Plant Genomics
Follow
Find
10.8K views | +18 today
 
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
onto Plant Genomics
Scoop.it!

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

Abstract

Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

 

more...
No comment yet.

From around the web

Plant Genomics
Updates on Plant Genomics
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Vegetative buds provide plants in temperate environments the possibility for growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are favorable. In grapevine, crucial developmental events take place within buds during two growing seasons in consecutive years. The first season, the shoot apical meristem within the bud differentiates all the basic elements of the shoot including flowering transition in lateral primordia and development of inflorescence primordia. These events practically end with bud dormancy. The second season, buds resume shoot growth associated to flower formation and development. Gene expression has been previously monitored at specific stages of bud development but has never been followed along the two growing seasons.

Results

Gene expression changes were analyzed along the bud annual cycle at eight different time points. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that the main factors explaining the global gene expression differences were the processes of bud dormancy and active growth as well as stress responses. Accordingly, non dormant buds showed an enrichment in functional categories typical of actively proliferating and growing cells together with the over abundance of transcripts belonging to stress response pathways. Differential expression analyses performed between consecutive time points indicated that major transcriptional changes were associated to para/endodormancy, endo/ecodormancy and ecodormancy/bud break transitions. Transcripts encoding key regulators of reproductive development were grouped in three major expression clusters corresponding to: (i) transcripts associated to flowering induction, (ii) transcripts associated to flower meristem specification and initiation and (iii) transcripts putatively involved in dormancy. Within this cluster, a MADS-box gene (VvFLC2) and other transcripts with similar expression patterns could participate in dormancy regulation.

Conclusions

This work provides a global view of major transcriptional changes taking place along bud development in grapevine, highlighting those molecular and biological functions involved in the main events of bud development. As reported in other woody species, the results suggest that genes regulating flowering could also be involved in dormancy regulatory pathways in grapevine.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Genome engineering via TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems: challenges and perspectives

Genome engineering via TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems: challenges and perspectives | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The ability to precisely modify genome sequence and regulate gene expression patterns in a site-specific manner holds much promise in plant biotechnology. Genome-engineering technologies that enable such highly specific and efficient modification are advancing with unprecedented pace. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) provide customizable DNA-binding modules designed to bind to any sequence of interest. Thus, TALEs have been used as a DNA targeting module fused to functional domains for a variety of targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. TALE nucleases (TALENs) have been used with much success across eukaryotic species to edit genomes. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) that are used as guide RNAs for Cas9 nuclease-specific digestion has been introduced as a highly efficient DNA-targeting platform for genome editing and regulation. Here, we review the discovery, development and limitations of TALENs and CRIPSR/Cas9 systems as genome-engineering platforms in plants. We discuss the current questions, potential improvements and the development of the next-generation genome-editing platforms with an emphasis on producing designer plants to address the needs of agriculture and basic plant biology.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Effectors and Plant Immunity
Scoop.it!

Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar vasculorum NCPPB 900 -

Harrison and Studholme, 2014

Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar vasculorum strain NCPPB 900 was isolated from sugarcane on Reunion island in 1960. Consistent with its belonging to fatty acid type D, multi-locus sequence analysis confirmed that NCPPB 900 falls within the species X. axonopodis. This genome harbours sequences similar to plasmids pXCV183 from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 and pPHB194 from Burkholderia pseudomallei. Its repertoire of predicted effectors includes homologues of XopAA, XopAD, XopAE, XopB, XopD, XopV, XopZ, XopC and XopI and transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors and it is predicted to encode a novel phosphonate natural product also encoded by the genome of the phylogenetically distant X. vasicola pv. vasculorum. Availability of this novel genome sequence may facilitate the study of interactions between xanthomonads and sugarcane, a host-pathogen system that appears to have evolved several times independently within the genus Xanthomonas and may also provide a source of target sequences for molecular detection and diagnostics.


Via dromius, Nicolas Denancé
more...
dromius's curator insight, October 2, 3:32 AM

This genome contains TAL effectors

Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Transcriptome Sequencing and Identification of Cold Tolerance Genes in Hardy Corylus Species (C. heterophylla Fisch) Floral Buds.

The genus Corylus is an important woody species in Northeast China. Its products, hazelnuts, constitute one of the most important raw materials for the pastry and chocolate industry. However, limited genetic research has focused on Corylus because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides a turning point for Corylus research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive database for the Corylus heterophylla Fisch floral buds.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBACKGROUND:

The genus Corylus is an important woody species in Northeast China. Its products, hazelnuts, constitute one of the most important raw materials for the pastry and chocolate industry. However, limited genetic research has focused on Corylus because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides a turning point for Corylus research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive database for the Corylus heterophylla Fisch floral buds.

