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Label-Free Quantitation of Protein Modifications by Pseudo Selected Reaction Monitoring with Internal Reference Peptides - Journal of Proteome Research (ACS Publications)

Label-Free Quantitation of Protein Modifications by Pseudo Selected Reaction Monitoring with Internal Reference Peptides - Journal of Proteome Research (ACS Publications) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) based methods provide powerful tools for the quantitative analysis of modified proteins. We have developed a label-free approach using internal reference peptides (IRP) from the target protein for signal normalization without the need for isotope labeling. Ion-trap mass spectrometry and pseudo-selected reaction monitoring (pSRM) were used to acquire full MS/MS and MS3 spectra from target peptides. Skyline, a widely used software for SRM experiments, was used for chromatographic ion extraction. Phosphopeptides spiked into a BSA background yielded concentration response curves with high correlation coefficients (typically >0.9) and low coefficients of variation (≤15%) over a 200-fold concentration range. Stable isotope dilution (SID) and IRP methods were compared for quantitation of six site-specific phosphorylations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells with or without the addition of EGFR inhibitors cetuximab and gefitinib. Equivalent responses were observed with both IRP and SID methods, although analyses using the IRP method typically had higher median CVs (22–31%) than SID (10–20%). Analyses using both methods were consistent with immunoblot using site-selective antibodies. The ease of implementation and the suitability for targeted quantitative comparisons make this method suitable for broad application in protein biochemistry.

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Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Vegetative buds provide plants in temperate environments the possibility for growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are favorable. In grapevine, crucial developmental events take place within buds during two growing seasons in consecutive years. The first season, the shoot apical meristem within the bud differentiates all the basic elements of the shoot including flowering transition in lateral primordia and development of inflorescence primordia. These events practically end with bud dormancy. The second season, buds resume shoot growth associated to flower formation and development. Gene expression has been previously monitored at specific stages of bud development but has never been followed along the two growing seasons.

Results

Gene expression changes were analyzed along the bud annual cycle at eight different time points. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that the main factors explaining the global gene expression differences were the processes of bud dormancy and active growth as well as stress responses. Accordingly, non dormant buds showed an enrichment in functional categories typical of actively proliferating and growing cells together with the over abundance of transcripts belonging to stress response pathways. Differential expression analyses performed between consecutive time points indicated that major transcriptional changes were associated to para/endodormancy, endo/ecodormancy and ecodormancy/bud break transitions. Transcripts encoding key regulators of reproductive development were grouped in three major expression clusters corresponding to: (i) transcripts associated to flowering induction, (ii) transcripts associated to flower meristem specification and initiation and (iii) transcripts putatively involved in dormancy. Within this cluster, a MADS-box gene (VvFLC2) and other transcripts with similar expression patterns could participate in dormancy regulation.

Conclusions

This work provides a global view of major transcriptional changes taking place along bud development in grapevine, highlighting those molecular and biological functions involved in the main events of bud development. As reported in other woody species, the results suggest that genes regulating flowering could also be involved in dormancy regulatory pathways in grapevine.

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Read count-based method for high-throughput allelic genotyping of transposable elements and structural variants

Like other structural variants, transposable element insertions can be highly polymorphic across individuals. Their functional impact, however, remains poorly understood. Current genome-wide approaches for genotyping insertion-site polymorphisms based on targeted or whole-genome sequencing remain very expensive and can lack accuracy, hence new large-scale genotyping methods are needed.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Like other structural variants, transposable element insertions can be highly polymorphic across individuals. Their functional impact, however, remains poorly understood. Current genome-wide approaches for genotyping insertion-site polymorphisms based on targeted or whole-genome sequencing remain very expensive and can lack accuracy, hence new large-scale genotyping methods are needed.

Results

We describe a high-throughput method for genotyping transposable element insertions and other types of structural variants that can be assayed by breakpoint PCR. The method relies on next-generation sequencing of multiplex, site-specific PCR amplification products and read count-based genotype calls. We show that this method is flexible, efficient (it does not require rounds of optimization), cost-effective and highly accurate.

Conclusions

This method can benefit a wide range of applications from the routine genotyping of animal and plant populations to the functional study of structural variants in humans.

