Plant Genomics
Follow
Find
9.4K views | +0 today
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
onto Plant Genomics
Scoop.it!

Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags in the extreme large genomes Lilium and Tulipa

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Bulbous flowers such as lily and tulip (Liliaceae family) are monocot perennial herbs that are economically very important ornamental plants worldwide. However, there are hardly any genetic studies performed and genomic resources are lacking. To build genomic resources and develop tools to speed up the breeding in both crops, next generation sequencing was implemented. We sequenced and assembled transcriptomes of four lily and five tulip genotypes using 454 pyro-sequencing technology.

Results

Successfully, we developed the first set of 81,791 contigs with an average length of 514 bp for tulip, and enriched the very limited number of 3,329 available ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) for lily with 52,172 contigs with an average length of 555 bp. The contigs together with singletons covered on average 37% of lily and 39% of tulip estimated transcriptome. Mining lily and tulip sequence data for SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats) showed that di-nucleotide repeats were twice more abundant in UTRs (UnTranslated Regions) compared to coding regions, while tri-nucleotide repeats were equally spread over coding and UTR regions. Two sets of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers suitable for high throughput genotyping were developed. In the first set, no SNPs flanking the target SNP (50 bp on either side) were allowed. In the second set, one SNP in the flanking regions was allowed, which resulted in a 2 to 3 fold increase in SNP marker numbers compared with the first set. Orthologous groups between the two flower bulbs: lily and tulip (12,017 groups) and among the three monocot species: lily, tulip, and rice (6,900 groups) were determined using OrthoMCL. Orthologous groups were screened for common SNP markers and EST-SSRs to study synteny between lily and tulip, which resulted in 113 common SNP markers and 292 common EST-SSR. Lily and tulip contigs generated were annotated and described according to Gene Ontology terminology.

Conclusions

Two transcriptome sets were built that are valuable resources for marker development, comparative genomic studies and candidate gene approaches. Next generation sequencing of leaf transcriptome is very effective; however, deeper sequencing and using more tissues and stages is advisable for extended comparative studies.

more...
No comment yet.
Plant Genomics
Updates on Plant Genomics
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Vegetative buds provide plants in temperate environments the possibility for growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are favorable. In grapevine, crucial developmental events take place within buds during two growing seasons in consecutive years. The first season, the shoot apical meristem within the bud differentiates all the basic elements of the shoot including flowering transition in lateral primordia and development of inflorescence primordia. These events practically end with bud dormancy. The second season, buds resume shoot growth associated to flower formation and development. Gene expression has been previously monitored at specific stages of bud development but has never been followed along the two growing seasons.

Results

Gene expression changes were analyzed along the bud annual cycle at eight different time points. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that the main factors explaining the global gene expression differences were the processes of bud dormancy and active growth as well as stress responses. Accordingly, non dormant buds showed an enrichment in functional categories typical of actively proliferating and growing cells together with the over abundance of transcripts belonging to stress response pathways. Differential expression analyses performed between consecutive time points indicated that major transcriptional changes were associated to para/endodormancy, endo/ecodormancy and ecodormancy/bud break transitions. Transcripts encoding key regulators of reproductive development were grouped in three major expression clusters corresponding to: (i) transcripts associated to flowering induction, (ii) transcripts associated to flower meristem specification and initiation and (iii) transcripts putatively involved in dormancy. Within this cluster, a MADS-box gene (VvFLC2) and other transcripts with similar expression patterns could participate in dormancy regulation.

Conclusions

This work provides a global view of major transcriptional changes taking place along bud development in grapevine, highlighting those molecular and biological functions involved in the main events of bud development. As reported in other woody species, the results suggest that genes regulating flowering could also be involved in dormancy regulatory pathways in grapevine.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant Evolution and Nutrition
Scoop.it!

