the RKS1 pseudokinase of the ZRK family and the NOD-like receptor ZAR1, which is known to recognize the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ1a. ZAR1 forms a stable complex with RKS1, which specifically recruits PBL2 when the latter is uridylylated by AvrAC, triggering ZAR1-mediated immunity. The results illustrate how decoy substrates and pseudokinases can specify and expand the capacity of the plant immune system.


Via Nicolas Denancé
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Underground Immunity | The Scientist Magazine®

Underground Immunity | The Scientist Magazine® | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Arabidopsis thaliana defense hormones shape the plant’s root microbiome.
Joseph Charlton's insight:

Additional exploration area in the quest to understand the plants immune system!

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Frontiers in Plant-Microbe Interaction | Research Topics: Plant Immunity: From model systems to crops species (2014)

Frontiers in Plant-Microbe Interaction | Research Topics: Plant Immunity: From model systems to crops species (2014) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plants posses an intricate innate immune system that enables them to fight off most invading pathogens. Around the world, agriculture relies on robust disease resistance to ensure adequate food and feed production. Researchers and breeders are constantly generating new resistant crop varieties mostly employing the lengthy process of conventional breeding. Nonetheless, crop losses due to plant pathogens are estimated to be over 15% every year - the main cause of such losses is rapid evolution of new virulent races. In order to keep up with emerging pathogens, we need to gain a deeper and more systematic understanding of the immune system of our crops. During the past two decades, molecular understanding of plant innate immune signaling has been greatly expanded using dicotyledonous model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Now, it is time to connect this volume of knowledge with the immune system of the crop species.

 

In this Research Topic we aim to collect manuscripts covering the current knowledge of the immune systems of major crop species. Specifically, we encourage the submission of manuscripts (Original Research, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Perspective and Opinion) covering the following topics:

 

a. Manuscripts describing our current understanding of the plant immune system with a focus on crop species or comparative analyses between model systems and crops.

b. Manuscripts exploring how to best exploit our insight into genomes of plant pathogens and molecular understanding of effector function.
c. Manuscripts debating (novel) strategies of how to generate more resistant crop varieties. These might include biotechnological, social and economical aspects of crop improvement.

 

We anticipate that this Research Topic will become an important resource for plant immunologists especially those interested in comparative studies of plant innate immune systems of model systems and crop species.

 

Topic Editors

 

Benjamin Schwessinger
UC Davis
Davis, USA

 

Rebecca Bart
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
St. Louis, USA

 

Gitta Coaker
University of California, Davis
Davis, USA

 

Ksenia V Krasileva
University of California Davis
Davis, USA


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Joseph Charlton from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks

Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant–fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant–fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of ‘nested’ network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Joseph Charlton from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Functional Soil Microbiome: Belowground Solutions to an Aboveground Problem

Functional Soil Microbiome: Belowground Solutions to an Aboveground Problem | plant immunity | Scoop.it
There is considerable evidence in the literature that beneficial rhizospheric microbes can alter plant morphology, enhance plant growth, and increase mineral content. Of late, there is a surge to understand the impact of the microbiome on plant health. Recent research shows the utilization of novel sequencing techniques to identify the microbiome in model systems such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). However, it is not known how the community of microbes identified may play a role to improve plant health and fitness. There are very few detailed studies with isolated beneficial microbes showing the importance of the functional microbiome in plant fitness and disease protection. Some recent work on the cultivated microbiome in rice (Oryza sativa) shows that a wide diversity of bacterial species is associated with the roots of field-grown rice plants. However, the biological significance and potential effects of the microbiome on the host plants are completely unknown. Work performed with isolated strains showed various genetic pathways that are involved in the recognition of host-specific factors that play roles in beneficial host-microbe interactions. The composition of the microbiome in plants is dynamic and controlled by multiple factors. In the case of the rhizosphere, temperature, pH, and the presence of chemical signals from bacteria, plants, and nematodes all shape the environment and influence which organisms will flourish. This provides a basis for plants and their microbiomes to selectively associate with one another. This Update addresses the importance of the functional microbiome to identify phenotypes that may provide a sustainable and effective strategy to increase crop yield and food security.

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Curr Opin Plant Biol: Cross-interference of plant development and plant–microbe interactions (2014)

Curr Opin Plant Biol: Cross-interference of plant development and plant–microbe interactions (2014) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plant roots are host to a multitude of filamentous microorganisms. Among these, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide benefits to plants, while pathogens trigger diseases resulting in significant crop yield losses. It is therefore imperative to study processes which allow plants to discriminate detrimental and beneficial interactions in order to protect crops from diseases while retaining the ability for sustainable bio-fertilisation strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that some symbiosis processes also affect plant–pathogen interactions. A large part of this overlap likely constitutes plant developmental processes. Moreover, microbes utilise effector proteins to interfere with plant development. Here we list relevant recent findings on how plant–microbe interactions intersect with plant development and highlight future research leads.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, IvanOresnik
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Steve Marek's curator insight, June 16, 2014 2:56 PM