RESULTS:

The C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 28,930,890 raw reads and assembled them into 82,684 contigs. A total of 40,941 unigenes were identified, among which 30,549 were annotated in the NCBI Non-redundant (Nr) protein database and 18,581 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Of these annotated unigenes, 25,311 and 10,514 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. We could map 17,207 unigenes onto 128 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Additionally, based on the transcriptome, we constructed a candidate cold tolerance gene set of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds. The expression patterns of selected genes during four stages of cold acclimation suggested that these genes might be involved in different cold responsive stages in C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds.

CONCLUSION:

The transcriptome of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds transcriptome. Candidate genes potentially involved in cold tolerance were identified, providing a material basis for future molecular mechanism analysis of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds tolerant to cold stress.

P

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

De novo genome assembly of the fungal plant pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda.

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Pyrenophora semeniperda (anamorph Drechslera campulata) is a necrotrophic fungal seed pathogen that has a wide host range within the Poaceae. One of its hosts is cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), a species exotic to the United States that has invaded natural ecosystems of the Intermountain West. As a natural pathogen of cheatgrass, P. semeniperda has potential as a biocontrol agent due to its effectiveness at killing seeds within the seed bank; however, few genetic resources exist for the fungus. Here, the genome of P. semeniperda isolate assembled from sequence reads of 454 pyrosequencing is presented. The total assembly is 32.5 Mb and includes 11,453 gene models encoding putative proteins larger than 24 amino acids. The models represent a variety of putative genes that are involved in pathogenic pathways typically found in necrotrophic fungi. In addition, extensive rearrangements, including inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements, were found when the P. semeniperda genome was compared to P. tritici-repentis, a related fungal species.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Proteomic analysis of pakchoi leaves and roots under glycine-nitrogen conditions.

Abstract

The physiological and differential proteomic responses of pakchoi leaves and roots to glycine-nitrogen (Gly-N) treatments were determined. Two pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L. Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee) cultivars, 'Huawang' and 'Wuyueman', were grown under sterile hydroponic conditions with different N forms (Gly-N and nitrate-N). Gly-N-treated pakchoi exhibited decreased fresh weights, total N uptake, leaf areas, and net photosynthetic rates than those treated with nitrate-N. Differentially regulated proteins were selected after image analysis and identified using MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 23 proteins was up- or down-regulated following Gly-N treatment. These spots are involved in several processes, such as energy synthesis, N metabolism, photosynthesis, and active antioxidant defense mechanisms, that could enhance plant adaptation to Gly-N. The superior Gly tolerance of 'Huawang' was predominantly associated with a less severe down-regulation of proteins that are involved in the electron transport chain and N metabolism. Other factors could include less ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase turnover or a higher up-regulation of stress defense proteins. These characteristics demonstrated that maintaining ATP synthesis, N metabolism, photosynthesis, and active defense mechanisms play a critical role in pakchoi adaptation to Gly-N.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

The physiological and differential proteomic responses of pakchoi leaves and roots to glycine-nitrogen (Gly-N) treatments were determined. Two pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L. Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee) cultivars, 'Huawang' and 'Wuyueman', were grown under sterile hydroponic conditions with different N forms (Gly-N and nitrate-N). Gly-N-treated pakchoi exhibited decreased fresh weights, total N uptake, leaf areas, and net photosynthetic rates than those treated with nitrate-N. Differentially regulated proteins were selected after image analysis and identified using MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 23 proteins was up- or down-regulated following Gly-N treatment. These spots are involved in several processes, such as energy synthesis, N metabolism, photosynthesis, and active antioxidant defense mechanisms, that could enhance plant adaptation to Gly-N. The superior Gly tolerance of 'Huawang' was predominantly associated with a less severe down-regulation of proteins that are involved in the electron transport chain and N metabolism. Other factors could include less ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase turnover or a higher up-regulation of stress defense proteins. These characteristics demonstrated that maintaining ATP synthesis, N metabolism, photosynthesis, and active defense mechanisms play a critical role in pakchoi adaptation to Gly-N.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci

Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLOS Genetics is an open-access
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some—including the infamous ergot alkaloids—have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the epichloae, their protective roles as symbionts, and their associations with the highly speciose and ecologically diverse cool-season grasses.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant-microbe interactions (on the plant's side)
Scoop.it!

Metabolome-genome-wide association study (mGWAS) dissects genetic architecture for generating natural variation in rice secondary metabolism

Metabolome-genome-wide association study (mGWAS) dissects genetic architecture for generating natural variation in rice secondary metabolism | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Plants produce structurally diverse secondary (specialized) metabolites to increase their fitness for survival under adverse environments. Several bioactive compounds for new drugs have been identified through screening of plant extracts. In this study, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture behind the natural variation of rice secondary metabolites. GWAS using the metabolome data of 175 rice accessions successfully identified 323 associations among 143 SNPs and 89 metabolites. The data analysis highlighted that levels of many metabolites are tightly associated with a small number of strong QTLs. The tight association may be a mechanism generating strains with distinct metabolic composition through the crossing of 2 different strains. The results indicate that one plant species produce more diverse phytochemicals than previously expected, and plants still contain many useful compounds for human applications.


Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms

Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Background and Aims Some species of Genlisea possess ultrasmall nuclear genomes, the smallest known among angiosperms, and some have been found to have chromosomes of diminutive size, which may explain why chromosome numbers and karyotypes are not known for the majority of species of the genus. However, other members of the genus do not possess ultrasmall genomes, nor do most taxa studied in related genera of the family or order. This study therefore examined the evolution of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in Genlisea in a phylogenetic context. The correlations of genome size with chromosome number and size, with the phylogeny of the group and with growth forms and habitats were also examined.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Comparative proteomic analysis of geneticall modified maize grown under differen agroecosystems conditions in Brazil

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae

Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae.

Results

The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD).

Conclusion

A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These data will aid in the selection of target genes to genetically engineer cotton to control the cotton boll weevil.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from The Plant Microbiome
Scoop.it!

New Phytol: Unraveling the effect of arsenic on the model Medicago–Ensifer interaction: a transcriptomic meta-analysis

New Phytol: Unraveling the effect of arsenic on the model Medicago–Ensifer interaction: a transcriptomic meta-analysis | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

    The genetic regulation underlying the effect of arsenic (As(III)) on the model symbiosis Medicago–Ensifer was investigated using a combination of physiological (split-roots), microscopy and genetic (microarrays, qRT-PCR and composite plants) tools.
    Nodulation was very sensitive to As(III) (median inhibitory dose (ID50) = 20 μM). The effect on root elongation and on nodulation was local (nonsystemic). A battery of stress (salt, drought, heat shock, metals, etc.)-related genes were induced. Glutathione played a pivotal role in tolerance/detoxification, together with secondary metabolites ((iso)flavonoids and phenylpropanoids). However, antioxidant enzymes were not activated.
    Concerning the symbiotic interaction, molecular evidence suggesting that rhizobia alleviate As stress is for the first time provided. Chalcone synthase (which is involved in the first step of the legume–rhizobia cross-talk) was strongly enhanced, suggesting that the plants are biased to establish symbiotic interactions under As(III) stress. In contrast, 13 subsequent nodulation genes (involved in nodulation factors (Nod factors) perception, infection, thread initiation and progression, and nodule morphogenesis) were repressed.
    Overexpression of the ethylene responsive factor ERN in composite plants reduced root stress and partially restored nodulation, whereas overexpression of the early nodulin ENOD12 enhanced nodulation both in the presence and, particularly, in the absence of As, without affecting root elongation. Several transcription factors were identified, which could be additional targets for genetic engineering aiming to improve nodulation and/or alleviate root stress induced by this toxic.


Via Stéphane Hacquard
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Comparative genome analysis of entomopathogenic fungi reveals a complex set of secreted proteins

Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus used in the biological control of some agricultural insect pests, and efforts are underway to use this fungus in the control of insect-borne human diseases. A large repertoire of proteins must be secreted by M. anisopliae to cope with the various available nutrients as this fungus switches through different lifestyles, i.e., from a saprophytic, to an infectious, to a plant endophytic stage. To further evaluate the predicted secretome of M. anisopliae, we employed genomic and transcriptomic analyses, coupled with phylogenomic analysis, focusing on the identification and characterization of secreted proteins.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Background

Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus used in the biological control of some agricultural insect pests, and efforts are underway to use this fungus in the control of insect-borne human diseases. A large repertoire of proteins must be secreted by M. anisopliae to cope with the various available nutrients as this fungus switches through different lifestyles, i.e., from a saprophytic, to an infectious, to a plant endophytic stage. To further evaluate the predicted secretome of M. anisopliae, we employed genomic and transcriptomic analyses, coupled with phylogenomic analysis, focusing on the identification and characterization of secreted proteins.

Results

We determined the M. anisopliae E6 genome sequence and compared this sequence to other entomopathogenic fungi genomes. A robust pipeline was generated to evaluate the predicted secretomes of M. anisopliae and 15 other filamentous fungi, leading to the identification of a core of secreted proteins. Transcriptomic analysis using the tick Rhipicephalus microplus cuticle as an infection model during two periods of infection (48 and 144 h) allowed the identification of several differentially expressed genes. This analysis concluded that a large proportion of the predicted secretome coding genes contained altered transcript levels in the conditions analyzed in this study. In addition, some specific secreted proteins from Metarhizium have an evolutionary history similar to orthologs found in Beauveria/Cordyceps. This similarity suggests that a set of secreted proteins has evolved to participate in entomopathogenicity.

Conclusions

The data presented represents an important step to the characterization of the role of secreted proteins in the virulence and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant roots and rhizosphere
Scoop.it!

