Plant Genomics
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Polyploids Exhibit Higher Potassium Uptake and Salinity Tolerance in Arabidopsis

Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Genome duplication (or polyploidization) has occurred throughout plant evolutionary history and is thought to have driven the adaptive radiation of plants. We found that the cytotype of the root, and not the genotype, determined the majority of heritable natural variation in the concentration of leaf potassium (K) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Autopolyploidy also provided resistance to salinity and may represent an adaptive outcome of the enhanced K accumulation of plants with higher ploidy.

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Transcriptome profiling of peanut gynophores revealed global reprogramming of gene expression during early pod development in darkness

After the zygote divides few times, the development of peanut pre-globular embryo and fruit is arrested under white or red light. Embryo development could be resumed in dark condition after gynophore is buried in soil.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

After the zygote divides few times, the development of peanut pre-globular embryo and fruit is arrested under white or red light. Embryo development could be resumed in dark condition after gynophore is buried in soil. It is interesting to study the mechanisms of gynophore development and pod formation in peanut.

Results

In this study, transcriptome analysis of peanut gynophore was performed using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 to understand the mechanisms of geocarpy. More than 13 million short sequences were assembled into 72527 unigenes with average size of 394 bp. A large number of genes that were not identified previously in peanut EST projects were identified in this study, including most genes involved in plant circadian rhythm, intra-cellular transportation, plant spliceosome, eukaryotes basal transcription factors, genes encoding ribosomal proteins, brassinosteriod biosynthesis, light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and TCA cycle. RNA-seq based gene expression profiling results showed that before and after gynophore soil penetration, the transcriptional level of a large number of genes changed significantly. Genes encoding key enzymes for hormone metabolism, signaling, photosynthesis, light signaling, cell division and growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism as well as genes involved in stress responses were high lighted.

Conclusions

Transcriptome analysis of peanut gynophore generated a large number of unigenes which provide useful information for gene cloning and expression study. Digital gene expression study suggested that gynophores experience global changes and reprogram from light to dark grown condition to resume embryo and fruit development.

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Construction of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory networks in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa)

The root systems play essential roles for plants to anchorage to the soil, and to exploit the mineral and water resources.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Background

The root systems play essential roles for plants to anchorage to the soil, and to exploit the mineral and water resources. The molecular mechanisms underlying root development have been extensively studied to improve root system architecture, especially for the crops. Several microRNA (miRNA) families have been demonstrated to be involved in plant root development. However, whether the other small RNA (sRNA) species, which occupy a dominant portion of the plant endogenous sRNA population, possess potential roles in root development remains unclear.

Results

In this study, by using sRNA high-throughput sequencing data, we made a comparison of the sRNA accumulation levels between the rice root tips and the whole roots. The sRNAs highly accumulated in the root tips and in the whole roots were extracted respectively. After Argonaute 1 (AGO1) enrichment analysis, the sRNAs with great potential of performing target cleavages were included for target prediction and degradome sequencing data-based validation. As a result, lists of the targets regulated by the AGO1-enriched sRNAs were obtained for both the root tips and the whole roots. Further evidences were identified from microarray data of the target genes to support some of the sRNA---target interactions. Specifically, the expression patterns of certain target genes in the root tips and the whole roots were contrary to those of the regulating sRNAs. Besides, several targets were indicated to play important roles in root development based on literature mining.

Conclusions

Taken together, the regulatory networks mediated by the sRNAs highly accumulated in the root tips or in the whole roots could advance our current understanding of the sRNA-involved molecular mechanisms underlying rice root development. And, the sRNA---target lists could serve as the basis for further functional investigations.

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Reconstruction and Validation of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa Using FARM

Reconstruction and Validation of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa Using FARM | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLOS Computational Biology is an open-access
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa played a central role in the development of twentieth-century genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology, and continues to serve as a model organism for eukaryotic biology. Here, we have reconstructed a genome-scale model of its metabolism. This model consists of 836 metabolic genes, 257 pathways, 6 cellular compartments, and is supported by extensive manual curation of 491 literature citations. To aid our reconstruction, we developed three optimization-based algorithms, which together comprise Fast Automated Reconstruction of Metabolism (FARM). These algorithms are: LInear MEtabolite Dilution Flux Balance Analysis (limed-FBA), which predicts flux while linearly accounting for metabolite dilution; One-step functional Pruning (OnePrune), which removes blocked reactions with a single compact linear program; and Consistent Reproduction Of growth/no-growth Phenotype (CROP), which reconciles differences between in silico and experimental gene essentiality faster than previous approaches. Against an independent test set of more than 300 essential/non-essential genes that were not used to train the model, the model displays 93% sensitivity and specificity. We also used the model to simulate the biochemical genetics experiments originally performed on Neurospora by comprehensively predicting nutrient rescue of essential genes and synthetic lethal interactions, and we provide detailed pathway-based mechanistic explanations of our predictions. Our model provides a reliable computational framework for the integration and interpretation of ongoing experimental efforts in Neurospora, and we anticipate that our methods will substantially reduce the manual effort required to develop high-quality genome-scale metabolic models for other organisms.

