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Discovery and functional analysis of monoter... [Methods Enzymol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

Numerous difficulties have been associated with forward genetic approaches to identify, and functionally characterize genes involved in the biosynthesis, regulation, and transport of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs). While the identification of certain classes of genes associated with MIA pathways has facilitated the use of homology-based approaches to clone other genes catalyzing similar reactions in other parts of the pathway, this has not greatly speeded up the pace of gene discovery for the diversity of reactions involved. Compounding this problem has been the lack of knowledge or even availability of certain MIA intermediates that would be required to establish a novel enzyme reaction to functionally identify a biosynthetic step or the candidate gene product involved. The advent of inexpensive sequencing technologies for transcriptome and genome sequencing, combined with proteomics and metabolomics, is now revolutionizing the pace of gene discovery associated with MIA pathways and their regulation. The discovery process uses large databases of genes, proteins, and metabolites from an ever-expanding list of nonmodel plant species competent to produce and accumulate MIAs. Comparative bioinformatics between species, together with gene expression analysis of particular tissue, cell, and developmental types, is helping to identify target genes that can then be investigated for their possible role in an MIA pathway by virus-induced gene silencing. Successful silencing not only confirms the involvement of the candidate gene but also allows identification of the pathway intermediate involved. In many circumstances, the pathway intermediate can be isolated for use as a substrate in order to confirm gene function in heterologous bacterial, yeast, or plant expression systems.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Genotyping-by-Sequencing in Plants

Abstract: The advent of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies has led to the development of rapid genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection applications in various plant species. Recent improvements in sequencing throughput combined with an overall decrease in costs per gigabase of sequence is allowing NGS to be applied to not only the evaluation of small subsets of parental inbred lines, but also the mapping and characterization of traits of interest in much larger populations. Such an approach, where sequences are used simultaneously to detect and score SNPs, therefore bypassing the entire marker assay development stage, is known as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). This review will summarize the current state of GBS in plants and the promises it holds as a genome-wide genotyping application.

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Transcriptomic insights into mechanisms of symbioti... [Mol Ecol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

Intraspecific genetic variation can affect community structure and ecosystem processes (Bolnick et al. 2011). It can also influence phenotypic expression by genotypes within other species to produce genotype-by-genotype (G × G) interaction (Falconer & Mackay 1996). Evolution of one species drives correlated evolution of others when it causes G × G for fitness (Thompson 2005). However, the mechanisms by which species interact also influence evolutionary outcomes (Kummel & Salant 2006; Golubski & Klausmeier 2010; Akçay & Simms 2011; Grman et al. 2012). To identify genes and putative functional mechanisms underlying G × G interactions, Heath et al. (2012) analysed natural variation in the symbiotic transcriptome of the mutualistic nutritional symbiosis between a legume host Medicago truncatula and the facultative endosymbiotic rhizobium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Using twelve microarrays, the authors simultaneously measured host and symbiont gene expression in root nodules from four factorial pairings of host and symbiont genotypes that produced G × G in host fitness (Fig. 1, upper panel). Rhizobium gene expression was influenced by rhizobium and plant genotype and the G × G interaction (Fig. 1, lower panel), whereas plant gene expression was influenced primarily by plant genotype. The authors identified rhizobium genes that might contribute to G × G in host plant fitness. Heath et al. (2012) have moved beyond the constraints of single organism analysis towards a more realistic understanding of plants and bacteria as organisms inextricably linked with symbioses that affect even basic patterns of gene expression.

© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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Comparative Analysis of Tandem Repeats from Hundreds of Species Reveals Unique Insights into Centromere Evolution

Centromeres are essential for chromosome segregation, yet their DNA sequences evolve rapidly. In most animals and plants that have been studied, centromeres contain megabase-scale arrays of tandem repeats. Despite their importance, very little is known about the degree to which centromere tandem repeats share common properties between different species across different phyla. We used bioinformatic methods to identify high-copy tandem repeats from 282 species using publicly available genomic sequence and our own data. The assumption that the most abundant tandem repeat is the centromere DNA was true for most species whose centromeres have been previously characterized, suggesting this is a general property of genomes. Our methods are compatible with all current sequencing technologies. Long Pacific Biosciences sequence reads allowed us to find tandem repeat monomers up to 1,419 bp. High-copy centromere tandem repeats were found in almost all animal and plant genomes, but repeat monomers were highly variable in sequence composition and in length. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of sequence homology showed little evidence of sequence conservation beyond ~50 million years of divergence. We find that despite an overall lack of sequence conservation, centromere tandem repeats from diverse species showed similar modes of evolution, including the appearance of higher order repeat structures in which several polymorphic monomers make up a larger repeating unit. While centromere position in most eukaryotes is epigenetically determined, our results indicate that tandem repeats are highly prevalent at centromeres of both animals and plants. This suggests a functional role for such repeats, perhaps in promoting concerted evolution of centromere DNA across chromosomes.

