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Research, new developments and findings of organisms, harmful to plants.
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First Report of Agrobacterium vitis as the Causal Agent of Grapevine Crown Gall in Serbia

First Report of Agrobacterium vitis as the Causal Agent of Grapevine Crown Gall in Serbia | Plant health | Scoop.it

In 2010, a serious outbreak of crown gall disease was observed on 3-year-old grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in two commercial vineyards located in the South Banat District in Serbia. In Plant Pathology laboratory at University of Belgrade Agrobacterium vitis was identified as causal agent of crown galls by several molecular, biochemical and bioassay methods.

Kuzmanović et al. (2012) First Report of Agrobacterium vitis as the Causal Agent of Grapevine Crown Gall in Serbia, Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 286, February 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-11-0600

Comment: Despite the authors claim the first report of A. vitis in Serbia, they wrote that crown gall disease had been sporadically observed in vineyards in Serbia in previous years. Indeed, the disease is well established in this part of Europe. Usually the reason for an outbreak in a young plantation is an introduction of latently infected planting material. Though, source of infection is probably in mother plants.

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Distribution of Viruses Infecting Cucurbit Crops and Isolation of Potential New Virus-Like Sequences from Weeds in Oklahoma

Samples were tested against seven viruses, including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W, formerly known as Watermelon mosaic virus-1), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV-2), and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), using dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA).

New weed host species were found to be infected with PRSV. Some weed species contained possible new viruses.

Ali et al. (2012) Distribution of Viruses Infecting Cucurbit Crops and Isolation of Potential New Virus-Like Sequences from Weeds in Oklahoma Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 243-248, February 2012. 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-11-0419

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Controlling Soybean Cyst Nematode

The Soybean Cyst Nematode. It is a major player in production, and there have been millions of dollars lost to this nematode. The Soybean Cyst Nematode has a very narrow host range.
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Quorum-sensing disruption, a new tool for disease management?

Quorum-sensing disruption, a new tool for disease management? | Plant health | Scoop.it

Sara Thomas (Plantwise) sais that the potential applications of this idea are truly fascinating.

 

A new study by Chernin et al. has found that volatile organic compounds produced by certain Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) can disrupt bacterial cell-cell communication (quorum sensing) in a number of plant pathogens.  These volatile compounds can reduce the signal molecules of pathogens (E. g. volatile organic compounds produced by strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia plymuthica can disrupt quorum sensing in a number of plant pathogens including Agrobacterium, Chromobacterium, Pectobacterium and Pseudomonas). Since PGPRs are used as agricultural inputs in many crops, ‘quorum-quenching’ could serve as a new disease management strategy.

 

The potential of this tool was further broadened when Gadoury et al., suggested a similar quorum-sensing mechanism to exist in the grape powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe necator. The authors indicate that production of spores (conidia) is triggered only after the fungus has grown some amount of mycelium and suggested the role of quorum sensing in triggering this conidiation. This is the first suggestion of quorum-sensing in fungal plant pathogens.

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And now for the world's most important plant viruses

And now for the world's most important plant viruses | Plant health | Scoop.it

Molecular Plant Pathology has published the results of a survey amongst plant virologists, ranking plant viruses based on scientific/economic importance. The historical perspective, the science, the economics and the latest research are discussed for each of the viruses making it into the ‘Top 10’.

 

First place is given to Tobacco mosaic virus for its scientific importance based on its role which has extended beyond practical plant pathology (as a virus causing serious losses in a profitable crop) to its use as a model system and in molecular pathology.

 

Top 10 plant viruses: (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X.

 

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Insects lead the way in list of newly discovered species

Insects lead the way in list of newly discovered species | Plant health | Scoop.it

Remi Melina: An annual inventory of newly discovered species lists more than 19,000 –  half of them insects. A total of 9,738 insect species were first identified in 2009, the most recent year of data compilation.

