Plant Genomics
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CGAP: a new comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of ... - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)

CGAP: a new comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of ...
7thSpace Interactive (press release)
Chloroplast is an essential organelle in plants which contains independent genome.
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Total fungus genome could fight tree-killer - Futurity: Research News

Total fungus genome could fight tree-killer - Futurity: Research News | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Total fungus genome could fight tree-killer Futurity: Research News "We hope that the availability of the genome will encourage and speed-up research on this fungus—it's only a matter of time before most the elm trees are gone," says study author...
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BMC Plant Biology | Abstract | Genetic diversity and population structure of Musa accessions in ex situ conservation

Banana cultivars are mostly derived from hybridization between wild diploid subspecies of Musa acuminata (A genome) and M. balbisiana (B genome), and they exhibit various levels of ploidy and genomic constitution.
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Abstract (provisional)Background

Banana cultivars are mostly derived from hybridization between wild diploid subspecies of Musa acuminata (A genome) and M. balbisiana (B genome), and they exhibit various levels of ploidy and genomic constitution. The Embrapa ex situ Musa collection contains over 220 accessions, of which only a few have been genetically characterized. Knowledge regarding the genetic relationships and diversity between modern cultivars and wild relatives would assist in conservation and breeding strategies. Our objectives were to determine the genomic constitution based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions polymorphism and the ploidy of all accessions by flow cytometry and to investigate the population structure of the collection using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci as co-dominant markers based on Structure software, not previously performed in Musa.

Results

From the 221 accessions analyzed by flow cytometry, the correct ploidy was confirmed or established for 212 (95.9%), whereas digestion of the ITS region confirmed the genomic constitution of 209 (94.6%). Neighbor-joining clustering analysis derived from SSR binary data allowed the detection of two major groups, essentially distinguished by the presence or absence of the B genome, while subgroups were formed according to the genomic composition and commercial classification. The co-dominant nature of SSR was explored to analyze the structure of the population based on a Bayesian approach, detecting 21 subpopulations. Most of the subpopulations were in agreement with the clustering analysis.

Conclusions

The data generated by flow cytometry, ITS and SSR supported the hypothesis about the occurrence of homeologue recombination between A and B genomes, leading to discrepancies in the number of sets or portions from each parental genome. These phenomenons have been largely disregarded in the evolution of banana, as the "single-step domestication" hypothesis had long predominated. These findings will have an impact in future breeding approaches. Structure analysis enabled the efficient detection of ancestry of recently developed tetraploid hybrids by breeding programs, and for some triploids. However, for the main commercial subgroups, Structure appeared to be less efficient to detect the ancestry in diploid groups, possibly due to sampling restrictions. The possibility of inferring the membership among accessions to correct the effects of genetic structure opens possibilities for its use in marker-assisted selection by association mapping.

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PLOS Genetics: Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci

PLOS Genetics: Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLOS Genetics is an open-access
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Abstract

The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some—including the infamous ergot alkaloids—have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the epichloae, their protective roles as symbionts, and their associations with the highly speciose and ecologically diverse cool-season grasses.

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Comparative Genomic Paleontology Across Plant Kingdom Reveals The Dynamics Of TE-driven Genome Evolution.

Comparative Genomic Paleontology Across Plant Kingdom Reveals The Dynamics Of TE-driven Genome Evolution. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Long terminal repeat-retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant class of transposable elements in plants. They strongly impact the structure, function and evolution of their host genome and, in particular, their role in genome size variation has been clearly established. However, the dynamics of the process through which LTR-RTs have differentially shaped plant genomes is still poorly understood because of a lack of comparative studies. Using a new robust and automated family classification procedure, we exhaustively characterized the LTR-RTs in 8 plant genomes for which a high quality sequence is available (i.e. Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata, grapevine, soybean, rice, Brachypodium dystachion, sorghum and maize). This allowed us to perform a comparative genome-wide study of the retrotranspositional landscape in these 8 plant lineages from both monocots and dicots. We show that retrotransposition has recurrently occurred in all plant genomes investigated, regardless their size and through bursts, rather than a continuous process. Moreover, in each genome, only one or few LTR-RT families have been active in a recent past and the difference in genome size among the species studied could thus mostly be accounted for by the extent of the latest transpositional burst(s). Following these bursts, LTR-RTs are efficiently eliminated from their host genomes through recombination and deletion, but we show that the removal rate is not lineage-specific. These new findings leads us to propose a new model of TE-driven genome evolution in plants.