Methods in Molecular Biology: Two-Dimensional Data Binning for the Analysis of Genome Architecture in Filamentous Plant Pathogens and Other Eukaryotes (2014)

Methods in Molecular Biology: Two-Dimensional Data Binning for the Analysis of Genome Architecture in Filamentous Plant Pathogens and Other Eukaryotes (2014) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Genome architecture often reflects an organism’s lifestyle and can therefore provide insights into gene function, regulation, and adaptation. In several lineages of plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, characteristic repeat-rich and gene-sparse regions harbor pathogenicity-related genes such as effectors. In these pathogens, analysis of genome architecture has assisted the mining for novel candidate effector genes and investigations into patterns of gene regulation and evolution at the whole genome level. Here we describe a two-dimensional data binning method in R with a heatmap-style graphical output to facilitate analysis and visualization of whole genome architecture. The method is flexible, combining whole genome architecture heatmaps with scatter plots of the genomic environment of selected gene sets. This enables analysis of specific values associated with genes such as gene expression and sequence polymorphisms, according to genome architecture. This method enables the investigation of whole genome architecture and reveals local properties of genomic neighborhoods in a clear and concise manner.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, The Sainsbury Lab, Liangjiao
more...
rougeforfire's curator insight, April 7, 1:42 AM

This seems pretty interesting.. That's a nice gift idea

Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

The Diversity, Biogenesis, and Activities of Endogenous Silencing Small RNAs in Arabidopsis -

The Diversity, Biogenesis, and Activities of Endogenous Silencing Small RNAs in Arabidopsis - | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Leaf Shape Evolution Through Duplication, Regulatory Diversification, and Loss of a Homeobox Gene

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Plant genome engineering in full bloom

Plant genome engineering in full bloom | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a versatile tool for genome engineering.•A customizable gRNA and a nuclease are the core components of the CRISPR/Cas9 system.•The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been validated in Arabidopsis, tobacco, rice, wheat, and sorghum.•Researchers should be aware of potential off-target mutations when using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

The recent development of tools for precise editing of user-specified sequences is rapidly changing the landscape for plant genetics and biotechnology. It is now possible to target mutations and regulatory proteins to specific sites in a genome using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs), or the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system. Here we provide an update of recent developments in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and highlight online resources that will help biologists adopt new genome-editing tools.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Publications from The Sainsbury Laboratory
Scoop.it!

Frontiers Plant Science: The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini (2014)

Frontiers Plant Science: The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini (2014) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their hosts.


Via Francis Martin, Kamoun Lab @ TSL, The Sainsbury Lab
more...
Francis Martin's curator insight, March 4, 11:30 AM

A long awaited genome! More rust genomes needed.

Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

A near complete snapshot of the Zea mays seedling transcriptome revealed from ultra-deep sequencing

A near complete snapshot of the Zea mays seedling transcriptome revealed from ultra-deep sequencing | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) enables in-depth exploration of transcriptomes, but typical sequencing depth often limits its comprehensiveness. In this study, we generated nearly 3 billion RNA-Seq reads, totaling 341[emsp14]Gb of sequence, from a Zea mays seedling sample. At this depth, a near complete snapshot of the transcriptome was observed consisting of over 90% of the annotated transcripts, including lowly expressed transcription factors. A novel hybrid strategy combining de novo and reference-based assemblies yielded a transcriptome consisting of 126,708 transcripts with 88% of expressed known genes assembled to full-length. We improved current annotations by adding 4,842 previously unannotated transcript variants and many new features, including 212 maize transcripts, 201 genes, 10 genes with undocumented potential roles in seedlings as well as maize lineage specific gene fusion events. We demonstrated the power of deep sequencing for large transcriptome studies by generating a high quality transcriptome, which provides a rich resource for the research community.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) enables in-depth exploration of transcriptomes, but typical sequencing depth often limits its comprehensiveness. In this study, we generated nearly 3 billion RNA-Seq reads, totaling 341 Gb of sequence, from a Zea mays seedling sample. At this depth, a near complete snapshot of the transcriptome was observed consisting of over 90% of the annotated transcripts, including lowly expressed transcription factors. A novel hybrid strategy combining de novo and reference-based assemblies yielded a transcriptome consisting of 126,708 transcripts with 88% of expressed known genes assembled to full-length. We improved current annotations by adding 4,842 previously unannotated transcript variants and many new features, including 212 maize transcripts, 201 genes, 10 genes with undocumented potential roles in seedlings as well as maize lineage specific gene fusion events. We demonstrated the power of deep sequencing for large transcriptome studies by generating a high quality transcriptome, which provides a rich resource for the research community.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Characterization of the caleosin gene family in the Triticeae