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Sequencing fungus genome: A nonpareil achievement - Financial Express Bangladesh

Sequencing fungus genome: A nonpareil achievement - Financial Express Bangladesh | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Sequencing fungus genome: A nonpareil achievementFinancial Express BangladeshHowever, the benefit of the mapping of the fungus' building block will cover 500 plants in total because all such plants are attacked by this fungus.
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Why Assembling Plant Genome Sequences Is So Challenging

Abstract:

In spite of the biological and economic importance of plants, relatively few plant species have been sequenced. Only the genome sequence of plants with relatively small genomes, most of them angiosperms, in particular eudicots, has been determined. The arrival of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed the rapid and efficient development of new genomic resources for non-model or orphan plant species. But the sequencing pace of plants is far from that of animals and microorganisms. This review focuses on the typical challenges of plant genomes that can explain why plant genomics is less developed than animal genomics. Explanations about the impact of some confounding factors emerging from the nature of plant genomes are given. As a result of these challenges and confounding factors, the correct assembly and annotation of plant genomes is hindered, genome drafts are produced, and advances in plant genomics are delayed.

Keywords:

plant sequencing; NGS; complexity; repeats; assemblers; polyploidy; bioinformatics

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PLOS ONE: Whole Genome Duplication Affects Evolvability of Flowering Time in an Autotetraploid Plant

PLOS ONE: Whole Genome Duplication Affects Evolvability of Flowering Time in an Autotetraploid Plant | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Whole genome duplications have occurred recurrently throughout the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. The resulting genetic and phenotypic changes can influence physiological and ecological responses to the environment; however, the impact of genome copy number on evolvability has rarely been examined experimentally. Here, we evaluate the effect of genome duplication on the ability to respond to selection for early flowering time in lines drawn from naturally occurring diploid and autotetraploid populations of the plant Chamerion angustifolium (fireweed). We contrast this with the result of four generations of selection on synthesized neoautotetraploids, whose genic variability is similar to diploids but genome copy number is similar to autotetraploids. In addition, we examine correlated responses to selection in all three groups. Diploid and both extant tetraploid and neoautotetraploid lines responded to selection with significant reductions in time to flowering. Evolvability, measured as realized heritability, was significantly lower in extant tetraploids ( = 0.31) than diploids ( = 0.40). Neotetraploids exhibited the highest evolutionary response ( = 0.55). The rapid shift in flowering time in neotetraploids was associated with an increase in phenotypic variability across generations, but not with change in genome size or phenotypic correlations among traits. Our results suggest that whole genome duplications, without hybridization, may initially alter evolutionary rate, and that the dynamic nature of neoautopolyploids may contribute to the prevalence of polyploidy throughout eukaryotes.

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Pollen cells keep memory to control jumping genes

Pollen cells keep memory to control jumping genes | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Using the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, Jörg Becker, José Feijó and their team, at the IGC, and Robert Martienssen and colleagues, at CSHL, analysed the genome of pollen grains and their precursor cells, the ...
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Chinese scientists successfully crack the genome of diploid cotton

Chinese scientists successfully crack the genome of diploid cotton | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Through the phylogenetic analysis on G. raimondii and eight other sequenced plant genomes, they found that the cotton, and probably Theobroma cacao, were the only sequenced plant species that possess an authentic ...
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Breakdown of Phylogenetic Signal: A Survey of Microsatellite Densities in 454 Shotgun Sequences from 154 Non Model Eukaryote Species

Breakdown of Phylogenetic Signal: A Survey of Microsatellite Densities in 454 Shotgun Sequences from 154 Non Model Eukaryote Species | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta) to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages.