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BMC Genomics | Abstract | The genome- and transcriptome-wide analysis of innate immunity in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most serious rice plant pests in Asia. N. lugens causes extensive rice damage by sucking rice phloem sap, which results in stunted plant growth and the transmission of plant viruses.
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Abstract (provisional)Background

The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most serious rice plant pests in Asia. N. lugens causes extensive rice damage by sucking rice phloem sap, which results in stunted plant growth and the transmission of plant viruses. Despite the importance of this insect pest, little is known about the immunological mechanisms occurring in this hemimetabolous insect species.

Results

In this study, we performed a genome- and transcriptome-wide analysis aiming at the immune-related genes. The transcriptome datasets include the N. lugens intestine, the developmental stage, wing formation, and sex-specific expression information that provided useful gene expression sequence data for the genome-wide analysis. As a result, we identified a large number of genes encoding N. lugens pattern recognition proteins, modulation proteins in the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating cascade, immune effectors, and the signal transduction molecules involved in the immune pathways, including the Toll, Immune deficiency (Imd) and Janus kinase signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathways. The genome scale analysis revealed detailed information of the gene structure, distribution and transcription orientations in scaffolds. A comparison of the genome-available hemimetabolous and metabolous insect species indicate the differences in the immune-related gene constitution. We investigated the gene expression profiles with regards to how they responded to bacterial infections and tissue, as well as development and sex expression specificity.

Conclusions

The genome- and transcriptome-wide analysis of immune-related genes including pattern recognition and modulation molecules, immune effectors, and the signal transduction molecules involved in the immune pathways is an important step in determining the overall architecture and functional network of the immune components in N. lugens. Our findings provide the comprehensive gene sequence resource and expression profiles of the immune-related genes of N. lugens, which could facilitate the understanding of the innate immune mechanisms in the hemimetabolous insect species. These data give insight into clarifying the potential functional roles of the immune-related genes involved in the biological processes of development, reproduction, and virus transmission in N. lugens.

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Convergent gene loss following gene and genome duplications creates single-copy families in flowering plants

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Abstract

The importance of gene gain through duplication has long been appreciated. In contrast, the importance of gene loss has only recently attracted attention. Indeed, studies in organisms ranging from plants to worms and humans suggest that duplication of some genes might be better tolerated than that of others. Here we have undertaken a large-scale study to investigate the existence of duplication-resistant genes in the sequenced genomes of 20 flowering plants. We demonstrate that there is a large set of genes that is convergently restored to single-copy status following multiple genome-wide and smaller scale duplication events. We rule out the possibility that such a pattern could be explained by random gene loss only and therefore propose that there is selection pressure to preserve such genes as singletons. This is further substantiated by the observation that angiosperm single-copy genes do not comprise a random fraction of the genome, but instead are often involved in essential housekeeping functions that are highly conserved across all eukaryotes. Furthermore, single-copy genes are generally expressed more highly and in more tissues than non–single-copy genes, and they exhibit higher sequence conservation. Finally, we propose different hypotheses to explain their resistance against duplication.

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Biotechnology for Biofuels | Full text | De novo prediction of the genomic components and capabilities for microbial plant biomass degradation from (meta-)genomes

Understanding the biological mechanisms used by microorganisms for plant biomass degradation is of considerable biotechnological interest.
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AbstractBackground

Understanding the biological mechanisms used by microorganisms for plant biomass degradation is of considerable biotechnological interest. Despite of the growing number of sequenced (meta)genomes of plant biomass-degrading microbes, there is currently no technique for the systematic determination of the genomic components of this process from these data.