The caleosin genes encode proteins with a single conserved EF hand calcium-binding domain and comprise small gene families found in a wide range of plant species. Some members of the gene family have been shown to be upregulated by environmental stresses including low water availability and high salinity. Caleosin 3 from wheat has been shown to interact with the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G proteins, and to act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP). This study characterizes the size and diversity of the gene family in wheat and related species and characterizes the differential tissue-specific expression of members of the gene family.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

The caleosin genes encode proteins with a single conserved EF hand calcium-binding domain and comprise small gene families found in a wide range of plant species. Some members of the gene family have been shown to be upregulated by environmental stresses including low water availability and high salinity. Caleosin 3 from wheat has been shown to interact with the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G proteins, and to act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP). This study characterizes the size and diversity of the gene family in wheat and related species and characterizes the differential tissue-specific expression of members of the gene family.

Results

A total of 34 gene family members that belong to eleven paralogous groups of caleosins were identified in the hexaploid bread wheat, T. aestivum. Each group was represented by three homeologous copies of the gene located on corresponding homeologous chromosomes, except the caleosin 10, which has four gene copies. Ten gene family members were identified in diploid barley, Hordeum vulgare, and in rye, Secale cereale, seven in Brachypodium distachyon, and six in rice, Oryza sativa. The analysis of gene expression was assayed in triticale and rye by RNA-Seq analysis of 454 sequence sets and members of the gene family were found to have diverse patterns of gene expression in the different tissues that were sampled in rye and in triticale, the hybrid hexaploid species derived from wheat and rye. Expression of the gene family in wheat and barley was also previously determined by microarray analysis, and changes in expression during development and in response to environmental stresses are presented.

Conclusions

The caleosin gene family had a greater degree of expansion in the Triticeae than in the other monocot species, Brachypodium and rice. The prior implication of one member of the gene family in the stress response and heterotrimeric G protein signaling, points to the potential importance of the caleosin gene family. The complexity of the family and differential expression in various tissues and under conditions of abiotic stress suggests the possibility that caleosin family members may play diverse roles in signaling and development that warrants further investigation.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Abstract (provisional)Background

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage.

Results

Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis.

Conclusions

This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic "signatures": genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions, indicating that AM fungi can help replace exogenous fertilizer for fruit crops.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Paleo-evolutionary plasticity of plant disease resistance genes

The recent access to a large set of genome sequences, combined with a robust evolutionary scenario of modern monocot (i.e. grasses) and eudicot (i.e. rosids) species from their founder ancestors, offered the opportunity to gain insights into disease resistance genes (R-genes) evolutionary plasticity.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

The recent access to a large set of genome sequences, combined with a robust evolutionary scenario of modern monocot (i.e. grasses) and eudicot (i.e. rosids) species from their founder ancestors, offered the opportunity to gain insights into disease resistance genes (R-genes) evolutionary plasticity.

Results

We unravel in the current article (i) a R-genes repertoire consisting in 7883 for monocots and 15758 for eudicots, (ii) a contrasted R-genes conservation with 23.8% for monocots and 6.6% for dicots, (iii) a minimal ancestral founder pool of 384 R-genes for the monocots and 150 R-genes for the eudicots, (iv) a general pattern of organization in clusters accounting for more than 60% of mapped R-genes, (v) a biased deletion of ancestral duplicated R-genes between paralogous blocks possibly compensated by clusterization, (vi) a bias in R-gene clusterization where Leucine-Rich Repeats acts as a 'glue' for domain association, (vii) a R-genes/miRNAs interome enriched toward duplicated R-genes..