 
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De novo transcript sequence reconstruction from RNA-seq using the Trinity platform for reference generation and analysis

De novo transcript sequence reconstruction from RNA-seq using the Trinity platform for reference generation and analysis | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

De novo assembly of RNA-seq data enables researchers to study transcriptomes without the need for a genome sequence; this approach can be usefully applied, for instance, in research on 'non-model organisms' of ecological and evolutionary importance, cancer samples or the microbiome. In this protocol we describe the use of the Trinity platform for de novo transcriptome assembly from RNA-seq data in non-model organisms. We also present Trinity-supported companion utilities for downstream applications, including RSEM for transcript abundance estimation, R/Bioconductor packages for identifying differentially expressed transcripts across samples and approaches to identify protein-coding genes. In the procedure, we provide a workflow for genome-independent transcriptome analysis leveraging the Trinity platform. The software, documentation and demonstrations are freely available from http://trinityrnaseq.sourceforge.net. The run time of this protocol is highly dependent on the size and complexity of data to be analyzed. The example data set analyzed in the procedure detailed herein can be processed in less than 5 h.

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Identification of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway proteins in marine diatoms using comparative genomics

The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway plays an essential role in signal transmission and response to external stimuli in mammalian cells.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway plays an essential role in signal transmission and response to external stimuli in mammalian cells. Protein components of this pathway have been characterized in plants and simpler eukaryotes such as yeast, but their presence and role in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes have not been determined. We use a comparative genomics approach using whole genome sequences and gene expression libraries of four diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Fragilariopsis cylindrus) to search for evidence of GPCR signaling pathway proteins that share sequence conservation to known GPCR pathway proteins.

Results

The majority of the core components of GPCR signaling were well conserved in all four diatoms, with protein sequence similarity to GPCRs, human G protein alpha- and beta-subunits and downstream effectors. There was evidence for the Ggamma-subunit and thus a full heterotrimeric G protein only in T. pseudonana. Phylogenetic analysis of putative diatom GPCRs indicated similarity but deep divergence to the class C GPCRs, with branches basal to the GABAB receptor subfamily. The extracellular and intracellular regions of these putative diatom GPCR sequences exhibited large variation in sequence length, and seven of these sequences contained the necessary ligand binding domain for class C GPCR activation. Transcriptional data indicated that a number of the putative GPCR sequences are expressed in diatoms under various stress conditions in culture, and that many of the GPCR-activated signaling proteins, including the G protein, are also expressed.

Conclusions

The presence of sequences in all four diatoms that code for the proteins required for a functional mammalian GPCR pathway highlights the highly conserved nature of this pathway and suggests a complex signaling machinery related to environmental perception and response in these unicellular organisms. The lack of evidence for some GPCR pathway proteins in one or more of the diatoms, such as the Ggamma-subunit, may be due to differences in genome completeness and genome coverage for the four diatoms. The high divergence of putative diatom GPCR sequences to known class C GPCRs suggests these sequences may represent another, potentially ancestral, subfamily of class C GPCRs.

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Reannotation and extended community resources for the genome of the non-seed plant Physcomitrella patens provide insights into the evolution of plant gene structures and f...

The moss Physcomitrella patens as a model species provides an important reference for early-diverging lineages of plants and the release of the genome in 2008 opened the doors to genome-wide studies.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

The moss Physcomitrella patens as a model species provides an important reference for early-diverging lineages of plants and the release of the genome in 2008 opened the doors to genome-wide studies. The usability of a reference genome greatly depends on the quality of the annotation and the availability of centralized community resources. Therefore, in the light of accumulating evidence for missing genes, fragmentary gene structures, false annotations and a low rate of functional annotations on the original release, we decided to improve the moss genome annotation.