Genome-wide analysis of copper, iron and zinc transporters in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis | Plant Traffic and Transport

Genome-wide analysis of copper, iron and zinc transporters in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis | Plant Traffic and Transport | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), belonging to the Glomeromycota, are soil microorganisms that establish mutualistic symbioses with the majority of higher plants. The efficient uptake of low mobility mineral nutrients by the fungal symbiont and their further transfer to the plant is a major feature of this symbiosis. Besides improving plant mineral nutrition, AMF can alleviate heavy metal toxicity to their host plants and are able to tolerate high metal concentrations in the soil. Nevertheless, we are far from understanding the key molecular determinants of metal homeostasis in these organisms. To get some insights into these mechanisms, a genome-wide analysis of Cu, Fe and Zn transporters was undertaken, making use of the recently published whole genome of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis. This in silico analysis allowed identification of 30 open reading frames in the R. irregularis genome, which potentially encode metal transporters. Phylogenetic comparisons with the genomes of a set of reference fungi showed an expansion of some metal transporter families. Analysis of the published transcriptomic profiles of R. irregularis revealed that a set of genes were up-regulated in mycorrhizal roots compared to germinated spores and extraradical mycelium, which suggests that metals are important for plant colonization.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Genome-wide patterns of segregation and linkage disequilibrium: the construction of a linkage genetic map of the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina.

The poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina causes significant yield reduction and severe economic losses in commercial poplar plantations. After several decades of breeding for qualitative resistance and subsequent breakdown of the released resistance genes, breeders now focus on quantitative resistance, perceived to be more durable. But quantitative resistance also can be challenged by an increase of aggressiveness in the pathogen. Thus, it is of primary importance to better understand the genetic architecture of aggressiveness traits. To this aim, our goal is to build a genetic linkage map for M. larici-populina in order to map quantitative trait loci related to aggressiveness. First, a large progeny of M. larici-populina was generated through selfing of the reference strain 98AG31 (which genome sequence is available) on larch plants, the alternate host of the poplar rust fungus. The progeny's meiotic origin was validated through a segregation analysis of 115 offspring with 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers, of which 12 segregated in the expected 1:2:1 Mendelian ratio. A microsatellite-based linkage disequilibrium analysis allowed us to identify one potential linkage group comprising two scaffolds. The whole genome of a subset of 47 offspring was resequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology at a mean sequencing depth of 6X. The reads were mapped onto the reference genome of the parental strain and 144,566 SNPs were identified across the genome. Analysis of distribution and polymorphism of the SNPs along the genome led to the identification of 2580 recombination blocks. A second linkage disequilibrium analysis, using the recombination blocks as markers, allowed us to group 81 scaffolds into 23 potential linkage groups. These preliminary results showed that a high-density linkage map could be constructed by using high-quality SNPs based on low-coverage resequencing of a larger number of M. larici-populina offspring.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina causes significant yield reduction and severe economic losses in commercial poplar plantations. After several decades of breeding for qualitative resistance and subsequent breakdown of the released resistance genes, breeders now focus on quantitative resistance, perceived to be more durable. But quantitative resistance also can be challenged by an increase of aggressiveness in the pathogen. Thus, it is of primary importance to better understand the genetic architecture of aggressiveness traits. To this aim, our goal is to build a genetic linkage map for M. larici-populina in order to map quantitative trait loci related to aggressiveness. First, a large progeny of M. larici-populina was generated through selfing of the reference strain 98AG31 (which genome sequence is available) on larch plants, the alternate host of the poplar rust fungus. The progeny's meiotic origin was validated through a segregation analysis of 115 offspring with 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers, of which 12 segregated in the expected 1:2:1 Mendelian ratio. A microsatellite-based linkage disequilibrium analysis allowed us to identify one potential linkage group comprising two scaffolds. The whole genome of a subset of 47 offspring was resequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology at a mean sequencing depth of 6X. The reads were mapped onto the reference genome of the parental strain and 144,566 SNPs were identified across the genome. Analysis of distribution and polymorphism of the SNPs along the genome led to the identification of 2580 recombination blocks. A second linkage disequilibrium analysis, using the recombination blocks as markers, allowed us to group 81 scaffolds into 23 potential linkage groups. These preliminary results showed that a high-density linkage map could be constructed by using high-quality SNPs based on low-coverage resequencing of a larger number of M. larici-populina offspring.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms.