After insects, the largest group of new living species was vascular plants, totaling 2,184. Newly discovered arachnids, a group that includes spiders and mites, numbered 1,487.

Forty-one of the listed species were mammals, and seven were birds. There were also 1,360 newly identified species of fungi and 1,107 new microbes.

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Access all areas : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Access all areas : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant health | Scoop.it

"To create a sustainable, open research literature, governments need to find the finances to make it viable and recognize that adding value to diversifying research outputs has its own costs."

“The vision of an open research literature has both scientific merit and strong political support.”

Authors' final versions of papers should be deposited in the freely accessible database within a year of publication?

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Invasive Wasp Discovered in Southern California

Invasive Wasp Discovered in Southern California | Plant health | Scoop.it
RIVERSIDE, Calif. – In August 2010, an entomologist at the University of California, Riverside discovered a tiny fairyfly wasp in upstate New York that had never been seen in the United States until then.


Serguei Triapitsyn, the principal museum scientist in the Department of Entomology and the director of the Entomology Research Museum, who made the discovery identified the wasp as Gonatocerus ater by comparing it to wasps from upstate New York and also Europe. The wasp is found wherever Lombardy poplars were located because the wasp' life cycle is associated with a leafhopper host, which prefers these trees for feeding. According to Triapitsyn, the wasp poses no known risk – besides killing leafhopper eggs.

The new was reported also by Science News: Wasp found in upstate New York shows up in Southern California.

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Concepts of plant health – reviewing and challenging the foundations of plant protection - Döring - 2011 - Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library

Concepts of plant health – reviewing and challenging the foundations of plant protection - Döring - 2011 - Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library | Plant health | Scoop.it
RT @PlantSciNews: Concepts of plant health – reviewing and challenging the foundations of plant protection http://t.co/NIOCE0Yr...
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Host-induced gene silencing: a tool for understanding fungal host interaction and for developing novel disease control strategies - NUNES - 2011 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library

Host-induced gene silencing: a tool for understanding fungal host interaction and for developing novel disease control strategies - NUNES - 2011 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online Library | Plant health | Scoop.it

Nunes CC & Dean RA (Molecular Plant Pathology, 2011, BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd): Host-induced gene silencing is discussed as a tool for understanding fungal host interaction and developing disease control strategies.

Recent discoveries regarding small RNAs and the mechanisms of gene silencing are providing new opportunities to explore fungal pathogen–host interactions and potential strategies for novel disease control. Plant pathogenic fungi are a constant and major threat to global food security; they represent the largest group of disease-causing agents on crop plants on the planet. 


Plant–fungus interactions are included in recent studies of invading pathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium verticillioides, Blumeria graminis and Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici. The authors highlight the important general aspects of RNA silencing mechanisms and emphasize recent findings from plant pathogenic fungi, strategies to employ RNA silencing and address important aspects for the development of fungal-derived resistance through the expression of silencing constructs in host plants as a powerful strategy to control fungal disease.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2011.00766.x

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Damaging citrus plant disease confirmed in Texas

The Brownsville Herald (18 Jan 2012): Damaging citrus plant disease was for the first time confirmed in the Rio Grande Valley.

 

The same news were reported by The Monitor and Washington Examiner. A destructive citrus bacterial disease known to occure in crops in Florida has been confirmed in Texas. The citrus greening disease is spread by insect vector - citrus psyllid.  

The Texas Department of Agriculture and the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS have confirmed the first detection in Texas of citrus greening, a destructive plant disease that poses a threat to the state’s citrus industry. The disease was discovered in a tree in a commercial orange grove in San Juan.

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Stopping Striga before it’s started

By Abigail Rumsey: The flowers might look pretty but Striga has affected millions of hectares of crops in Africa.
Striga hermonthica, or witchweed, is the main weed affecting many cereals including rice, maize, sorghum and millet. It is responsible for more crop loss in Africa than any other individual species of weed. Striga is a hemi-parasitic weed; its roots latch onto the roots of its host (e.g. a crop plant such as rice) and take water and nutrients from the host plant.