Nice review

Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, July 2, 2014 10:54 AM

Microbe-macrobe or host-pathogen interface determines the cell-cell interactions largely @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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Frontiers | Genome analysis of poplar LRR-RLP gene clusters reveals RISP, a defense-related gene coding a candidate endogenous peptide elicitor | Plant-Microbe Interaction

In plants, cell-surface receptors control immunity and development through the recognition of extracellular ligands. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) constitute a large multigene family of cell-surface receptors. Although this family has been intensively studied, a limited number of ligands has been identified so far, mostly because methods used for their identification and characterisation are complex and fastidious. In this study, we combined genome and transcriptome analyses to describe the LRR-RLP gene family in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). In total, 82 LRR-RLP genes have been identified in P. trichocarpa genome, among which 66 are organised in clusters of up to seven members. In these clusters, LRR-RLP genes are interspersed by orphan, poplar-specific genes encoding small proteins of unknown function (SPUFs). In particular, the nine largest clusters of LRR-RLP genes (47 LRR-RLPs) include 71 SPUF genes that account for 59% of the non-LRR-RLP gene content within these clusters. Forty-four LRR-RLP and fifty-five SPUF genes are expressed in poplar leaves, mostly at low levels, except for members of some clusters that show higher and sometimes coordinated expression levels. Notably, wounding of poplar leaves strongly induced the expression of a defense SPUF gene named Rust-Induced Secreted protein (RISP) that has been previously reported as a marker of poplar defense responses. Interestingly, we show that the RISP-associated LRR-RLP gene is highly expressed in poplar leaves and slightly induced by wounding. Both gene promoters share a highly conserved region of approx. 300 nucleotides. This led us to hypothesize that the corresponding pair of proteins could be involved in poplar immunity, possibly as a ligand/receptor couple.In conclusion, we speculate that some poplar SPUFs, such as RISP, represent candidate endogenous peptide ligands of the associated LRR-RLPs and we discuss how to investigate further this hypothesis.
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Frontiers: Induced plant responses to microbes and insects

Frontiers: Induced plant responses to microbes and insects | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Plants are members of complex communities and interact both with antagonists and beneficial organisms. An important question in plant defense-signaling research is how plants integrate signals induced by pathogens, insect herbivores and beneficial microbes into the most appropriate adaptive response. Molecular and genomic tools are now being used to uncover the complexity of the induced defense signaling networks that have evolved during the arms races between plants and the other organisms with which they intimately interact. To understand the functioning of the complex defense signaling network in nature, molecular biologists and ecologists have joined forces to place molecular mechanisms of induced plant defenses in an ecological perspective. In this Research Topic, we aim to provide an on-line, open-access snapshot of the current state of the art of the field of induced plant responses to microbes and insects, with a special focus on the translation of molecular mechanisms to ecology and vice versa. We will collect Original Research and Review papers on the topic, but also other article types, such as Methods and Opinions are welcome.


Via Suayib Üstün
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Great collection of articles on the plants responses to microbes and insects!

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UF researchers find genetic cause for citrus canker, putting them a step closer to a cure » News » University of Florida

GAINESVILLE, Fla. --- Researchers from the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida are closer to finding a possible cure for citrus canker after identifying a gene that makes citrus trees susceptible to the bacterial pathogen
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By switching 'bait,' biologists trick plants' bacterial defense into attacking virus: Single, minor gene alteration method could confer new disease resistance traits to crops

By switching 'bait,' biologists trick plants' bacterial defense into attacking virus: Single, minor gene alteration method could confer new disease resistance traits to crops | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Scientists have modified a plant gene that normally fights bacterial infection to confer resistance to a virus. The method is the first time a plant's innate defense system has been altered to deliver resistance to a new disease.
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New insights into signalling pathway of long-established immune receptor - The Sainsbury Laboratory

New insights into signalling pathway of long-established immune receptor - The Sainsbury Laboratory | plant immunity | Scoop.it
A team of scientists at The Sainsbury Laboratory, led by Professor Silke Robatzek and in collaboration with Dr Matthieu Joosten from Wageningen University, have uncovered one of the mechanisms by which tomato plants can defend against disease-causing pathogens. The perception of pathogens by plants, and how they relay these signals, is crucial to the outcome... Read more »
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Protecting plants from stealthy diseases

Protecting plants from stealthy diseases | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Stealthy diseases sometimes trick plants by hijacking their defense signaling system, which issues an alarm that diverts plant resources for the wrong attack and allows the enemy pathogens to easily overrun plants.
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Nature Plants: Immunity: One receptor, many pathogens (2015)

Nature Plants: Immunity: One receptor, many pathogens (2015) | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Most plant pattern recognition receptors induce immune responses by detecting molecular patterns typical to one group of microbes. A newly identified complex, on the other hand, monitors effector proteins widely distributed among bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, casting a new light on the evolution of pattern recognition in plants.