Results

We describe a computational method for the discovery of the protein domains and CAZy families involved in microbial plant biomass degradation. Our method furthermore accurately predicts the capability to degrade plant biomass for microbial species from their genome sequences. Application to a large, manually curated data set of microbial degraders and non-degraders identified gene families of enzymes known by physiological and biochemical tests to be implicated in cellulose degradation, such as GH5 and GH6. Additionally, genes of enzymes that degrade other plant polysaccharides, such as hemicellulose, pectins and oligosaccharides, were found, as well as gene families which have not previously been related to the process. For draft genomes reconstructed from a cow rumen metagenome our method predicted Bacteroidetes-affiliated species and a relative to a known plant biomass degrader to be plant biomass degraders. This was supported by the presence of genes encoding enzymatically active glycoside hydrolases in these genomes.

Conclusions

Our results show the potential of the method for generating novel insights into microbial plant biomass degradation from (meta-)genome data, where there is an increasing production of genome assemblages for uncultured microbes.

 

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IJMS | Free Full-Text | Metabolomics as a Tool to Investigate Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Metabolomics as a Tool to Investigate Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Metabolites reflect the integration of gene expression, protein interaction and other different regulatory processes and are therefore closer to the phenotype than mRNA transcripts or proteins alone.
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Abstract: Metabolites reflect the integration of gene expression, protein interaction and other different regulatory processes and are therefore closer to the phenotype than mRNA transcripts or proteins alone. Amongst all –omics technologies, metabolomics is the most transversal and can be applied to different organisms with little or no modifications. It has been successfully applied to the study of molecular phenotypes of plants in response to abiotic stress in order to find particular patterns associated to stress tolerance. These studies have highlighted the essential involvement of primary metabolites: sugars, amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates as direct markers of photosynthetic dysfunction as well as effectors of osmotic readjustment. On the contrary, secondary metabolites are more specific of genera and species and respond to particular stress conditions as antioxidants, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) scavengers, coenzymes, UV and excess radiation screen and also as regulatory molecules. In addition, the induction of secondary metabolites by several abiotic stress conditions could also be an effective mechanism of cross-protection against biotic threats, providing a link between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Moreover, the presence/absence and relative accumulation of certain metabolites along with gene expression data provides accurate markers (mQTL or MWAS) for tolerant crop selection in breeding programs.

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High-resolution metabolic mapping of cell types in plant roots

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Abstract

Metabolite composition offers a powerful tool for understanding gene function and regulatory processes. However, metabolomics studies on multicellular organisms have thus far been performed primarily on whole organisms, organs, or cell lines, losing information about individual cell types within a tissue. With the goal of profiling metabolite content in different cell populations within an organ, we used FACS to dissect GFP-marked cells from Arabidopsis roots for metabolomics analysis. Here, we present the metabolic profiles obtained from five GFP-tagged lines representing core cell types in the root. Fifty metabolites were putatively identified, with the most prominent groups being glucosinolates, phenylpropanoids, and dipeptides, the latter of which is not yet explored in roots. The mRNA expression of enzymes or regulators in the corresponding biosynthetic pathways was compared with the relative metabolite abundance. Positive correlations suggest that the rate-limiting steps in biosynthesis of glucosinolates in the root are oxidative modifications of side chains. The current study presents a work flow for metabolomics analyses of cell-type populations.

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Gene network requirements for regulation of metabolic gene expression to a desired state : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Gene network requirements for regulation of metabolic gene expression to a desired state : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Gene circuits that control metabolism should restore metabolic functions upon environmental changes. Whether gene networks are capable of steering metabolism to optimal states is an open question.
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Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
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The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza.