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Plant B Vitamin Pathways and their Compartmentation: a Guide for the Perplexed

Plant B Vitamin Pathways and their Compartmentation: a Guide for the Perplexed | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

The B vitamins and the cofactors derived from them are essential for life. B vitamin synthesis in plants is consequently as crucial to plants themselves as it is to humans and animals, whose B vitamin nutrition depends largely on plants. The synthesis and salvage pathways for the seven plant B vitamins are now broadly known, but certain enzymes and many transporters have yet to be identified, and the subcellular locations of various reactions are unclear. Although very substantial, what is not known about plant B vitamin pathways is regrettably difficult to discern from the literature or from biochemical pathway databases. Nor do databases accurately represent all that is known about B vitamin pathways—above all their compartmentation—because the facts are scattered throughout the literature, and thus hard to piece together. These problems (i) deter discoveries because newcomers to B vitamins cannot see which mysteries still need solving; and (ii) impede metabolic reconstruction and modelling of B vitamin pathways because genes for reactions or transport steps are missing. This review therefore takes a fresh approach to capture current knowledge of B vitamin pathways in plants. The synthesis pathways, key salvage routes, and their subcellular compartmentation are surveyed in depth, and encoded in the SEED database (http://pubseed.theseed.org/seedviewer.cgi?page=PlantGateway) for Arabidopsis and maize. The review itself and the encoded pathways specifically identify enigmatic or missing reactions, enzymes, and transporters. The SEED-encoded B vitamin pathway collection is a publicly available, expertly curated, one-stop resource for metabolic reconstruction and modeling.

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Transcriptome-scale homoeolog-specific transcript assemblies of bread wheat

Transcriptome-scale homoeolog-specific transcript assemblies of bread wheat - up-to-the-minute news and headlines. 7thSpace is a online portal covering topics such as Family, Business, Entertainment, Headlines, Recipes and more.
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High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)

High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome7thSpace Interactive (press release)Results: The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method.
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Transcriptomic analysis of the oleaginous microalga Neochloris oleoabundans reveals metabolic insights into triacylglyceride accumulation

Abstract (provisional)

Background

The lack of sequenced genomes for oleaginous microalgae limits our understanding of the mechanisms these organisms utilize to become enriched in triglycerides. Here we report the de novo transcriptome assembly and quantitative gene expression analysis of the oleaginous microalga Neochloris oleoabundans, with a focus on the complex interaction of pathways associated with the production of the triacylglycerol (TAG) biofuel precursor.

Results

After growth under nitrogen replete and nitrogen limiting conditions, we quantified the cellular content of major biomolecules including total lipids, triacylglycerides, starch, protein, and chlorophyll. Transcribed genes were sequenced, the transcriptome was assembled de novo, and the expression of major functional categories, relevant pathways, and important genes was quantified through the mapping of reads to the transcriptome. Over 87 million, 77 base pair high quality reads were produced on the Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. Metabolite measurements supported by genes and pathway expression results indicated that under the nitrogen-limiting condition, carbon is partitioned toward triglyceride production, which increased fivefold over the nitrogen-replete control. In addition to the observed overexpression of the fatty acid synthesis pathway, TAG production during nitrogen limitation was bolstered by repression of the beta-oxidation pathway, up-regulation of genes encoding for the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex which funnels acetyl-CoA to lipid biosynthesis, activation of the pentose phosphate pathway to supply reducing equivalents to inorganic nitrogen assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis, and the up-regulation of lipases-- presumably to reconstruct cell membranes in order to supply additional fatty acids for TAG biosynthesis.

Conclusions

Our quantitative transcriptome study reveals a broad overview of how nitrogen stress results in excess TAG production in N. oleoabundans, and provides a variety of genetic engineering targets and strategies for focused efforts to improve the production rate and cellular content of biofuel precursors in oleaginous microalgae.