 
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Integrating Phosphoproteomics and Bioinformatics to Study Brassinosteroid-Regulated Phosphorylation Dynamics in Arabidopsis

Protein phosphorylation regulated by plant hormone is involved in the coordination of fundamental plant development. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of phytohormones, regulated phosphorylation dynamics remains to be delineated in plants. In this study, we performed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics to conduct a global and dynamic phosphoproteome profiling across five time points of BR treatment in the period between 5 min and 12 h. MS coupling with phosphopeptide enrichment techniques has become the powerful tool for profiling protein phosphorylation. However, MS-based methods tend to have data consistency and coverage issues. To address these issues, bioinformatics approaches were used to complement the non-detected proteins and recover the dynamics of phosphorylation events.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Protein phosphorylation regulated by plant hormone is involved in the coordination of fundamental plant development. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of phytohormones, regulated phosphorylation dynamics remains to be delineated in plants. In this study, we performed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics to conduct a global and dynamic phosphoproteome profiling across five time points of BR treatment in the period between 5 min and 12 h. MS coupling with phosphopeptide enrichment techniques has become the powerful tool for profiling protein phosphorylation. However, MS-based methods tend to have data consistency and coverage issues. To address these issues, bioinformatics approaches were used to complement the non-detected proteins and recover the dynamics of phosphorylation events.

Results

A total of 1104 unique phosphorylated peptides from 739 unique phosphoproteins were identified. The time-dependent gene ontology (GO) analysis shows the transition of biological processes from signaling transduction to morphogenesis and stress response. The protein-protein interaction analysis found that most of identified phosphoproteins have strongly connections with known BR signaling components. The analysis by using Motif-X was performed to identify 15 enriched motifs, 11 of which correspond to 6 known kinase families. To uncover the dynamic activities of kinases, the enriched motifs were combined with phosphorylation profiles and revealed that the substrates of casein kinase 2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase were significantly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated at initial time of BR treatment, respectively. The time-dependent kinase-substrate interaction networks were constructed and showed many substrates are the downstream of other signals, such as auxin and ABA signaling. While comparing BR responsive phosphoproteome and gene expression data, we found most of phosphorylation changes were not led by gene expression changes. Our results suggested many downstream proteins of BR signaling are induced by phosphorylation via various kinases, not through transcriptional regulation.

Conclusions

Through a large-scale dynamic profile of phosphoproteome coupled with bioinformatics, a complicated kinase-centered network related to BR-regulated growth was deciphered. The phosphoproteins and phosphosites identified in our study provide a useful dataset for revealing signaling networks of BR regulation, and also expanded our knowledge of protein phosphorylation modification in plants as well as further deal to solve the plant growth problems.

 
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The genome of the truffle-parasite Tolypocladium ophioglossoides and the evolution of antifungal peptaibiotics

Two major mycoparasitic lineages, the family Hypocreaceae and the genus Tolypocladium, exist within the fungal order, Hypocreales. Peptaibiotics are a group of secondary metabolites almost exclusively described from Trichoderma species of Hypocreaceae. Peptaibiotics are produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and have antibiotic and antifungal activities. Tolypocladium species are mainly truffle parasites, but a few species are insect pathogens.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Two major mycoparasitic lineages, the family Hypocreaceae and the genus Tolypocladium, exist within the fungal order, Hypocreales. Peptaibiotics are a group of secondary metabolites almost exclusively described from Trichoderma species of Hypocreaceae. Peptaibiotics are produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and have antibiotic and antifungal activities. Tolypocladium species are mainly truffle parasites, but a few species are insect pathogens.

Results

The draft genome sequence of the truffle parasite Tolypocladium ophioglossoides was generated and numerous secondary metabolite clusters were discovered, many of which have no known putative product. However, three large peptaibiotic gene clusters were identified using phylogenetic analyses. Peptaibiotic genes are absent from the predominantly plant and insect pathogenic lineages of Hypocreales, and are therefore exclusive to the largely mycoparasitic lineages. Using NRPS adenylation domain phylogenies and reconciliation of the domain tree with the organismal phylogeny, it is demonstrated that the distribution of these domains is likely not the product of horizontal gene transfer between mycoparasitic lineages, but represents independent losses in insect pathogenic lineages. Peptaibiotic genes are less conserved between species of Tolypocladium and are the product of complex patterns of lineage sorting and module duplication. In contrast, these genes are more conserved within the genus Trichoderma and consistent with diversification through speciation.

Conclusions

Peptaibiotic NRPS genes are restricted to mycoparasitic lineages of Hypocreales, based on current sampling. Phylogenomics and comparative genomics can provide insights into the evolution of secondary metabolite genes, their distribution across a broader range of taxa, and their possible function related to host specificity.

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Genomic sequence of the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

Aspergillus nomius is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the three most important producers of aflatoxins in section Flavi. This fungus has been reported to contaminate agricultural commodities, but it has also been sampled in non-agricultural areas so the host range is not well known. Having a similar mycotoxin profile as A. parasiticus, isolates of A. nomius are capable of secreting B- and G- aflatoxins.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Aspergillus nomius is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the three most important producers of aflatoxins in section Flavi. This fungus has been reported to contaminate agricultural commodities, but it has also been sampled in non-agricultural areas so the host range is not well known. Having a similar mycotoxin profile as A. parasiticus, isolates of A. nomius are capable of secreting B- and G- aflatoxins.