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De novo transcriptomic analyses for non-model organisms: an evaluation of methods across a multi-species data set - Singhal - 2013 - Molecular Ecology Resources - Wiley Online Library

De novo transcriptomic analyses for non-model organisms: an evaluation of methods across a multi-species data set - Singhal - 2013 - Molecular Ecology Resources - Wiley Online Library | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Interesting reading!! De novo transcriptomic analyses for nonmodel organisms. #MolEcolRes http://t.co/ATeq7NF9ly #bioinformatics #RNAseq
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Whole Genome Sequencing of Wild Rice Reveals the Mechanisms Underlying ... - Science Daily (press release)

Whole Genome Sequencing of Wild Rice Reveals the Mechanisms Underlying ...
Science Daily (press release)
In this study, researchers generated a high-quality reference genome sequence of O.
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BMC Genomics | Abstract | Characterization of expressed sequence tags from developing fibers of Gossypium barbadense and evaluation of insertion-deletion variation in tetraploid cultivated cotton s...

Cotton is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Gossypium barbadense is an important species of cotton because of its extra-long staple fibers with superior luster and silkiness. However, a systematic analysis and utilization of cDNA sequences from G.
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Abstract (provisional)Background

Cotton is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Gossypium barbadense is an important species of cotton because of its extra-long staple fibers with superior luster and silkiness. However, a systematic analysis and utilization of cDNA sequences from G. barbadense fiber development remains understudied.

Results

A total of 21,079 high quality sequences were generated from two non-normalized cDNA libraries prepared by using a mixture of G. barbadense Hai7124 fibers and ovules. After assembly processing, a set of 8,653 unigenes were obtained. Of those, 7,786 were matched to known proteins and 7,316 were assigned to functional categories. The molecular functions of these unigenes were mostly related to binding and catalytic activity, and carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms were major contributors among the subsets of metabolism. Sequences comparison between G. barbadense and G. hirsutum revealed that 8,245 unigenes from G. barbadense were detected the similarity with those released publicly in G. hirsutum, however, the remaining 408 sequences had no hits against G. hirsutum unigenes database. Furthermore, 13,275 putative ESTs InDels loci involved in the orthologous and/or homoeologous differences between/within G. barbadense and G. hirsutum were discovered by in silico analyses, and 2,160 InDel markers were developed by ESTs with more than five insertions or deletions. By gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing verification, 71.11% candidate InDel loci were reconfirmed orthologous and/or homoeologous loci polymorphisms using G. hirsutum acc TM-1 and G. barbadense cv Hai7124. Blastx result showed among 2,160 InDel loci, 81 with significant function similarity with known genes associated with secondary wall synthesis process, indicating the important roles in fiber quality in tetraploid cultivated cotton species.

Conclusion

Sequence comparisons and InDel markers development will lay the groundwork for promoting the identification of genes related to superior agronomic traits, genetic differentiation and comparative genomic studies between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense.

 

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Phylogenetic signal variation in the genomes of Medicago (Fabaceae)

Phylogenetic signal variation in the genomes of Medicago (Fabaceae) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Genome-scale data offer the opportunity to clarify phylogenetic relationships that are difficult to resolve with few loci, but they can also identify genomic regions with evolutionary history distinct from that of the species history. We collected whole-genome sequence data from 29 taxa in the legume genus Medicago, then aligned these sequences to the M. truncatula reference genome to confidently identify 87,596 variable homologous sites. We used this data set to estimate phylogenetic relationships among Medicago species, to investigate the number of sites needed to provide robust phylogenetic estimates, and to identify specific genomic regions supporting topologies in conflict with the genome-wide phylogeny. Our full genomic data set resolves relationships within the genus that were previously intractable. Sub-sampling the data reveals considerable variation in phylogenetic signal and power in smaller subsets of the data. Even when sampling 5,000 sites, no random sample of the data supports a topology identical to that of the genome-wide phylogeny. Phylogenetic relationships estimated from 500-site sliding windows revealed genome regions supporting several alternative species relationships among recently-diverged taxa, consistent with the expected effects of deep coalescence or introgression in the recent history of Medicago.