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Some species of Genlisea possess ultrasmall nuclear genomes, the smallest known among angiosperms, and some have been found to have chromosomes of diminutive size, which may explain why chromosome numbers and karyotypes are not known for the majority of species of the genus. However, other members of the genus do not possess ultrasmall genomes, nor do most taxa studied in related genera of the family or order. This study therefore examined the evolution of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in Genlisea in a phylogenetic context. The correlations of genome size with chromosome number and size, with the phylogeny of the group and with growth forms and habitats were also examined.
METHODS:

Nuclear genome sizes were measured from cultivated plant material for a comprehensive sampling of taxa, including nearly half of all species of Genlisea and representing all major lineages. Flow cytometric measurements were conducted in parallel in two laboratories in order to compare the consistency of different methods and controls. Chromosome counts were performed for the majority of taxa, comparing different staining techniques for the ultrasmall chromosomes.
KEY RESULTS:

Genome sizes of 15 taxa of Genlisea are presented and interpreted in a phylogenetic context. A high degree of congruence was found between genome size distribution and the major phylogenetic lineages. Ultrasmall genomes with 1C values of <100 Mbp were almost exclusively found in a derived lineage of South American species. The ancestral haploid chromosome number was inferred to be n = 8. Chromosome numbers in Genlisea ranged from 2n = 2x = 16 to 2n = 4x = 32. Ascendant dysploid series (2n = 36, 38) are documented for three derived taxa. The different ploidy levels corresponded to the two subgenera, but were not directly correlated to differences in genome size; the three different karyotype ranges mirrored the different sections of the genus. The smallest known plant genomes were not found in G. margaretae, as previously reported, but in G. tuberosa (1C ≈ 61 Mbp) and some strains of G. aurea (1C ≈ 64 Mbp).
CONCLUSIONS:

Genlisea is an ideal candidate model organism for the understanding of genome reduction as the genus includes species with both relatively large (∼1700 Mbp) and ultrasmall (∼61 Mbp) genomes. This comparative, phylogeny-based analysis of genome sizes and karyotypes in Genlisea provides essential data for selection of suitable species for comparative whole-genome analyses, as well as for further studies on both the molecular and cytogenetic basis of genome reduction in plants.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Some species of Genlisea possess ultrasmall nuclear genomes, the smallest known among angiosperms, and some have been found to have chromosomes of diminutive size, which may explain why chromosome numbers and karyotypes are not known for the majority of species of the genus. However, other members of the genus do not possess ultrasmall genomes, nor do most taxa studied in related genera of the family or order. This study therefore examined the evolution of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in Genlisea in a phylogenetic context. The correlations of genome size with chromosome number and size, with the phylogeny of the group and with growth forms and habitats were also examined.

METHODS:

Nuclear genome sizes were measured from cultivated plant material for a comprehensive sampling of taxa, including nearly half of all species of Genlisea and representing all major lineages. Flow cytometric measurements were conducted in parallel in two laboratories in order to compare the consistency of different methods and controls. Chromosome counts were performed for the majority of taxa, comparing different staining techniques for the ultrasmall chromosomes.

KEY RESULTS:

Genome sizes of 15 taxa of Genlisea are presented and interpreted in a phylogenetic context. A high degree of congruence was found between genome size distribution and the major phylogenetic lineages. Ultrasmall genomes with 1C values of <100 Mbp were almost exclusively found in a derived lineage of South American species. The ancestral haploid chromosome number was inferred to be n = 8. Chromosome numbers in Genlisea ranged from 2n = 2x = 16 to 2n = 4x = 32. Ascendant dysploid series (2n = 36, 38) are documented for three derived taxa. The different ploidy levels corresponded to the two subgenera, but were not directly correlated to differences in genome size; the three different karyotype ranges mirrored the different sections of the genus. The smallest known plant genomes were not found in G. margaretae, as previously reported, but in G. tuberosa (1C ≈ 61 Mbp) and some strains of G. aurea (1C ≈ 64 Mbp).

CONCLUSIONS:

Genlisea is an ideal candidate model organism for the understanding of genome reduction as the genus includes species with both relatively large (∼1700 Mbp) and ultrasmall (∼61 Mbp) genomes. This comparative, phylogeny-based analysis of genome sizes and karyotypes in Genlisea provides essential data for selection of suitable species for comparative whole-genome analyses, as well as for further studies on both the molecular and cytogenetic basis of genome reduction in plants.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Microbial genome-enabled insights into plant-microorganism interactions.

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Advances in genome-based studies on plant-associated microorganisms have transformed our understanding of many plant pathogens and are beginning to greatly widen our knowledge of plant interactions with mutualistic and commensal microorganisms. Pathogenomics has revealed how pathogenic microorganisms adapt to particular hosts, subvert innate immune responses and change host range, as well as how new pathogen species emerge. Similarly, culture-independent community profiling methods, coupled with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies, have provided the first insights into the emerging field of research on plant-associated microbial communities. Together, these approaches have the potential to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and plant pathology, which have traditionally been two distinct research fields.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Identification of nuclear proteins in soybean under flooding stress using proteomic technique.