Conclusions

Together, our data may suggest that R-genes family plasticity operated during plant evolution (i) at the structural level through massive duplicates loss counterbalanced by massive clusterization following polyploidization; as well as at (ii) the regulation level through microRNA/R-gene interactions acting as a possible source of functional diploidization of structurally retained R-genes duplicates. Such evolutionary shuffling events leaded to CNVs (i.e. Copy Number Variation) and PAVs (i.e. Presence Absence Variation) between related species operating in the decay of R-genes colinearity between plant species.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Relocation of genes generates non-conserved chromosomal segments in Fusarium graminearum that show distinct and co-regulated gene expression patterns

Genome comparisons between closely related species often show non-conserved regions across chromosomes. Some of them are located in specific regions of chromosomes and some are even confined to one or more entire chromosomes. The origin and biological relevance of these non-conserved regions are still largely unknown. Here we used the genome of Fusarium graminearum to elucidate the significance of non-conserved regions.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Genome comparisons between closely related species often show non-conserved regions across chromosomes. Some of them are located in specific regions of chromosomes and some are even confined to one or more entire chromosomes. The origin and biological relevance of these non-conserved regions are still largely unknown. Here we used the genome of Fusarium graminearum to elucidate the significance of non-conserved regions.

Results

The genome of F. graminearum harbours thirteen non-conserved regions dispersed over all of the four chromosomes. Using RNA-Seq data from the mycelium of F. graminearum, we found weakly expressed regions on all of the four chromosomes that exactly matched with non-conserved regions. Comparison of gene expression between two different developmental stages (conidia and mycelium) showed that the expression of genes in conserved regions is stable, while gene expression in non-conserved regions is much more influenced by developmental stage. In addition, genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites and secreted proteins are enriched in non-conserved regions, suggesting that these regions could also be important for adaptations to new environments, including adaptation to new hosts. Finally, we found evidence that non-conserved regions are generated by sequestration of genes from multiple locations. Gene relocations may lead to clustering of genes with similar expression patterns or similar biological functions, which was clearly exemplified by the PKS2 gene cluster.

Conclusions

Our results showed that chromosomes can be functionally divided into conserved and non-conserved regions, and both could have specific and distinct roles in genome evolution and regulation of gene expression.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Genomic rearrangements and signatures of breeding in the allo-octoploid strawberry as revealed through an allele dose based SSR linkage map

Breeders in the allo-octoploid strawberry currently make little use of molecular marker tools. As a first step of a QTL discovery project on fruit quality traits and resistance to soil-borne pathogens such as Phytophthora cactorum and Verticillium we built a genome-wide SSR linkage map for the cross Holiday x Korona. We used the previously published MADCE method to obtain full haplotype information for both of the parental cultivars, facilitating in-depth studies on their genomic organisation.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Breeders in the allo-octoploid strawberry currently make little use of molecular marker tools. As a first step of a QTL discovery project on fruit quality traits and resistance to soil-borne pathogens such as Phytophthora cactorum and Verticillium we built a genome-wide SSR linkage map for the cross Holiday x Korona. We used the previously published MADCE method to obtain full haplotype information for both of the parental cultivars, facilitating in-depth studies on their genomic organisation.

Results

The linkage map incorporates 508 segregating loci and represents each of the 28 chromosome pairs of octoploid strawberry, spanning an estimated length of 2050 cM. The sub-genomes are denoted according to their sequence divergence from F. vesca as revealed by marker performance. The map revealed high overall synteny between the sub-genomes, but also revealed two large inversions on LG2C and LG2D, of which the latter was confirmed using a separate mapping population. We discovered interesting breeding features within the parental cultivars by in-depth analysis of our haplotype data. The linkage map-derived homozygosity level of Holiday was similar to the pedigree-derived inbreeding level (33% and 29%, respectively). For Korona we found that the observed homozygosity level was over three times higher than expected from the pedigree (13% versus 3.6%). This could indicate selection pressure on genes that have favourable effects in homozygous states. The level of kinship between Holiday and Korona derived from our linkage map was 2.5 times higher than the pedigree-derived value. This large difference could be evidence of selection pressure enacted by strawberry breeders towards specific haplotypes.