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How Could Twitter Influence Science (And Why Scientists Are on Board) - Forbes

How Could Twitter Influence Science (And Why Scientists Are on Board) - Forbes | Plant health | Scoop.it

Via @haydn1701: The recent revelation that Twitter and social media can influence science is good news for people who want to understand the broader impacts of a more social world. But does the evidence stack up?....articles that many people tweeted about were 11 times more likely to be highly cited than those who few people tweeted about.

 

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A Rapid, Sensitive Assay for Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 in Plant and Soil Samples Using Magnetic Beads and Real-Time PCR

The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex causes economically significant diseases in many plant families worldwide. Although generally limited to the tropics and subtropics, strains designated race 3 biovar 2 (R3Bv2) cause disease in cooler tropical highlands and temperate regions. Beside real-time PCR new testing methods are presented.

Youngsil Ha et al. (2012) A Rapid, Sensitive Assay for Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 in Plant and Soil Samples Using Magnetic Beads and Real-Time PCR, Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 258-264, February 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-11-0426

Comment: Ralstonia solanacearum is a quarantine pest in Europe, USA and Canada. Its race 3 causes brown rot of potatoes.

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Biology and Sources of Inoculum of Geotrichum candidum Causing Sour Rot of Peach and Nectarine Fruit in California

Geotrichum candidum causes sour rot of fresh-market stone fruit such as peach and nectarine. Since 2001, the incidence of sour rot has increased in California, a semi-arid production area, which is considered atypical for the occurrence of the disease.

Nitidulid beetles and fruit flies were found to play a role in disease transmission.

The study identified sources of inoculum of G. candidum in orchards and packinghouses, and provides information to guide development of disease management.

Yaghmouri et al. (2012) Biology and Sources of Inoculum of Geotrichum candidum Causing Sour Rot of Peach and Nectarine Fruit in California.- Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 204-210, February 2012.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-11-0391

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Virulence of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Isolated from Naturally Infested Pine Forests

Pine wilt disease is one of the most serious epidemic tree diseases in Japan, and resistant pine trees have been developed through a breeding program. To evaluate resistance of resistant families of Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, isolated from the field, and to determine whether differentiation of pathogenicity to resistant pine families appears in the nematode isolates, seedlings of five resistant pine families were inoculated with 25 nematode isolates.

Akiba et al. (2012) Virulence of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Isolated from Naturally Infested Pine Forests to Five Resistant Families of Pinus thunbergii.-

Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 249-252, February 2012.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-10-0910


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Erasmus Mundus – European Master of Science in Nematology

Deadline: 1 February 2012 Open to: top–level students with a University Bachelor degree in Agricultural sciences, Biology, Bio-science engineering or Environmental sciences with proficient knowledge of English...

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Research examines virus infection's differing effects on plants, insects - PhysOrg.com

Research examines virus infection's differing effects on plants, insects - PhysOrg.com | Plant health | Scoop.it

Tyler Sharp: Kansas State University plant pathologist Dorith Rotenberg and two students research why virus infection has differing effects on plants and insects.

 

Tomato spotted wilt virus is classified as a persistently propagative virus, which allows the virus to replicate inside the plant and insect. Thrips spreads the disease to plants by feeding on the leafy surfaces. The virus enters through the digestive tract of the insect and then replicates inside epithelial cells, which absorb nutrients.

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Doctor of Plant Health Program, University of Nebraska

Doctor of Plant Health Program, University of Nebraska | Plant health | Scoop.it

The mission of the Doctor of Plant Health Program in this academic year (2011-12) at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln is to produce plant practitioners with broad expertise and experience across the various disciplines that impact plant health and plant management. These plant practitioners (plant doctors) will integrate from across this expertise to diagnose and solve plant health problems and to develop integrated plant and pest management systems that maximize the system’s economic, environmental, and social sustainability.