Results

Here, we report the complete moss genome re-annotation (designated V1.6) incorporating the increased transcript availability from a multitude of developmental stages and tissue types. We demonstrate the utility of the improved P. patens genome annotation for comparative genomics and new extensions to the cosmoss.org resource as a central repository for this plant "flagship" genome. The structural annotation of 32,275 protein-coding genes results in 8387 additional loci including 1456 loci with known protein domains or homologs in Plantae. This is the first release to include information on transcript isoforms, suggesting alternative splicing events for at least 10.8% of the loci. Furthermore, this release now also provides information on non-protein-coding loci. Functional annotations were improved regarding quality and coverage, resulting in 58% annotated loci (previously: 41%) that comprise also 7200 additional loci with GO annotations. Access and manual curation of the functional and structural genome annotation is provided via the www.cosmoss.org model organism database.

Conclusions

Comparative analysis of gene structure evolution along the green plant lineage provides novel insights, such as a comparatively high number of loci with 5'-UTR introns in the moss. Comparative analysis of functional annotations reveals expansions of moss house-keeping and metabolic genes and further possibly adaptive, lineage-specific expansions and gains including at least 13% orphan genes.

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Genome Survey Sequencing and Genetic Background Characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) Based on Next-Generation Sequencing

Genome Survey Sequencing and Genetic Background Characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) Based on Next-Generation Sequencing | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has a high economic value and is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Despite it is economic importance, it has remained largely unstudied at the genomic level. In this study, we conducted a genome survey of Gp. lemaneiformis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In total, 18.70 Gb of high-quality sequence data with an estimated genome size of 97 Mb were obtained by HiSeq 2000 sequencing for Gp. lemaneiformis. These reads were assembled into 160,390 contigs with a N50 length of 3.64 kb, which were further assembled into 125,685 scaffolds with a total length of 81.17 Mb. Genome analysis predicted 3490 genes and a GC% content of 48%.

The identified genes have an average transcript length of 1,429 bp, an average coding sequence size of 1,369 bp, 1.36 exons per gene, exon length of 1,008 bp, and intron length of 191 bp. From the initial assembled scaffold, transposable elements constituted 54.64% (44.35 Mb) of the genome, and 7737 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Among these SSRs, the trinucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (up to 73.20% of total SSRs), followed by the di- (17.41%), tetra- (5.49%), hexa- (2.90%), and penta- (1.00%) nucleotide repeat type. These characteristics suggest that Gp. lemaneiformis is a model organism for genetic study. This is the first report of genome-wide characterization within this taxon.

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LifeMap Discovery™: The Embryonic Development, Stem Cells, and Regenerative Medicine Research Portal

LifeMap Discovery™: The Embryonic Development, Stem Cells, and Regenerative Medicine Research Portal | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Abstract

LifeMap Discovery™ provides investigators with an integrated database of embryonic development, stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The hand-curated reconstruction of cell ontology with stem cell biology; including molecular, cellular, anatomical and disease-related information, provides efficient and easy-to-use, searchable research tools. The database collates in vivo and in vitro gene expression and guides translation from in vitro data to the clinical utility, and thus can be utilized as a powerful tool for research and discovery in stem cell biology, developmental biology, disease mechanisms and therapeutic discovery. LifeMap Discovery is freely available to academic nonprofit institutions at http://discovery.lifemapsc.com

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Development of microsatellite markers by transcriptome sequencing in two species of Amorphophallus (Araceae)

Amorphophallus is a genus of perennial plants widely distributed in the tropics or subtropics of West Africa and South Asia.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Amorphophallus is a genus of perennial plants widely distributed in the tropics or subtropics of West Africa and South Asia. Its corms contain a high level of water-soluble glucomannan; therefore, it has long been used as a medicinal herb and food source. Genetic studies of Amorphophallus have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers. A large number of molecular markers are required for genetic diversity study and improving disease resistance in Amorphophallus. Here, we report large scale of transcriptome sequencing of two species: Amorphophallus konjac and Amorphophallus bulbifer using deep sequencing technology, and microsatellite (SSR) markers were identified based on these transcriptome sequences.