Conclusion

The obtained SSR linkage map provides a good base for QTL discovery. It also provides the first biologically relevant basis for the discernment and notation of sub-genomes. For the first time, we revealed genomic rearrangements that were verified in a separate mapping population. We believe that haplotype information will become increasingly important in identifying marker-trait relationships and regions that are under selection pressure within breeding material. Our attempt at providing a biological basis for the discernment of sub-genomes warrants follow-up studies to streamline the naming of the sub-genomes among different octoploid strawberry maps.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides Exhibit Different Metabolomic Responses to Colonization by the Symbiotic fungus Laccaria bicolor

Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides Exhibit Different Metabolomic Responses to Colonization by the Symbiotic fungus Laccaria bicolor | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Within boreal and temperate forest ecosystems the majority of trees and shrubs form beneficial relationships with mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) that support plant health through increased access to nutrients as well as aiding in stress and pest tolerance. The intimate interaction between fungal hyphae and plant roots result in a new symbiotic ‘organ’ called the ECM root tip. Little is understood concerning the metabolic re-programming that favors the formation of this hybrid tissue in compatible interactions and what prevents the formation of ECM root tips in incompatible interactions. We show here that the metabolic changes during favorable colonization between the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor and its compatible host, Populus trichocarpa, are characterized by shifts in aromatic acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. We demonstrate that this extensive metabolic re-programming is repressed in incompatible interactions and that more defensive compounds are produced or retained. We also demonstrate that L. bicolor can metabolize a number of secreted defensive compounds and that the degradation of some of these compounds produce immune response metabolites (e.g., salicylic acid from salicin). Therefore, our results suggest that the metabolic responsiveness of plant roots to L. bicolor is a determinant factor in fungal:host interactions.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Fungal Genetic and Genomics
Scoop.it!

Discovering Functions of Unannotated Genes from a Transcriptome Survey of Wild Fungal Isolates

Discovering Functions of Unannotated Genes from a Transcriptome Survey of Wild Fungal Isolates | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Most fungal genomes are poorly annotated, and many fungal traits of industrial and biomedical relevance are not well suited to classical genetic screens. Assigning genes to phenotypes on a genomic scale thus remains an urgent need in the field. We developed an approach to infer gene function from expression profiles of wild fungal isolates, and we applied our strategy to the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Using transcriptome measurements in 70 strains from two well-defined clades of this microbe, we first identified 2,247 cases in which the expression of an unannotated gene rose and fell across N. crassa strains in parallel with the expression of well-characterized genes. We then used image analysis of hyphal morphologies, quantitative growth assays, and expression profiling to test the functions of four genes predicted from our population analyses. The results revealed two factors that influenced regulation of metabolism of nonpreferred carbon and nitrogen sources, a gene that governed hyphal architecture, and a gene that mediated amino acid starvation resistance. These findings validate the power of our population-transcriptomic approach for inference of novel gene function, and we suggest that this strategy will be of broad utility for genome-scale annotation in many fungal systems.


Via Bradford Condon, Jie Wang
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

The contrasting effects of genome size, chromosome number and ploidy level on plant invasiveness: a global analysis

The contrasting effects of genome size, chromosome number and ploidy level on plant invasiveness: a global analysis | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Understanding how species' traits relate to their status (e.g. invasiveness or rarity) is important because it can help to efficiently focus conservation and management effort and infer mechanisms affecting plant status. This is particularly important for invasiveness, in which proactive action is needed to restrict the establishment of potentially invasive plants.We tested the ability of genome size (DNA 1C-values) to explain invasiveness and compared it with cytogenetic traits (chromosome number and ploidy level). We considered 890 species from 62 genera, from across the angiosperm phylogeny and distributed from tropical to boreal latitudes.We show that invasiveness was negatively related to genome size and positively related to chromosome number (and ploidy level), yet there was a positive relationship between genome size and chromosome number; that is, our result was not caused by collinearity between the traits. Including both traits in explanatory models greatly increased the explanatory power of each.This demonstrates the potential unifying role that genome size, chromosome number and ploidy have as species' traits, despite the diverse impacts they have on plant physiology. It provides support for the continued cataloguing of cytogenetic traits and genome size of the world's flora.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

The genome and life-stage specific transcriptomes of Globodera pallida elucidate key aspects of plant parasitism by a cyst nematode

Globodera pallida is a devastating pathogen of potato crops, making it one of the most economically important plant parasitic nematodes. It is also an important model for the biology of cyst nematodes. Cyst nematodes and root-knot nematodes are the two most important plant parasitic nematode groups and together represent a global threat to food security.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Direct measurement of transcription rates reveals multiple mechanisms for configuration of the Arabidopsis ambient temperature response

Sensing and responding to ambient temperature is important for controlling growth and development of many organisms, in part by regulating mRNA levels. mRNA abundance can change with temperature, but it is unclear whether this results from changes in transcription or decay rates, and whether passive or active temperature regulation is involved.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant Genetics, NGS and Bioinformatics
Scoop.it!