See also Albert et al. An RLP23–SOBIR1–BAK1 complex mediates NLP-triggered immunity. Nature Plants http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants2015140


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A new cyanogenic metabolite in Arabidopsis required for inducible pathogen defence : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

A new cyanogenic metabolite in Arabidopsis required for inducible pathogen defence : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | plant immunity | Scoop.it
Thousands of putative biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have no known function, which suggests that there are numerous molecules contributing to plant fitness that have not yet been discovered. Prime among these uncharacterized genes are cytochromes P450 upregulated in response to pathogens. Here we start with a single pathogen-induced P450 (ref. 5), CYP82C2, and use a combination of untargeted metabolomics and coexpression analysis to uncover the complete biosynthetic pathway to 4-hydroxyindole-3-carbonyl nitrile (4-OH-ICN), a previously unknown Arabidopsis metabolite. This metabolite harbours cyanogenic functionality that is unprecedented in plants and exceedingly rare in nature; furthermore, the aryl cyanohydrin intermediate in the 4-OH-ICN pathway reveals a latent capacity for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. By expressing 4-OH-ICN biosynthetic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we reconstitute the complete pathway in vitro and in vivo and validate the functions of its enzymes. Arabidopsis 4-OH-ICN pathway mutants show increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, consistent with a role in inducible pathogen defence. Arabidopsis has been the pre-eminent model system for studying the role of small molecules in plant innate immunity; our results uncover a new branch of indole metabolism distinct from the canonical camalexin pathway, and support a role for this pathway in the Arabidopsis defence response. These results establish a more complete framework for understanding how the model plant Arabidopsis uses small molecules in pathogen defence.
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Rescooped by Joseph Charlton from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition

The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition | plant immunity | Scoop.it
by Marie-Cécile Caillaud, Lennart Wirthmueller, Jan Sklenar, Kim Findlay, Sophie J. M. Piquerez, Alexandra M. E. Jones, Silke Robatzek, Jonathan D. G.

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Molecular tools for functional genomics in filamentous fungi: Recent advances and new strategies

Molecular tools for functional genomics in filamentous fungi: Recent advances and new strategies | plant immunity | Scoop.it

(Jiang et al, 2013)

In this review, various molecular tools used in filamentous fungi are compared and discussed, including methods for genetic transformation (e.g., protoplast transformation, electroporation, and microinjection), the construction of random mutant libraries (e.g., restriction enzyme mediated integration, transposon arrayed gene knockout, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation), and the analysis of gene function (e.g., RNA interference and transcription activator-like effector nucleases). We also focused on practical strategies that could enhance the efficiency of genetic manipulation in filamentous fungi, such as choosing a proper screening system and marker genes, assembling target-cassettes or vectors effectively, and transforming into strains that are deficient in the nonhomologous end joining pathway.

 

 


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Frontiers | Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana | Plant Proteomics

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses) is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phospho)proteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g. WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the “PEN” pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens). Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org).
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The Plant Membrane-Associated REMORIN1.3 Accumulates in Discrete Perihaustorial Domains and Enhances Susceptibility to Phytophthora infestans

The Plant Membrane-Associated REMORIN1.3 Accumulates in Discrete Perihaustorial Domains and Enhances Susceptibility to Phytophthora infestans | plant immunity | Scoop.it
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ABR: The Genomics of Powdery Mildew Fungi: Past Achievements Present Status and Future Prospects

ABR: The Genomics of Powdery Mildew Fungi: Past Achievements Present Status and Future Prospects | plant immunity | Scoop.it

Powdery mildew fungi (Ascomycota phylum) are obligate biotrophic plant pathogens that can only grow and reproduce on living host cells. They infect a wide range of plants, including many crops and the diseases they cause are common, easily recognizable and widespread. Although functional investigations in these genetically intractable organisms have been hampered by their obligate biotrophic nature, recent advances in genomics and transcriptomics have contributed tremendously to our understanding of powdery mildew biology. Comparative genomics was a powerful tool to pinpoint what distinguishes powdery mildew fungi from other filamentous plant pathogens and helped us to better understand how obligate biotrophy evolved. Comparative genome analyses among isolates in both the wheat and the barley powdery mildew lineages revealed isolate-specific mosaic genome structures of evolutionary young and old haplogroups. In addition to providing hints into the evolutionary origin of powdery mildew fungi, the observed mosaic genome structure also reflects the reproductive mode of these pathogens and explains how the large standing genetic variation is generated in powdery mildew populations. In this chapter, I discuss how the revolution in genomics has contributed and will contribute in the future to better understand the obligate biotrophic lifestyle, the virulence arsenal, the reproductive mode and the evolutionary history of powdery mildew fungi


Via Stéphane Hacquard
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Plant peptides in defense and signaling

Plant peptides in defense and signaling | plant immunity | Scoop.it

This review focuses on plant peptides involved in defense against pathogen infection and those involved in the regulation of growth and development. Defense peptides, defensins, cyclotides and anti-microbial peptides are compared and contrasted. Signaling peptides are classified according to their major sites of activity. Finally, a network approach to creating an interactomic peptide map is described.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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