Results

cDNAs of A. konjac and A. bulbifer were sequenced using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 135,822 non-redundant unigenes were assembled from about 9.66 gigabases, and 19,596 SSRs were identified in 16,027 non-redundant unigenes. Di-nucleotide SSRs were the most abundant motif (61.6%), followed by tri- (30.3%), tetra- (5.6%), penta- (1.5%), and hexa-nucleotides (1%) repeats. The top di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs included AG/CT (45.2%) and AGG/CCT (7.1%), respectively. A total of 10,754 primer pairs were designed for marker development. Of these, 320 primers were synthesized and used for validation of amplification and assessment of polymorphisms in 25 individual plants. The total of 275 primer pairs yielded PCR amplification products, of which 205 were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 14 and the polymorphism information content valued ranged from 0.10 to 0.90. Genetic diversity analysis was done using 177 highly polymorphic SSR markers. A phenogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients was constructed, which showed a distinct cluster of 25 Amorphophallus individuals.

Conclusion

A total of 10,754 SSR markers have been identified in Amorphophallus using transcriptome sequencing. One hundred and seventy-seven polymorphic markers were successfully validated in 25 individuals. The large number of genetic markers developed in the present study should contribute greatly to research into genetic diversity and germplasm characterization in Amorphophallus.

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A predicted functional gene network for the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans as a framework for genomic biology

Associations between proteins are essential to understand cell biology. While this complex interplay between proteins has been studied in model organisms, it has not yet been described for the oomycete late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Associations between proteins are essential to understand cell biology. While this complex interplay between proteins has been studied in model organisms, it has not yet been described for the oomycete late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

Results

We present an integrative probabilistic functional gene network that provides associations for 37 percent of the predicted P. infestans proteome. Our method unifies available genomic, transcriptomic and comparative genomic data into a single comprehensive network using a Bayesian approach. Enrichment of proteins residing in the same or related subcellular localization validates the biological coherence of our predictions. The network serves as a framework to query existing genomic data using network-based methods, which thus far was not possible in Phytophthora. We used the network to study the set of interacting proteins that are encoded by genes co-expressed during sporulation. This identified potential novel roles for proteins in spore formation through their links to proteins known to be involved in this process such as the phosphatase Cdc14.

Conclusions

The functional association network represents a novel genome-wide data source for P. infestans that also acts as a framework to interrogate other system-wide data. In both capacities it will improve our understanding of the complex biology of P. infestans and related oomycete pathogens.

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Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Cereal Crops

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Compared to those of dicot-infecting bacteria, the available genome sequences of bacteria that infect wheat and barley are limited. Herein, we report the draft genome sequences of four pseudomonads originally isolated from these cereals. These genome sequences provide a useful resource for comparative analyses within the genus and for cross-kingdom analyses of plant pathogenesis.

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Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. Corylina, Isolated from Turkish Filbert in Colorado

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Previously, we reported the isolation of a bacterium producing leaf spots in Turkish filbert. Here, we present the draft genome assembly of the bacterium identified as Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of this pathovar of X. arboricola.

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Genome-wide identification, molecular cloning, expression profiling and posttranscriptional regulation analysis of the Argonaute gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza, an eme...

Argonaute (AGO) is the core component of RNA-induced silencing complex.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Argonaute (AGO) is the core component of RNA-induced silencing complex. The AGO gene family has been analyzed in various plant species; however, there is no report about AGOs in the well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plant, Salvia miltiorrhiza.

Results

Through a genome-wide analysis, we identified ten SmAGO genes in S. miltiorrhiza. Full-length cDNAs of all SmAGOs were subsequently cloned and sequenced. These SmAGOs were characterized using a comprehensive approach. Sequence features, gene structures and conserved domains were analyzed by the comparison of SmAGOs and AtAGOs. Phylogenetic relationships among AGO proteins from S. miltiorrhiza, Arabidopsis and rice were revealed. The expression levels of SmAGO genes in various tissues of S. miltiorrhiza were investigated. The results implied that some SmAGOs, such as SmAGO1, SmAGO2, SmAGO3, SmAGO7 and SmAGO10, probably played similar roles as their counterparts in Arabidopsis; whereas the others could be more species-specialized. It suggests the conservation and diversity of AGOs in plants. Additionally, we identified a total of 24 hairpin structures, representing six miRNA gene families, to be miRNA precursors. Using the modified 5[prime]-RACE method, we confirmed that SmAGO1 and SmAGO2 were targeted by S. miltiorrhiza miR168a/b and miR403, respectively. It suggests the conservation of AGO1-miR168 and AGO2-miR403 regulatory modules in S. miltiorrhiza and Arabidopsis.