Natural Variations and Genome-Wide Association Studies in Crop Plants - Annual Review of Plant Biology, 65(1):

Natural Variations and Genome-Wide Association Studies in Crop Plants - Annual Review of Plant Biology, 65(1): | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Natural variants of crops are generated from wild progenitor plants under both natural and human selection. Diverse crops that are able to adapt to various environmental conditions are valuable resources for crop improvements to meet the food demands of the increasing human population. With the completion of reference genome sequences, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technology now enables rapid and accurate resequencing of a large number of crop genomes to detect the genetic basis of phenotypic variations in crops. Comprehensive maps of genome variations facilitate genome-wide association studies of complex traits and functional investigations of evolutionary changes in crops. These advances will greatly accelerate studies on crop designs via genomics-assisted breeding. Here, we first discuss crop genome studies and describe the development of sequencingbased genotyping and genome-wide association studies in crops. We then review sequencing-based crop domestication studies and offer a perspective on genomics-driven crop designs.


Via Ali Taheri
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Comparison of CAGE and RNA-seq transcriptome profiling using clonally amplified and single-molecule next-generation sequencing | RNA-Seq Blog

Comparison of CAGE and RNA-seq transcriptome profiling using clonally amplified and single-molecule next-generation sequencing | RNA-Seq Blog | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
CAGE (cap analysis gene expression) and RNA-seq are two major technologies used to identify transcript abundances as well as structures.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria

Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter Pcpc560, which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using Pcpc560, functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in Pcpc560 is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, Pcpc560 opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter Pcpc560, which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using Pcpc560, functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in Pcpc560 is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, Pcpc560 opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

High-throughput transcriptome sequencing and preliminary functional analysis in four Neotropical tree species

The Amazonian rainforest is predicted to suffer from ongoing environmental changes. Despite the need to evaluate the impact of such changes on tree genetic diversity, we almost entirely lack genomic resources.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

The Amazonian rainforest is predicted to suffer from ongoing environmental changes. Despite the need to evaluate the impact of such changes on tree genetic diversity, we almost entirely lack genomic resources.

Results

In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of four tropical tree species (Carapa guianensis, Eperua falcata, Symphonia globulifera and Virola michelii) with contrasting ecological features, belonging to four widespread botanical families (respectively Meliaceae, Fabaceae, Clusiaceae and Myristicaceae). We sequenced cDNA libraries from three organs (leaves, stems, and roots) using 454 pyrosequencing. We have developed an R and bioperl-based bioinformatic procedure for de novo assembly, gene functional annotation and marker discovery. Mismatch identification takes into account single-base quality values as well as the likelihood of false variants as a function of contig depth and number of sequenced chromosomes. Between 17103 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 23390 (for Eperua falcata) contigs were assembled. Organs varied in the numbers of unigenes they apparently express, with higher number in roots. Patterns of gene expression were similar across species, with metabolism of aromatic compounds standing out as an overrepresented gene function. Transcripts corresponding to several gene functions were found to be over- or underrepresented in each organ. We identified between 4434 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 9076 (for Virola surinamensis) well-supported mismatches. The resulting overall mismatch density was comprised between 0.89 (S. globulifera) and 1.05 (V. surinamensis) mismatches/100bp in variation-containing contigs.

Conclusion

The relative representation of gene functions in the four transcriptomes suggests that secondary metabolism may be particularly important in tropical trees. The differential representation of transcripts among tissues suggests differential gene expression, which opens the way to functional studies in these non-model, ecologically important species. We found substantial amounts of mismatches in the four species. These newly identified putative variants are a first step towards acquiring much needed genomic resources for tropical tree species.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

miRNAs trigger widespread epigenetically activated siRNAs from transposons in Arabidopsis