Flooding stress restricts soybean growth, it results in decrease the production. In this report, to understand how nuclear proteins in soybean affected by flooding, abundance changes of those proteins was analyzed. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the root tips of soybean treated with or without flooding stress. The extracted proteins were analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomic technique. Of a total of 94 nuclear proteins that were found to be responsive to flooding, the 19 and 75 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively. The identified flooding-responsive proteins were functionally classified, revealing that 8 increased proteins changed in protein synthesis, posttranslational modification, and protein degradation, while 34 decreased proteins were involved in transcription, RNA processing, DNA synthesis, and chromatin structure maintenance. Among these proteins, those whose levels changed more than 10 fold included two poly ADP-ribose polymerases and a novel G-domain-containing protein that might be involved in RNA binding. The mRNA expression levels of these three proteins indicated a similar tendency to their protein abundance changes. These results suggest that acceleration of protein poly-ADP-ribosylation and suppression of RNA metabolism may be involved in root tip of soybean under flooding stress.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Flooding stress restricts soybean growth, it results in decrease the production. In this report, to understand how nuclear proteins in soybean affected by flooding, abundance changes of those proteins was analyzed. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the root tips of soybean treated with or without flooding stress. The extracted proteins were analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomic technique. Of a total of 94 nuclear proteins that were found to be responsive to flooding, the 19 and 75 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively. The identified flooding-responsive proteins were functionally classified, revealing that 8 increased proteins changed in protein synthesis, posttranslational modification, and protein degradation, while 34 decreased proteins were involved in transcription, RNA processing, DNA synthesis, and chromatin structure maintenance. Among these proteins, those whose levels changed more than 10 fold included two poly ADP-ribose polymerases and a novel G-domain-containing protein that might be involved in RNA binding. The mRNA expression levels of these three proteins indicated a similar tendency to their protein abundance changes. These results suggest that acceleration of protein poly-ADP-ribosylation and suppression of RNA metabolism may be involved in root tip of soybean under flooding stress.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Overview of software options for processing, analysis and interpretation of mass spectrometric proteomic data

Overview of software options for processing, analysis and interpretation of mass spectrometric proteomic data | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Recently, the interests in proteomics have been intensively increased, and the proteomic methods have been widely applied to many problems in cell biology. If the age of 1990s is considered to be a decade of genomics, we can claim that the following years of the new century is a decade of proteomics. The rapid evolution of proteomics has continued through these years, with a series of innovations in separation techniques and the core technologies of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MS. Both technologies are fueled by automation and high throughput computation for profiling of proteins from biological systems. As Patterson ever mentioned, ‘data analysis is the Achilles heel of proteomics and our ability to generate data now outstrips our ability to analyze it’. The development of automatic and high throughput technologies for rapid identification of proteins is essential for large-scale proteome projects and automatic protein identification and characterization is essential for high throughput proteomics. This review provides a snap shot of the tools and applications that are available for mass spectrometric high throughput biocomputation. The review starts with a brief introduction of proteomics and MS. Computational tools that can be employed at various stages of analysis are presented, including that for data processing, identification, quantification, and the understanding of the biological functions of individual proteins and their dynamic interactions. The challenges of computation software development and its future trends in MS-based proteomics have also been speculated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Recently, the interests in proteomics have been intensively increased, and the proteomic methods have been widely applied to many problems in cell biology. If the age of 1990s is considered to be a decade of genomics, we can claim that the following years of the new century is a decade of proteomics. The rapid evolution of proteomics has continued through these years, with a series of innovations in separation techniques and the core technologies of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MS. Both technologies are fueled by automation and high throughput computation for profiling of proteins from biological systems. As Patterson ever mentioned, ‘data analysis is the Achilles heel of proteomics and our ability to generate data now outstrips our ability to analyze it’. The development of automatic and high throughput technologies for rapid identification of proteins is essential for large-scale proteome projects and automatic protein identification and characterization is essential for high throughput proteomics. This review provides a snap shot of the tools and applications that are available for mass spectrometric high throughput biocomputation. The review starts with a brief introduction of proteomics and MS. Computational tools that can be employed at various stages of analysis are presented, including that for data processing, identification, quantification, and the understanding of the biological functions of individual proteins and their dynamic interactions. The challenges of computation software development and its future trends in MS-based proteomics have also been speculated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant Genetics, NGS and Bioinformatics
Scoop.it!