Conclusions

This is the first attempt to explore SmAGOs and miRNAs in S. miltiorrhiza. The results provide useful information for further elucidation of gene silencing pathways in S. miltiorrhiza.

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Transctiptomic and proteomic analysis of a compatible tomato-aphid interaction reveals a predominant salicylic acid-dependent plant response

Aphids are among the most destructive pests in temperate climates, causing significant damage on several crops including tomato.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Aphids are among the most destructive pests in temperate climates, causing significant damage on several crops including tomato. We carried out a transcriptomic and proteomic study to get insights into the molecular mechanisms and dynamics of the tomato response to the Macrosyphum euphorbiae aphid.

Results

The time course analysis of aphid infestation indicated a complex, dynamic pattern of gene expression. Several biological functions were affected and genes related to the stress and defence response were the most represented. The Gene Ontology categories of the differentially expressed genes (899) and identified proteins (57) indicated that the tomato response is characterized by an increased oxidative stress accompanied by the production of proteins involved in the detoxification of oxygen radicals. Aphids elicit a defense reaction based on the cross-communication of different hormone-related signaling pathways such as those related to the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene and brassinosteroids. Among them, the SA-signaling pathway and stress-responsive SA-dependent genes play a dominant role. Furthermore, tomato response is characterized by a reduced accumulation of photosynthetic proteins and a modification of the expression of various cell wall related genes.

Conclusions

Our work allowed a more comprehensive understanding of the signaling events and the defense dynamics of the tomato response to aphids in a compatible interaction and, based on experimental data, a model of the tomato--aphid molecular interaction was proposed. Considering the rapid advancement of tomato genomics, this information will be important for the development of new protection strategies.

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Predicting Network Activity from High Throughput Metabolomics

Predicting Network Activity from High Throughput Metabolomics | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLOS Computational Biology is an open-access
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Abstract

The functional interpretation of high throughput metabolomics by mass spectrometry is hindered by the identification of metabolites, a tedious and challenging task. We present a set of computational algorithms which, by leveraging the collective power of metabolic pathways and networks, predict functional activity directly from spectral feature tables without a priori identification of metabolites. The algorithms were experimentally validated on the activation of innate immune cells.

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REACTIN: Regulatory activity inference of transcription factors underlying human diseases with application to breast cancer

Genetic alterations of transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in the tumorgensis of cancers. In many cancers, alteration of TFs results in aberrant activity of them without changing their gene expression level.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Genetic alterations of transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in the tumorgensis of cancers. In many cancers, alteration of TFs results in aberrant activity of them without changing their gene expression level. Gene expression data from microarray or RNA-seq experiments can capture the expression change of genes, however, it is still challenge to reveal the activity change of TFs.

Results

Here we propose a method, called REACTIN (REgulatory ACTivity INference), which integrates TF binding data with gene expression data to identify TFs with significantly differential activity between disease and normal samples. REACTIN successfully detect differential activity of estrogen receptor (ER) between ER+ and ER- samples in 10 breast cancer datasets. When applied to compare tumor and normal breast samples, it reveals TFs that are critical for carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Moreover, Reaction can be utilized to identify transcriptional programs that are predictive to patient survival time of breast cancer patients.

Conclusions

REACTIN provides a useful tool to investigate regulatory programs underlying a biological process providing the related case and control gene expression data. Considering the enormous amount of cancer gene expression data and the increasingly accumulating ChIP-seq data, we expect wide application of REACTIN for revealing the regulatory mechanisms of various diseases.

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Polyploids Exhibit Higher Potassium Uptake and Salinity Tolerance in Arabidopsis

Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Genome duplication (or polyploidization) has occurred throughout plant evolutionary history and is thought to have driven the adaptive radiation of plants. We found that the cytotype of the root, and not the genotype, determined the majority of heritable natural variation in the concentration of leaf potassium (K) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Autopolyploidy also provided resistance to salinity and may represent an adaptive outcome of the enhanced K accumulation of plants with higher ploidy.

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Transposon fingerprinting using low coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and related species

Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive elements are a large and dynamically evolving part of eukaryotic genomes, especially in plants where they can account for a significant proportion of genome size.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive elements are a large and dynamically evolving part of eukaryotic genomes, especially in plants where they can account for a significant proportion of genome size. Their dynamic nature gives them the potential for use in identifying and characterizing crop germplasm. However, their repetitive nature makes them challenging to study using conventional methods of molecular biology. Next generation sequencing and new computational tools have greatly facilitated the investigation of TE variation within species and among closely related species.