miRNAs trigger widespread epigenetically activated siRNAs from transposons in Arabidopsis | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is mediated by DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1)-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs), which also trigger 21-nucleotide secondary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) via RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6), DCL4 and ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1), whereas transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of transposons is mediated by 24-nucleotide heterochromatic (het)siRNAs, RDR2, DCL3 and AGO4 (ref. 4). Transposons can also give rise to abundant 21-nucleotide /`epigenetically activated/' small interfering RNAs (easiRNAs) in DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (ddm1) and DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (met1) mutants, as well as in the vegetative nucleus of pollen grains and in dedifferentiated plant cell cultures. Here we show that easiRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana resemble secondary siRNAs, in that thousands of transposon transcripts are specifically targeted by more than 50 miRNAs for cleavage and processing by RDR6. Loss of RDR6, DCL4 or DCL1 in a ddm1 background results in loss of 21-nucleotide easiRNAs and severe infertility, but 24-nucleotide hetsiRNAs are partially restored, supporting an antagonistic relationship between PTGS and TGS. Thus miRNA-directed easiRNA biogenesis is a latent mechanism that specifically targets transposon transcripts, but only when they are epigenetically reactivated during reprogramming of the germ line. This ancient recognition mechanism may have been retained both by transposons to evade long-term heterochromatic silencing and by their hosts for genome defence.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is mediated by DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1)-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs), which also trigger 21-nucleotide secondary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) via RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6), DCL4 and ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1)1, 2, 3, whereas transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of transposons is mediated by 24-nucleotide heterochromatic (het)siRNAs, RDR2, DCL3 and AGO4 (ref. 4). Transposons can also give rise to abundant 21-nucleotide ‘epigenetically activated’ small interfering RNAs (easiRNAs) in DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (ddm1) and DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (met1) mutants, as well as in the vegetative nucleus of pollen grains5 and in dedifferentiated plant cell cultures6. Here we show that easiRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana resemble secondary siRNAs, in that thousands of transposon transcripts are specifically targeted by more than 50 miRNAs for cleavage and processing by RDR6. Loss of RDR6, DCL4 or DCL1 in a ddm1 background results in loss of 21-nucleotide easiRNAs and severe infertility, but 24-nucleotide hetsiRNAs are partially restored, supporting an antagonistic relationship between PTGS and TGS. Thus miRNA-directed easiRNA biogenesis is a latent mechanism that specifically targets transposon transcripts, but only when they are epigenetically reactivated during reprogramming of the germ line. This ancient recognition mechanism may have been retained both by transposons to evade long-term heterochromatic silencing and by their hosts for genome defence.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Safety in numbers: multiple occurrences of highly similar homologs among Azotobacter vinelandii carbohydrate metabolism proteins probably confer adaptive benefits

Gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer are common processes in bacterial and archaeal genomes, and are generally assumed to result in either diversification or loss of the redundant gene copies. However, a recent analysis of the genome of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii DJ revealed an abundance of highly similar homologs among carbohydrate metabolism genes. In many cases these multiple genes did not appear to be the result of recent duplications, or to function only as a means of stimulating expression by increasing gene dosage, as the homologs were located in varying functional genetic contexts. Based on these initial findings we here report in-depth bioinformatic analyses focusing specifically on highly similar intra-genome homologs, or synologs, among carbohydrate metabolism genes, as well as an analysis of the general occurrence of very similar synologs in prokaryotes.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer are common processes in bacterial and archaeal genomes, and are generally assumed to result in either diversification or loss of the redundant gene copies. However, a recent analysis of the genome of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii DJ revealed an abundance of highly similar homologs among carbohydrate metabolism genes. In many cases these multiple genes did not appear to be the result of recent duplications, or to function only as a means of stimulating expression by increasing gene dosage, as the homologs were located in varying functional genetic contexts. Based on these initial findings we here report in-depth bioinformatic analyses focusing specifically on highly similar intra-genome homologs, or synologs, among carbohydrate metabolism genes, as well as an analysis of the general occurrence of very similar synologs in prokaryotes.

Results

Approximately 900 bacterial and archaeal genomes were analysed for the occurrence of synologs, both in general and among carbohydrate metabolism genes specifically. This showed that large numbers of highly similar synologs among carbohydrate metabolism genes are very rare in bacterial and archaeal genomes, and that the A. vinelandii DJ genome contains an unusually large amount of such synologs. The majority of these synologs were found to be non-tandemly organized and localized in varying but metabolically relevant genomic contexts. The same observation was made for other genomes harbouring high levels of such synologs. It was also shown that highly similar synologs generally constitute a very small fraction of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes. The overall synolog fraction of the A. vinelandii DJ genome was well above the data set average, but not nearly as remarkable as the levels observed when only carbohydrate metabolism synologs were considered.