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PLOS ONE: Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa

PLOS ONE: Exploiting the Combination of Natural and Genetically Engineered Resistance to Cassava Mosaic and Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Impacting Cassava Production in Africa | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are currently two major viral diseases that severely reduce cassava production in large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural resistance has so far only been reported for CMD in cassava. CBSD is caused by two virus species, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). A sequence of the CBSV coat protein (CP) highly conserved between the two virus species was used to demonstrate that a CBSV-CP hairpin construct sufficed to generate immunity against both viral species in the cassava model cultivar (cv. 60444). Most of the transgenic lines showed high levels of resistance under increasing viral loads using a stringent top-grafting method of inoculation. No viral replication was observed in the resistant transgenic lines and they remained free of typical CBSD root symptoms 7 month post-infection. To generate transgenic cassava lines combining resistance to both CBSD and CMD the hairpin construct was transferred to a CMD-resistant farmer-preferred Nigerian landrace TME 7 (Oko-Iyawo). An adapted protocol allowed the efficient Agrobacterium-based transformation of TME 7 and the regeneration of transgenic lines with high levels of CBSV-CP hairpin-derived small RNAs. All transgenic TME 7 lines were immune to both CBSV and UCBSV infections. Further evaluation of the transgenic TME 7 lines revealed that CBSD resistance was maintained when plants were co-inoculated with East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), a geminivirus causing CMD. The innovative combination of natural and engineered virus resistance in farmer-preferred landraces will be particularly important to reducing the increasing impact of cassava viral diseases in Africa.

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Reconstruction and analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model for Scheffersomyces stipitis

Abstract

Background

Fermentation of xylose, the major component in hemicellulose, is essential for economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. The yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis (formerly known as Pichia stipitis) has the highest known native capacity for xylose fermentation and possesses several genes for lignocellulose bioconversion in its genome. Understanding the metabolism of this yeast at a global scale, by reconstructing the genome scale metabolic model, is essential for manipulating its metabolic capabilities and for successful transfer of its capabilities to other industrial microbes.

Results

We present a genome-scale metabolic model for Scheffersomyces stipitis, a native xylose utilizing yeast. The model was reconstructed based on genome sequence annotation, detailed experimental investigation and known yeast physiology. Macromolecular composition of Scheffersomyces stipitis biomass was estimated experimentally and its ability to grow on different carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus sources was determined by phenotype microarrays. The compartmentalized model, developed based on an iterative procedure, accounted for 814 genes, 1371 reactions, and 971 metabolites. In silico computed growth rates were compared with high-throughput phenotyping data and the model could predict the qualitative outcomes in 74% of substrates investigated. Model simulations were used to identify the biosynthetic requirements for anaerobic growth of Scheffersomyces stipitis on glucose and the results were validated with published literature. The bottlenecks in Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolic network for xylose uptake and nucleotide cofactor recycling were identified by in silico flux variability analysis. The scope of the model in enhancing the mechanistic understanding of microbial metabolism is demonstrated by identifying a mechanism for mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation.

Conclusion

The genome-scale metabolic model developed for Scheffersomyces stipitis successfully predicted substrate utilization and anaerobic growth requirements. Useful insights were drawn on xylose metabolism, cofactor recycling and mechanism of mitochondrial respiration from model simulations. These insights can be applied for efficient xylose utilization and cofactor recycling in other industrial microorganisms. The developed model forms a basis for rational analysis and design of Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolic network for the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

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Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

Background

Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles.

Results

We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery.

Conclusion

The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated HSPs, especially small HSPs, antioxidant enzymes (i.e., ascorbate peroxidase), and galactinol synthase may be important to thermotolerance of grape. HSF30 may be a key regulator for heat stress and recovery, while HSF7 and HSF1 may only be specific to recovery. The identification of heat stress or recovery responsive genes in this study provides novel insights into the molecular basis for heat tolerance in grape leaves.

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Computational analysis and characterization of UCE-like elements (ULEs) in plant genomes

Ultraconserved elements (UCEs), stretches of DNA that are identical between distantly related species, are enigmatic genomic features whose function is not well understood. First identified and characterized in mammals, UCEs have been proposed to play important roles in gene regulation, RNA processing, and maintaining genome integrity. However, all of these functions can tolerate some sequence variation, not explaining their ultraconserved and ultraselected nature. We investigated whether there are highly conserved DNA elements without genic function in distantly related plant genomes. We compared the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Vitis vinifera; species that diverged ~115 Mya. We identified 36 highly conserved elements with at least 85% similarity that are longer than 55 bp. Interestingly, these elements exhibit properties similar to mammalian UCEs, such that we named them UCE-like Elements (ULEs). ULEs are located in intergenic or intronic regions and are depleted from segmental duplications. Like UCEs, ULEs are under strong purifying selection, suggesting a functional role for these elements. As their mammalian counterparts, ULEs show a sharp drop of A+T content at their borders and are enriched close to genes encoding transcription factors and genes involved in development, the latter showing preferential expression in undifferentiated tissues. By comparing the genomes of Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa, species that diverged ~50 Mya, we identified a different set of ULEs with similar properties in monocots. The identification of ULEs in plant genomes offers new opportunities to study their possible roles in genome function, integrity, and regulation.