Characterization of novel wheat NBS domain-containing sequences and their utilization, in silico, for genome-scale R-gene mining

Characterization of novel wheat NBS domain-containing sequences and their utilization, in silico, for genome-scale R-gene mining | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

In crop improvement, the isolation, cloning and transfer of disease resistance genes (R-genes) is an ultimate goal usually starting from tentative R-gene analogs (RGAs) that are identified on the basis of their structure. For bread wheat, recent advances in genome sequencing are supporting the efforts of wheat geneticists worldwide. Among wheat R-genes, nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-encoding ones represent a major class. In this study, we have used a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to amplify and clone NBS-type RGAs from a bread wheat cultivar, ‘Salambo 80.’ Four novel complete ORF sequences showing similarities to previously reported R-genes/RGAs were used for in silico analyses. In a first step, where analyses were focused on the NBS domain, these sequences were phylogenetically assigned to two distinct groups: a first group close to leaf rust Lr21 resistance proteins; and a second one similar to cyst nematode resistance proteins. In a second step, sequences were used as initial seeds to walk up and downstream the NBS domain. This procedure enabled identifying 8 loci ranging in size between 2,115 and 7,653 bp. Ab initio gene prediction identified 8 gene models, among which two had complete ORFs. While GenBank survey confirmed the belonging of sequences to two groups, subsequent characterization using IWGSC genomic and proteomic data showed that the 8 gene models, reported in this study, were unique and their loci matched scaffolds on chromosome arms 1AS, 1BS, 4BS and 1DS. The gene model located on 1DS is a pseudo-Lr21 that was shown to have an NBS-LRR domain structure, while the potential association of the RGAs, here reported, is discussed. This study has produced novel R-gene-like loci and models in the wheat genome and provides the first steps toward further elucidation of their role in wheat disease resistance.


Via Christophe Jacquet, Guogen Yang, Ali Taheri
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Action des stimulateurs des défenses des plantes
Scoop.it!

Phosphite-induced changes of the transcriptome and secretome in Solanum tuberosum leading to resistance against Phytophthora infestans

Abstract (provisional)

BackgroundPotato late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans can lead to immense yield loss. We investigated the transcriptome of Solanum tubersoum (cv. Desiree) and characterized the secretome by quantitative proteomics after foliar application of the protective agent phosphite. We also studied the distribution of phosphite in planta after application and tested transgenic potato lines with impaired in salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling.ResultsPhosphite had a rapid and transient effect on the transcriptome, with a clear response 3?h after treatment. Strikingly this effect lasted less than 24?h, whereas protection was observed throughout all time points tested. In contrast, 67 secretome proteins predominantly associated with cell-wall processes and defense changed in abundance at 48?h after treatment. Transcripts associated with defense, wounding, and oxidative stress constituted the core of the phosphite response. We also observed changes in primary metabolism and cell wall-related processes. These changes were shown not to be due to phosphate depletion or acidification caused by phosphite treatment. Of the phosphite-regulated transcripts 40% also changed with ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) as an elicitor, while the defence gene PR1 was only up-regulated by BABA. Although phosphite was shown to be distributed in planta to parts not directly exposed to phosphite, no protection in leaves without direct foliar application was observed. Furthermore, the analysis of transgenic potato lines indicated that the phosphite-mediated resistance was independent of the plant hormones salicylic and jasmonic acid.ConclusionsOur study suggests that a rapid phosphite-triggered response is important to confer long-lasting resistance against P. infestans and gives molecular understanding of its successful field applications.


Via ELICITRA
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

A transcriptomic analysis of Chrysanthemum nankingense provides insights into the basis of low temperature tolerance

A major constraint affecting the quality and productivity of chrysanthemum is the unusual period of low temperature occurring during early spring, late autumn, and winter. Yet, there has been no systematic investigation on the genes underlying the response to low temperature in chrysanthemum. Herein, we used RNA-Seq platform to characterize the transcriptomic response to low temperature by comparing different transcriptome of Chrysanthemum nankingense plants and subjecting them to a period of sub-zero temperature, with or without a prior low temperature acclimation.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

A major constraint affecting the quality and productivity of chrysanthemum is the unusual period of low temperature occurring during early spring, late autumn, and winter. Yet, there has been no systematic investigation on the genes underlying the response to low temperature in chrysanthemum. Herein, we used RNA-Seq platform to characterize the transcriptomic response to low temperature by comparing different transcriptome of Chrysanthemum nankingense plants and subjecting them to a period of sub-zero temperature, with or without a prior low temperature acclimation.

Results

Six separate RNA-Seq libraries were generated from the RNA samples of leaves and stems from six different temperature treatments, including one cold acclimation (CA), two freezing treatments without prior CA, two freezing treatments with prior CA and the control. At least seven million clean reads were obtained from each library. Over 77% of the reads could be mapped to sets of C. nankingense unigenes established previously. The differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) were identified as low temperature sensing and signalling genes, transcription factors, functional proteins associated with the abiotic response, and low temperature-responsive genes involved in post-transcriptional regulation. The differential transcription of 15 DTGs was validated using quantitative RT-PCR.

Conclusions

The large number of DTGs identified in this study, confirmed the complexity of the regulatory machinery involved in the processes of low temperature acclimation and low temperature/freezing tolerance.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

High-Throughput Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Isatis indigotica Transcriptome.