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2012 Annual Letter From Bill Gates | Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

2012 Annual Letter From Bill Gates | Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | Plant health | Scoop.it
Read Bill Gates’ 2012 Annual Letter update on the Gates Foundation’s work in health, poverty, and education.


Bill Gates: "We can help poor farmers sustainably increase their productivity so they can feed themselves and their families.
But that will only happen if we prioritize agricultural innovation."

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EPPO News: Tomato Leaf Miner presentations

EPPO News: Tomato Leaf Miner presentations | Plant health | Scoop.it
Tuta absoluta. View the presentations made at the International Symposium in Agadir, Morocco (2011-11-16/18) http://t.co/45eJZp2n...
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New rice variety fights off pests

A new variety of rice (ANMI) resistant to the brown planthopper, blast, bacterial blight and cold stress, has been developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) at the request of the Republic of Korea.

Via Luigi Guarino, Ashesh
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Plant Disease: Potato and Tomato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans: An Overview of Pathology and Resistance Breeding

Plant Disease: Potato and Tomato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans: An Overview of Pathology and Resistance Breeding | Plant health | Scoop.it

Recent achievements in better understanding of the P. infestans pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and the progress made in developing genetic resistance in potato and tomato is summarized bellow.

Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major disease of potato and tomato worldwide and can cause up to 100% yield losses.


The devastating economic impact of this disease intensified the related pathology and genetics research since the occurrence of Irish famine in 1840s, with a side gain of major scientific discoveries. For example, many of the crucial steps involved in LB defense response in host plants have been elucidated through the use of modern cytological and molecular biology techniques. Also, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed differences between oomycetes and pathogenic fungi, which has led to more selective use of chemicals for LB control. Furthermore, the discovery of P. infestans two mating types and the resultant generation of more aggressive lineages by sexual recombination stresses the need for an integrated and sustainable approach to LB control. These measures would include the use of cultural practices, selective fungicide applications, and genetic resistance.

In potato at least a dozen major resistance genes and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for LB resistance have been identified, and most modern cultivars have been bred with one or more resistance genes. In tomato, though most commercial cultivars are susceptible to LB, a few major resistance genes and several QTLs have been identified and several breeding programs around the world are developing breeding lines and commercial cultivars with LB resistance. Most recently, a few fresh-market tomato hybrid cultivars with LB resistance were released by the North Carolina State University Tomato Breeding Program in the United States. There is, however, an insufficient number of potato and tomato cultivars with LB resistance, resulting in continued expensive as well as the hazardous and increasingly ineffective use of chemicals for disease control. In an era when both host plants and P. infestans genomes are sequenced and considerable genomic information is available, it is not unexpected that a more sustainable solution to controlling LB is on the horizon.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Researchers Discover Green Pesticide for Invasive Citrus Pest Princeps demoleus

Researchers Discover Green Pesticide for Invasive Citrus Pest Princeps demoleus | Plant health | Scoop.it

ScienceNewsline; Biology: According to a new study published in the Journal of Economic Entomology (Vol. 104, No. 6, Dec. 2011) by University of Florida researchers (Lewis et al.), a key amino acid essential for human nutrition is also an effective insecticide against caterpillars that threaten the citrus industry. Namely, Southeast Asian citrus-feeding larvae of Princeps (Papilio) demoleus (L.) were recently introduced into the Americas, causing an imminent threat to citrus production and ornamental flora. In the research the human nutrient amino acid methionine, sprayed on plants, showed toxic effects for larvae, therefore may be a candidate environmentally safe biorational pesticide for use against invasive P. demoleus in the Americas.

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Update: Plant Health News (18 Jan 12)

Update: Plant Health News (18 Jan 12) | Plant health | Scoop.it
© Fresh Fruit Portal
Here’s a taste of some of the latest news stories about plant health, including apple troubles in Brazil, strawberries suffering from resistant moulds, and pests hitching a ride in Australia.
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