Results

In this study we discovered that the A. nomius type strain (NRRL 13137) has a genome size of approximately 36 Mb which is comparable to other Aspergilli whose genomes have been sequenced. Its genome encompasses 11,918 predicted genes, 72 % of which were assigned GO terms using BLAST2GO. More than 1,200 of those predicted genes were identified as unique to A. nomius, and the most significantly enriched GO category among the unique genes was oxidoreducatase activity. Phylogenomic inference shows NRRL 13137 as ancestral to the other aflatoxigenic species examined from section Flavi. This strain contains a single mating-type idiomorph designated as MAT1-1.

Conclusions

This study provides a preliminary analysis of the A. nomius genome. Given the recently discovered potential for A. nomius to undergo sexual recombination, and based on our findings, this genome sequence provides an additional evolutionary reference point for studying the genetics and biology of aflatoxin production.

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DNA methylation and gene expression in Mimulus guttatus

The presence of methyl groups on cytosine nucleotides across an organism’s genome (methylation) is a major regulator of genome stability, crossing over, and gene regulation. The capacity for DNA methylation to be altered by environmental conditions, and potentially passed between generations, makes it a prime candidate for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Here we conduct the first analysis of the Mimulus guttatus methylome, with a focus on the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

The presence of methyl groups on cytosine nucleotides across an organism’s genome (methylation) is a major regulator of genome stability, crossing over, and gene regulation. The capacity for DNA methylation to be altered by environmental conditions, and potentially passed between generations, makes it a prime candidate for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Here we conduct the first analysis of the Mimulus guttatus methylome, with a focus on the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression.

Results

We present a whole genome methylome for the inbred line Iron Mountain 62 (IM62). DNA methylation varies across chromosomes, genomic regions, and genes. We develop a model that predicts gene expression based on DNA methylation (R 2 = 0.2). Post hoc analysis of this model confirms prior relationships, and identifies novel relationships between methylation and gene expression. Additionally, we find that DNA methylation is significantly depleted near gene transcriptional start sites, which may explain the recently discovered elevated rate of recombination in these same regions.

Conclusions

The establishment here of a reference methylome will be a useful resource for the continued advancement of M. guttatus as a model system. Using a model-based approach, we demonstrate that methylation patterns are an important predictor of variation in gene expression. This model provides a novel approach for differential methylation analysis that generates distinct and testable hypotheses regarding gene expression.

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Deep sequencing-based characterization of transcriptome of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) in response to cold stress

Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) is extremely cold hardy after a full acclimation; however the underlying molecular mechanisms underlying this economically valuable trait remain poorly understood. In this study, global transcriptome profiles of trifoliate orange under cold conditions (4 °C) over a time course were generated by high-throughput sequencing.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) is extremely cold hardy after a full acclimation; however the underlying molecular mechanisms underlying this economically valuable trait remain poorly understood. In this study, global transcriptome profiles of trifoliate orange under cold conditions (4 °C) over a time course were generated by high-throughput sequencing.

Results

More than 68 million high-quality reads were produced and assembled into a non-redundant data of 77,292 unigenes with an average length of 1112 bp (N50 = 1778 bp). Of these, 23,846 had significant sequence similarity to known genes and these were assigned to 61 gene ontology (GO) categories and 25 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) involved in 128 KEGG pathways. Sequences derived from cold-treated and control plants were mapped to the assembled transcriptome, resulting in the identification of 5549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). These comprised 600 (462 up-regulated, 138 down-regulated), 2346 (1631 up-regulated, 715 down-regulated), and 5177 (2702 up-regulated, 2475 down-regulated) genes from the cold-treated samples at 6, 24 and 72 h, respectively. The accuracy of the RNA-seq derived transcript expression data was validated by analyzing the expression patterns of 17 DEGs by qPCR. Plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interaction, and secondary metabolism were the most significantly enriched GO categories amongst in the DEGs. A total of 60 transcription factors were shown to be cold responsive. In addition, a number of genes involved in the catabolism and signaling of hormones, such as abscisic acid, ethylene and gibberellin, were affected by the cold stress. Meanwhile, levels of putrescine progressively increased under cold, which was consistent with up-regulation of an arginine decarboxylase gene.

Conclusions

This dataset provides valuable information regarding the trifoliate orange transcriptome changes in response to cold stress and may help guide future identification and functional analysis of genes that are importnatn for enhancing cold hardiness.