Results

(i) We generated low-coverage Illumina whole genome shotgun sequencing reads for multiple individuals of cacao (Theobroma cacao) and related species. These reads were analysed using both an alignment/mapping approach and a de novo (graph based clustering) approach. (ii) A standard set of ultra-conserved orthologous sequences (UCOS) standardized TE data between samples and provided phylogenetic information on the relatedness of samples. (iii) The mapping approach proved highly effective within the reference species but underestimated TE abundance in interspecific comparisons relative to the de novo methods. (iv) Individual T. cacao accessions have unique patterns of TE abundance indicating that the TE composition of the genome is evolving actively within this species. (v) LTR/Gypsy elements are the most abundant, comprising c.10% of the genome. (vi) Within T. cacao the retroelement families show an order of magnitude greater sequence variability than the DNA transposon families. (vii) Theobroma grandiflorum has a similar TE composition to T. cacao, but the related genus Herrania is rather different, with LTRs making up a lower proportion of the genome, perhaps because of a massive presence (c. 20%) of distinctive low complexity satellite-like repeats in this genome.

Conclusions

(i) Short read alignment/mapping to reference TE contigs provides a simple and effective method of investigating intraspecific differences in TE composition. It is not appropriate for comparing repetitive elements across the species boundaries, for which de novo methods are more appropriate. (ii) Individual T. cacao accessions have unique spectra of TE composition indicating active evolution of TE abundance within this species. TE patterns could potentially be used as a "fingerprint" to identify and characterize cacao accessions.

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The advantages and limitations of trait analysis with GWAS: a review

Over the last 10 years, high-density SNP arrays and DNA re-sequencing have illuminated the majority of the genotypic space for a number of organisms, including humans, maize, rice and Arabidopsis.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Over the last 10 years, high-density SNP arrays and DNA re-sequencing have illuminated the majority of the genotypic space for a number of organisms, including humans, maize, rice and Arabidopsis. For any researcher willing to define and score a phenotype across many individuals, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) present a powerful tool to reconnect this trait back to its underlying genetics. In this review we discuss the biological and statistical considerations that underpin a successful analysis or otherwise. The relevance of biological factors including effect size, sample size, genetic heterogeneity, genomic confounding, linkage disequilibrium and spurious association, and statistical tools to account for these are presented. GWAS can offer a valuable first insight into trait architecture or candidate loci for subsequent validation.

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A Systems-Genetics Approach and Data Mining Tool to Assist in the Discovery of Genes Underlying Complex Traits in Oryza sativa

A Systems-Genetics Approach and Data Mining Tool to Assist in the Discovery of Genes Underlying Complex Traits in Oryza sativa | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

Many traits of biological and agronomic significance in plants are controlled in a complex manner where multiple genes and environmental signals affect the expression of the phenotype. In Oryza sativa (rice), thousands of quantitative genetic signals have been mapped to the rice genome. In parallel, thousands of gene expression profiles have been generated across many experimental conditions. Through the discovery of networks with real gene co-expression relationships, it is possible to identify co-localized genetic and gene expression signals that implicate complex genotype-phenotype relationships. In this work, we used a knowledge-independent, systems genetics approach, to discover a high-quality set of co-expression networks, termed Gene Interaction Layers (GILs). Twenty-two GILs were constructed from 1,306 Affymetrix microarray rice expression profiles that were pre-clustered to allow for improved capture of gene co-expression relationships. Functional genomic and genetic data, including over 8,000 QTLs and 766 phenotype-tagged SNPs (p-value < = 0.001) from genome-wide association studies, both covering over 230 different rice traits were integrated with the GILs. An online systems genetics data-mining resource, the GeneNet Engine, was constructed to enable dynamic discovery of gene sets (i.e. network modules) that overlap with genetic traits. GeneNet Engine does not provide the exact set of genes underlying a given complex trait, but through the evidence of gene-marker correspondence, co-expression, and functional enrichment, site visitors can identify genes with potential shared causality for a trait which could then be used for experimental validation. A set of 2 million SNPs was incorporated into the database and serve as a potential set of testable biomarkers for genes in modules that overlap with genetic traits. Herein, we describe two modules found using GeneNet Engine, one with significant overlap with the trait amylose content and another with significant overlap with blast disease resistance.

