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Research, new developments and findings of organisms, harmful to plants.
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J Phytopathology: Emergence of 13_A2 Blue Lineage of Phytophthora infestans was Responsible for Severe Outbreaks of Late Blight on Tomato in South-West India (2012) | Plants and Microbes

J Phytopathology: Emergence of 13_A2 Blue Lineage of Phytophthora infestans was Responsible for Severe Outbreaks of Late Blight on Tomato in South-West India (2012) | Plants and Microbes | Plant health | Scoop.it

Prior to 2007, late blight was not reported as a serious threat to tomato cultivation in India although the disease has been known on potato since 1953.

In 2009 and 2010, severe late blight epidemics were observed in Karnataka state of India, causing crop losses up to 100%. The phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates examined in this study were found to be similar to that of 13_A2 genotype of P. infestans population reported in Europe. Thus, appearance of new population similar to 13_A2 genotype was responsible for severe late blight epidemics on tomato in South-West India.

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Plant pests: The biggest threats

Plant pests: The biggest threats | Plant health | Scoop.it

Agriculture scientist Dr Matthew Cock,  chief scientist for Cabi, a UK-based agri-environment research organisation, lists some of the biggest biological threats to global food security.

 

Pests like desert locust, western corn root worm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), the Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) are suggested together with plant diseases, causing famine in the past: potato blight (Phytophthora infestans), or big economic losses in agricultural production: wheat stem rust strain Ug99 (Puccinia graminis tritici), South American rubber blight (Microcyclus ulei) and cofee wilt disease (Fusarium xylarioides).

The original article (BBC News) was cited also by IPM in the South (18 Jan 2012).

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Plant Disease: Potato and Tomato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans: An Overview of Pathology and Resistance Breeding

Plant Disease: Potato and Tomato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans: An Overview of Pathology and Resistance Breeding | Plant health | Scoop.it

Recent achievements in better understanding of the P. infestans pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and the progress made in developing genetic resistance in potato and tomato is summarized bellow.

Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major disease of potato and tomato worldwide and can cause up to 100% yield losses.


The devastating economic impact of this disease intensified the related pathology and genetics research since the occurrence of Irish famine in 1840s, with a side gain of major scientific discoveries. For example, many of the crucial steps involved in LB defense response in host plants have been elucidated through the use of modern cytological and molecular biology techniques. Also, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed differences between oomycetes and pathogenic fungi, which has led to more selective use of chemicals for LB control. Furthermore, the discovery of P. infestans two mating types and the resultant generation of more aggressive lineages by sexual recombination stresses the need for an integrated and sustainable approach to LB control. These measures would include the use of cultural practices, selective fungicide applications, and genetic resistance.

In potato at least a dozen major resistance genes and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for LB resistance have been identified, and most modern cultivars have been bred with one or more resistance genes. In tomato, though most commercial cultivars are susceptible to LB, a few major resistance genes and several QTLs have been identified and several breeding programs around the world are developing breeding lines and commercial cultivars with LB resistance. Most recently, a few fresh-market tomato hybrid cultivars with LB resistance were released by the North Carolina State University Tomato Breeding Program in the United States. There is, however, an insufficient number of potato and tomato cultivars with LB resistance, resulting in continued expensive as well as the hazardous and increasingly ineffective use of chemicals for disease control. In an era when both host plants and P. infestans genomes are sequenced and considerable genomic information is available, it is not unexpected that a more sustainable solution to controlling LB is on the horizon.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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