Conclusions

Large numbers of highly similar synologs are rare in bacterial and archaeal genomes, both in general and among carbohydrate metabolism genes. However, A. vinelandii and several other soil bacteria harbour large numbers of highly similar carbohydrate metabolism synologs which seem not to result from recent duplication or transfer events. These genes may confer adaptive benefits with respect to certain lifestyles and environmental factors, most likely due to increased regulatory flexibility and/or increased gene dosage.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Real-time measurement of phloem turgor pressure in Hevea brasiliensis with a modified cell pressure probe

Although the pressure flow theory is widely accepted for the transport of photoassimilates in phloem sieve elements, it still requires strong experimental validation. One reason for that is the lack of a precise method for measuring the real-time phloem turgor pressure from the sink tissues, especially in tree trunks.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Although the pressure flow theory is widely accepted for the transport of photoassimilates in phloem sieve elements, it still requires strong experimental validation. One reason for that is the lack of a precise method for measuring the real-time phloem turgor pressure from the sink tissues, especially in tree trunks.

Results

Taking the merits of Hevea brasiliensis, a novel phloem turgor pressure probe based on the state of the art cell pressure probe was developed. Our field measurements showed that the phloem turgor pressure probe can sensitively measure the real-time variation of phloem turgor pressure in H. brasiliensis but the calculation of phloem turgor pressure with xylem tension, xylem sap osmotic potential and phloem sap osmotic potential will under-estimate it. The measured phloem turgor pressure gradient in H. brasiliensis is contrary to the Münch theory. The phloem turgor pressure of H. brasiliensis varied from 8–12 bar as a consequence of water withdrawal from transpiration. Tapping could result in a sharp decrease of phloem turgor pressure followed by a recovery from 8–45 min after the tapping. The recovery of phloem turgor pressure after tapping and its change with xylem sap flow suggest the importance of phloem water relationship in the phloem turgor pressure regulation.

Conclusion

The phloem turgor pressure probe is a reliable technique for measuring the real-time variation of phloem turgor pressures in H. brasiliensis. The technique could probably be extended to the accurate measurement of phloem turgor pressure in other woody plants which is essential to test the Münch theory and to investigate the phloem water relationship and turgor pressure regulation.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis

Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored.

Results

Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame.

Conclusions

As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
Scoop.it!

Single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Leptographium longiclavatum, a mountain pine beetle-associated symbiotic fungus, using whole-genome resequencing

Single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Leptographium longiclavatum, a mountain pine beetle-associated symbiotic fungus, using whole-genome resequencing | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are rapidly becoming the standard markers in population genomics studies; however, their use in nonmodel organisms is limited due to the lack of cost-effective approaches to uncover genome-wide variation, and the large number of individuals needed in the screening process to reduce ascertainment bias. To discover SNPs for population genomics studies in the fungal symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), we developed a road map to discover SNPs and to produce a genotyping platform. We undertook a whole-genome sequencing approach of Leptographium longiclavatum in combination with available genomics resources of another MPB symbiont, Grosmannia clavigera. We sequenced 71 individuals pooled into four groups using the Illumina sequencing technology. We generated between 27 and 30 million reads of 75 bp that resulted in a total of 1, 181 contigs longer than 2 kb and an assembled genome size of 28.9 Mb (N50 = 48 kb, average depth = 125x). A total of 9052 proteins were annotated, and between 9531 and 17 266 SNPs were identified in the four pools. A subset of 206 genes (containing 574 SNPs, 11% false positives) was used to develop a genotyping platform for this species. Using this roadmap, we developed a genotyping assay with a total of 147 SNPs located in 121 genes using the Illumina® Sequenom iPLEX Gold. Our preliminary genotyping (success rate = 85%) of 304 individuals from 36 populations supports the utility of this approach for population genomics studies in other MPB fungal symbionts and other fungal nonmodel species.


Via Francis Martin
more...
No comment yet.