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Evolution of Plant HECT Ubiquitin Ligases

Evolution of Plant HECT Ubiquitin Ligases | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
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Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

HECT ubiquitin ligases are key components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is present in all eukaryotes. In this study, the patterns of emergence of HECT genes in plants are described. Phylogenetic and structural data indicate that viridiplantae have six main HECT subfamilies, which arose before the split that separated green algae from the rest of plants. It is estimated that the common ancestor of all plants contained seven HECT genes. Contrary to what happened in animals, the number of HECT genes has been kept quite constant in all lineages, both in chlorophyta and streptophyta, although evolutionary recent duplications are found in some species. Several of the genes found in plants may have originated very early in eukaryotic evolution, given that they have clear similarities, both in sequence and structure, to animal genes. Finally, in Arabidopsis thaliana, we found significant correlations in the expression patterns of HECT genes and some ancient, broadly expressed genes that belong to a different ubiquitin ligase family, called RBR. These results are discussed in the context of the evolution of the gene families required for ubiquitination in plants.

 

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De novo sequencing and transcriptome analysis of the desert shrub, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, during cold acclimation using Illumina/Solexa

Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim. ex Kom.) Cheng f., an evergreen broadleaf legume shrub, is distributed in Mid-Asia where the temperature can be as low as -30[degree sign]C during the winter. Although A.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim. ex Kom.) Cheng f., an evergreen broadleaf legume shrub, is distributed in Mid-Asia where the temperature can be as low as -30[degree sign]C during the winter. Although A. mongolicus is an ideal model to study the plant response to cold stress, insufficient genomic resources for this species are available in public databases. To identify genes involved in cold acclimation (a phenomenon experienced by plants after low temperature stress), a high-throughput sequencing technology was applied.

Results

We sequenced cold-treated and control (untreated) samples of A. mongolicus, and obtained 65,075,656 and 67,287,120 high quality reads, respectively. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 82795 all-unigenes were finally generated with an average length of 816 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning all-unigenes with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the RPKM method. Overall, 9309 up-regulated genes and 23419 down-regulated genes were identified. To increase our understanding of these DEGs, we performed GO enrichment and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. Based on these results, a series of candidate genes involved in cold responsive pathways were selected and discussed. Moreover, we analyzed transcription factors, and found 720 of them are differentially expressed. Finally, 20 of the candidate genes that were up-regulated and known to be associated with cold stress were examined using qRT-PCR.

Conclusions

In this study, we identified a large set of cDNA unigenes from A. mongolicus. This is the first transcriptome sequencing of this non-model species under cold-acclimation using Illumina/Solexa, a next-generation sequencing technology. We sequenced cold-treated and control (untreated) samples of A. mongolicus and obtained large numbers of unigenes annotated to public databases. Studies of differentially expressed genes involved in cold-related metabolic pathways and transcription factors facilitate the discovery of cold-resistance genes.

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Improving the coverage of the cyanobacterial phylum using diversity-driven genome sequencing

Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The cyanobacterial phylum encompasses oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes of a great breadth of morphologies and ecologies; they play key roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The chloroplasts of all photosynthetic eukaryotes can trace their ancestry to cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria also attract considerable interest as platforms for “green” biotechnology and biofuels. To explore the molecular basis of their different phenotypes and biochemical capabilities, we sequenced the genomes of 54 phylogenetically and phenotypically diverse cyanobacterial strains. Comparison of cyanobacterial genomes reveals the molecular basis for many aspects of cyanobacterial ecophysiological diversity, as well as the convergence of complex morphologies without the acquisition of novel proteins. This phylum-wide study highlights the benefits of diversity-driven genome sequencing, identifying more than 21,000 cyanobacterial proteins with no detectable similarity to known proteins, and foregrounds the diversity of light-harvesting proteins and gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Additionally, our results provide insight into the distribution of genes of cyanobacterial origin in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Moreover, this study doubles both the amount and the phylogenetic diversity of cyanobacterial genome sequence data. Given the exponentially growing number of sequenced genomes, this diversity-driven study demonstrates the perspective gained by comparing disparate yet related genomes in a phylum-wide context and the insights that are gained from it.

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Complete Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Strain Aw12879, a Restricted-Host-Range Citrus Canker-Causing Bacterium

Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker. The Asiatic strain has a broad host range, whereas the Wellington variant has a restricted host range. Here, we present the complete genome of X. citri subsp. citri strain AW12879. This study lays the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of X. citri.

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