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBACKGROUND:

Isatis indigotica, the source of the traditional Chinese medicine Radix isatidis (Ban-Lan-Gen), is an extremely important economical crop in China. To facilitate biological, biochemical and molecular research on the medicinal chemicals in I. indigotica, here we report the first I. indigotica transcriptome generated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq).

RESULTS:

RNA-seq library was created using RNA extracted from a mixed sample including leaf and root. A total of 33,238 unigenes were assembled from more than 28 million of high quality short reads. The quality of the assembly was experimentally examined by cDNA sequencing of seven randomly selected unigenes. Based on blast search 28,184 unigenes had a hit in at least one of the protein and nucleotide databases used in this study, and 8 unigenes were found to be associated with biosynthesis of indole and its derivatives. According to Gene Ontology classification, 22,365 unigenes were categorized into 48 functional groups. Furthermore, Clusters of Orthologous Group and Swiss-Port annotation were assigned for 7,707 and 18,679 unigenes, respectively. Analysis of repeat motifs identified 6,400 simple sequence repeat markers in 4,509 unigenes.

CONCLUSION:

Our data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular study of I. indigotica. Our results will facilitate studies on the functions of genes involved in the indole alkaloid biosynthesis pathway and on metabolism of nitrogen and indole alkaloids in I. indigotica and its related species.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

BMC Genomics | Abstract | Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae

Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract (provisional)Background

Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae.

Results

The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD).

Conclusion

A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These data will aid in the selection of target genes to genetically engineer cotton to control the cotton boll weevil.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra from Plant-Microbe Symbioses
Scoop.it!

The small RNA diversity from Medicago truncatula roots under biotic interactions evidences the environmental plasticity of the miRNAome

BackgroundLegume roots show a remarkable plasticity to adapt their architecture to biotic and abiotic constraints, including symbiotic interactions. However, global analysis of miRNA regulation in roots is limited, and a global view of the evolution of miRNA-mediated diversification in different ecotypes is lacking.ResultsIn the model legume Medicago truncatula, we analyze the small RNA transcriptome of roots submitted to symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. Genome mapping and a computational pipeline identify 416 miRNA candidates, including known and novel variants of 78 miRNA families present in miRBase. Stringent criteria of pre-miRNA prediction yield 52 new mtr-miRNAs, including 27 miRtrons. Analyzing miRNA precursor polymorphisms in 26?M. truncatula ecotypes identifies higher sequence polymorphism in conserved rather than Medicago-specific miRNA precursors. An average of 19 targets, mainly involved in environmental responses and signalling, is predicted per novel miRNA. We identify miRNAs responsive to bacterial and fungal pathogens or symbionts as well as their related Nod and Myc-LCO symbiotic signals. Network analyses reveal modules of new and conserved co-expressed miRNAs that regulate distinct sets of targets, highlighting potential miRNA-regulated biological pathways relevant to pathogenic and symbiotic interactions.ConclusionsWe identify 52 novel genuine miRNAs and large plasticity of the root miRNAome in response to the environment, and also in response to purified Myc/Nod signaling molecules. The new miRNAs identified and their sequence variation across M. truncatula ecotypes may be crucial to understand the adaptation of root growth to the soil environment, notably in the agriculturally important legume crops.

 

Via Jean-Michel Ané
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Scoop.it!

Maize and millet transcription factors annotated using comparative genomic and transcriptomic data.

Maize and millet transcription factors annotated using comparative genomic and transcriptomic data. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBACKGROUND:

Transcription factors (TFs) contain DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences. In addition, there are proteins, called transcription coregulators (TCs), which lack DBDs but can alter gene expression through interaction with TFs or RNA Polymerase II. Therefore, it is interesting to identify and classify the TFs and TCs in a genome. In this study, maize (Zea mays) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica), two important species for the study of C4 photosynthesis and kranz anatomy, were selected.Result: We conducted a comprehensive genome-wide annotation of TFs and TCs in maize B73 and in two strains of foxtail millet, Zhang gu and Yugu1, and classified them into families. To gain additional support for our predictions, we searched for their homologous genes in Arabidopsis or rice and studied their gene expression level using RNA-seq and microarray data. We identified many new TF and TC families in these two species, and described some evolutionary and functional aspects of the 9 new maize TF families. Moreover, we detected many pseudogenes and transposable elements in current databases. In addition, we examined tissue expression preferences of TF and TC families and identified tissue/condition-specific TFs and TCs in maize and millet. Finally, we identified potential C4-related TF and TC genes in maize and millet.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results significantly expand current TF and TC annotations in maize and millet. We provided supporting evidence for our annotation from genomic and gene expression data and identified TF and TC genes with tissue preference in expression. Our study may facilitate the study of regulation of gene expression, tissue morphogenesis, and C4 photosynthesis in maize and millet. The data we generated in this study are available at http://sites.google.com/site/jjlmmtf.

more...
No comment yet.