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Whole transcriptome analysis of the silicon response of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

Background

Silicon plays important biological roles, but the mechanisms of cellular responses to silicon are poorly understood. We report the first analysis of cell cycle arrest and recovery from silicon starvation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana using whole genome microarrays.

Results

Three known responses to silicon were examined, 1) silicified cell wall synthesis, 2) recovery from silicon starvation, and 3) co-regulation with silicon transporter (SIT) genes. In terms of diatom cell wall formation, thus far only cell surface proteins and proteins tightly associated with silica have been characterized. Our analysis has identified new genes potentially involved in silica formation, and other genes potentially involved in signaling, trafficking, protein degradation, glycosylation and transport, which provides a larger-scale picture of the processes involved. During silicon starvation, an overrepresentation of transcription and translation related genes were up-regulated, indicating that T. pseudonana is poised to rapidly recover from silicon starvation and resume cell cycle progression upon silicon replenishment. This is in contrast to other types of limitation, and provides the first molecular data explaining the well-established environmental response of diatoms to grow as blooms and to out-compete other classes of microalgae for growth. Comparison of our data with a previous diatom cell cycle analysis indicates that assignment of the cell cycle specific stage of particular cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases should be re-evaluated. Finally, genes co-varying in expression with the SITs enabled identification of a new class of diatom-specific proteins containing a unique domain, and a putative silicon efflux protein.

Conclusions

Analysis of the T. pseudonana microarray data has provided a wealth of new genes to investigate previously uncharacterized cellular phenomenon related to silicon metabolism, silicon's interaction with cellular components, and environmental responses to silicon.

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Proteomic analysis of rice leaves during drought ... [Proteomics. 2002] - PubMed - NCBI

Three-week old plants of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv CT9993 and cv IR62266) developed gradual water stress over 23 days of transpiration without watering, during which period the mid-day leaf water potential declined to approximately -2.4 MPa, compared with approximately -1.0 MPa in well-watered controls. More than 1000 protein spots that were detected in leaf extracts by proteomic analysis showed reproducible abundance within replications. Of these proteins, 42 spots showed a significant change in abundance under stress, with 27 of them exhibiting a different response pattern in the two cultivars. However, only one protein (chloroplast Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase) changed significantly in opposite directions in the two cultivars in response to drought. The most common difference was for proteins to be up-regulated by drought in CT9993 and unaffected in IR62266; or down-regulated by drought in IR62266 and unaffected in CT9993. By 10 days after rewatering, all proteins had returned completely or largely to the abundance of the well-watered control. Mass spectrometry helped to identify 16 of the drought-responsive proteins, including an actin depolymerizing factor, which was one of three proteins detectable under stress in both cultivars but undetectable in well-watered plants or in plants 10 days after rewatering. The most abundant protein up-regulated by drought in CT9993 and IR62266 was identified only after cloning of the corresponding cDNA. It was found to be an S-like RNase homologue but it lacked the two active site histidines required for RNase activity. Four novel drought-responsive mechanisms were revealed by this work: up-regulation of S-like RNase homologue, actin depolymerizing factor and rubisco activase, and down-regulation of isoflavone reductase-like protein.
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Proteomic analysis of rice leaf, stem and root ti... [Proteomics. 2006] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Transcriptome-scale homoeolog-specific transcript assemblies of bread wheat

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SHARSHERET, Israel: A Breakthrough In Agricultural Biotechnology –Trait Delivery Innovator Morflora Accelerates Gene Delivery Process in Seeds | Business Wire | Rock Hill Herald Online

SHARSHERET, Israel: A Breakthrough In Agricultural Biotechnology –Trait Delivery Innovator Morflora Accelerates Gene Delivery Process in Seeds | Business Wire | Rock Hill Herald Online | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Morflora ( www.morflora.com ), focused on innovative non-transgenic trait delivery technology for plant protection reports today that its TraitUP™ platform has been successfully used to deliver complex genetic material into seeds, providing...
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