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PolyCat: A Resource for Genome Categorization of Sequencing Reads From Allopolyploid Organisms

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Abstract

Read mapping is a fundamental part of next-generation genomic research but is complicated by genome duplication in many plants. Categorizing DNA sequence reads into their respective genomes enables current methods to analyze polyploid genomes as if they were diploid. We present PolyCat—a pipeline for mapping and categorizing all types of next-generation sequence data produced from allopolyploid organisms. PolyCat uses GSNAP’s single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-tolerant mapping to minimize the mapping efficiency bias caused by SNPs between genomes. PolyCat then uses SNPs between genomes to categorize reads according to their respective genomes. Bisulfite-treated reads have a significant reduction in nucleotide complexity because nucleotide conversion events are confounded with transition substitutions. PolyCat includes special provisions to properly handle bisulfite-treated data. We demonstrate the functionality of PolyCat on allotetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and create a functional SNP index for efficiently mapping sequence reads to the D-genome sequence of G. raimondii. PolyCat is appropriate for all allopolyploids and all types of next-generation genome analysis, including differential expression (RNA sequencing), differential methylation (bisulfite sequencing), differential DNA-protein binding (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing), and population diversity.

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BMC Genomics | Full text | Genome-wide analysis of NBS-encoding disease resistance genes in Cucumis sativus and phylogenetic study of NBS-encoding genes in Cucurbitaceae crops

Plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins encoded by resistance genes play an important role in the responses of plants to various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes.
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AbstractBackground

Plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins encoded by resistance genes play an important role in the responses of plants to various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of NBS-encoding genes within the whole cucumber genome was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships of NBS-encoding resistance gene homologues (RGHs) belonging to six species in five genera of Cucurbitaceae crops were compared.

Results

Cucumber has relatively few NBS-encoding genes. Nevertheless, cucumber maintains genes belonging to both Toll/interleukine-1 receptor (TIR) and CC (coiled-coil) families. Eight commonly conserved motifs have been established in these two families which support the grouping into TIR and CC families. Moreover, three additional conserved motifs, namely, CNBS-1, CNBS-2 and TNBS-1, have been identified in sequences from CC and TIR families. Analyses of exon/intron configurations revealed that some intron loss or gain events occurred during the structural evolution between the two families. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that gene duplication, sequence divergence, and gene loss were proposed as the major modes of evolution of NBS-encoding genes in Cucurbitaceae species. Compared with NBS-encoding sequences from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, the remaining seven TIR familes of NBS proteins and RGHs from Cucurbitaceae species have been shown to be phylogenetically distinct from the TIR family of NBS-encoding genes in Arabidopsis, except for two subfamilies (TIR4 and TIR9). On the other hand, in the CC-NBS family, they grouped closely with the CC family of NBS-encoding genes in Arabidopsis. Thus, the NBS-encoding genes in Cucurbitaceae crops are shown to be ancient, and NBS-encoding gene expansions (especially the TIR family) may have occurred before the divergence of Cucurbitaceae and Arabidopsis.

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Tapping the Promise of Genomics in Species with Complex, Nonmodel Genomes - Annual Review of Plant Biology, 64(1):

Tapping the Promise of Genomics in Species with Complex, Nonmodel Genomes - Annual Review of Plant Biology, 64(1): | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
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Genomics is enabling a renaissance in all disciplines of plant biology. However, many plant genomes are complex and remain recalcitrant to current genomic technologies. The complexities of these nonmodel plant genomes are attributable to gene and genome duplication, heterozygosity, ploidy, and/or repetitive sequences. Methods are available to simplify the genome and reduce these barriers, including inbreeding and genome reduction, making these species amenable to current sequencing and assembly methods. Some, but not all, of the complexities in nonmodel genomes can be bypassed by sequencing the transcriptome rather than the genome. Additionally, comparative genomics approaches, which leverage phylogenetic relatedness, can aid in the interpretation of complex genomes. Although there are limitations in accessing complex nonmodel plant genomes using current sequencing technologies, genome manipulation and resourceful analyses can allow access to even the most recalcitrant plant genomes.

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Trends in Plant Science - Phylogeny of early land plants: insights from genes and genomes

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Abstract

A large body of evidence from molecular systematic studies has confirmed the charophytic origin of land plants, and clarified monophyly of many lineages in charophytes and land plants. These studies have also identified liverworts as the earliest land plants, and the lycopods as the extant sister group to all other vascular plants. Two traditionally defined groups—bryophytes and pteridophytes—are now recognized as early grades of land plant evolution. However, several problems that complicate the use of sequence data in reconstructing plant phylogeny have become apparent; reconstruction of an accurate land plant phylogeny will require analysis of sequences of multiple genes and genomic structural characters of all three genomes.

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A global approach to analysis and interpretation of metabolic data for plant natural product discovery - Natural Product Reports (RSC Publishing)

Covering: up to 2013Discovering molecular components and their functionality is key to the development of hypotheses concerning the organization and regulation of metabolic networks.
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Discovering molecular components and their functionality is key to the development of hypotheses concerning the organization and regulation of metabolic networks. The iterative experimental testing of such hypotheses is the trajectory that can ultimately enable accurate computational modelling and prediction of metabolic outcomes. This information can be particularly important for understanding the biology of natural products, whose metabolism itself is often only poorly defined. Here, we describe factors that must be in place to optimize the use of metabolomics in predictive biology. A key to achieving this vision is a collection of accurate time-resolved and spatially defined metabolite abundance data and associated metadata. One formidable challenge associated with metabolite profiling is the complexity and analytical limits associated with comprehensively determining the metabolome of an organism. Further, for metabolomics data to be efficiently used by the research community, it must be curated in publicly available metabolomics databases. Such databases require clear, consistent formats, easy access to data and metadata, data download, and accessible computational tools to integrate genome system-scale datasets. Although transcriptomics and proteomics integrate the linear predictive power of the genome, the metabolome represents the nonlinear, final biochemical products of the genome, which results from the intricate system(s) that regulate genome expression. For example, the relationship of metabolomics data to the metabolic network is confounded by redundant connections between metabolites and gene-products. However, connections among metabolites are predictable through the rules of chemistry. Therefore, enhancing the ability to integrate the metabolome with anchor-points in the transcriptome and proteome will enhance the predictive power of genomics data. We detail a public database repository for metabolomics, tools and approaches for statistical analysis of metabolomics data, and methods for integrating these datasets with transcriptomic data to create hypotheses concerning specialized metabolisms that generate the diversity in natural product chemistry. We discuss the importance of close collaborations among biologists, chemists, computer scientists and statisticians throughout the development of such integrated metabolism-centric databases and software.

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Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products | Commisso | Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal

Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products | Commisso | Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products
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Abstract

 

Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions.

However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

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Hierarchical molecular tagging to resolve long continuous sequences by massively parallel sequencing : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Hierarchical molecular tagging to resolve long continuous sequences by massively parallel sequencing : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Here we demonstrate the use of short-read massive sequencing systems to in effect achieve longer read lengths through hierarchical molecular tagging.
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Here we demonstrate the use of short-read massive sequencing systems to in effect achieve longer read lengths through hierarchical molecular tagging. We show how indexed and PCR-amplified targeted libraries are degraded, sub-sampled and arrested at timed intervals to achieve pools of differing average length, each of which is indexed with a new tag. By this process, indices of sample origin, molecular origin, and degree of degradation is incorporated in order to achieve a nested hierarchical structure, later to be utilized in the data processing to order the reads over a longer distance than the sequencing system originally allows. With this protocol we show how continuous regions beyond 3000 bp can be decoded by an Illumina sequencing system, and we illustrate the potential applications by calling variants of the lambda genome, analysing TP53 in cancer cell lines, and targeting a variable canine mitochondrial region.

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Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza.

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Proteomic Profiling and Analytical Chemistry, 1st Edition | Pawel Ciborowski, Jerzy Silberring | ISBN 9780444593788

Proteomic Profiling and Analytical Chemistry, 1st Edition | Pawel Ciborowski, Jerzy Silberring | ISBN 9780444593788 | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Elsevier Store: Proteomic Profiling and Analytical Chemistry, 1st Edition from Pawel Ciborowski, Jerzy Silberring. ISBN-9780444593788, Printbook , Release Date: 2013 (New book!
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