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Transcriptional analysis of susceptible and resistant European corn borer strains and their response to Cry1F protoxin

Despite a number of recent reports of insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), little is known about the mechanism of resistance to these toxins. The purpose of this study is to identify genes associated with the mechanism of Cry1F toxin resistance in European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner). For this, we compared the global transcriptomic response of laboratory selected resistant and susceptible O. nubilalis strain to Cry1F toxin. We further identified constitutive transcriptional differences between the two strains.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Despite a number of recent reports of insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), little is known about the mechanism of resistance to these toxins. The purpose of this study is to identify genes associated with the mechanism of Cry1F toxin resistance in European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner). For this, we compared the global transcriptomic response of laboratory selected resistant and susceptible O. nubilalis strain to Cry1F toxin. We further identified constitutive transcriptional differences between the two strains.

Results

An O. nubilalis midgut transcriptome of 36,125 transcripts was assembled de novo from 106 million Illumina HiSeq and Roche 454 reads and used as a reference for estimation of differential gene expression analysis. Evaluation of gene expression profiles of midgut tissues from the Cry1F susceptible and resistant strains after toxin exposure identified a suite of genes that responded to the toxin in the susceptible strain (n = 1,654), but almost 20-fold fewer in the resistant strain (n = 84). A total of 5,455 midgut transcripts showed significant constitutive expression differences between Cry1F susceptible and resistant strains. Transcripts coding for previously identified Cry toxin receptors, cadherin and alkaline phosphatase and proteases were also differentially expressed in the midgut of the susceptible and resistant strains.

Conclusions

Our current study provides a valuable resource for further molecular characterization of Bt resistance and insect response to Cry1F toxin in O. nubilalis and other pest species.

 
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Sequence diversity and differential expression of major phenylpropanoid-flavonoid biosynthetic genes among three mango varieties

Mango fruits contain a broad spectrum of phenolic compounds which impart potential health benefits; their biosynthesis is catalysed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid (PF) pathway. The aim of this study was to reveal the variability in genes involved in the PF pathway in three different mango varieties Mangifera indica L., a member of the family Anacardiaceae: Kensington Pride (KP), Irwin (IW) and Nam Doc Mai (NDM) and to determine associations with gene expression and mango flavonoid profiles.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Mango fruits contain a broad spectrum of phenolic compounds which impart potential health benefits; their biosynthesis is catalysed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid (PF) pathway. The aim of this study was to reveal the variability in genes involved in the PF pathway in three different mango varieties Mangifera indica L., a member of the family Anacardiaceae: Kensington Pride (KP), Irwin (IW) and Nam Doc Mai (NDM) and to determine associations with gene expression and mango flavonoid profiles.

Results

A close evolutionary relationship between mango genes and those from the woody species poplar of the Salicaceae family (Populus trichocarpa) and grape of the Vitaceae family (Vitis vinifera), was revealed through phylogenetic analysis of PF pathway genes. We discovered 145 SNPs in total within coding sequences with an average frequency of one SNP every 316 bp. Variety IW had the highest SNP frequency (one SNP every 258 bp) while KP and NDM had similar frequencies (one SNP every 369 bp and 360 bp, respectively). The position in the PF pathway appeared to influence the extent of genetic diversity of the encoded enzymes. The entry point enzymes phenylalanine lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-mono-oxygenase (C4H) and chalcone synthase (CHS) had low levels of SNP diversity in their coding sequences, whereas anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) showed the highest SNP frequency followed by flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (F3’H). Quantitative PCR revealed characteristic patterns of gene expression that differed between mango peel and flesh, and between varieties.

Conclusions

The combination of mango expressed sequence tags and availability of well-established reference PF biosynthetic genes from other plant species allowed the identification of coding sequences of genes that may lead to the formation of important flavonoid compounds in mango fruits and facilitated characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms between varieties. We discovered an association between the extent of sequence variation and position in the pathway for up-stream genes. The high expression of PAL, C4H and CHS genes in mango peel compared to flesh is associated with high amounts of total phenolic contents in peels, which suggest that these genes have an influence on total flavonoid levels in mango fruit peel and flesh. In addition, the particularly high expression levels of ANR in KP and NDM peels compared to IW peel and the significant accumulation of its product epicatechin gallate (ECG) in those extracts reflects the rate-limiting role of ANR on ECG biosynthesis in mango.

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The completed genome sequence of the pathogenic ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum

Accurate genome assembly and gene model annotation are critical for comparative species and gene functional analyses. Here we present the completed genome sequence and annotation of the reference strain PH-1 of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of head scab disease of small grain cereals which threatens global food security. Completion was achieved by combining (a) the BROAD Sanger sequenced draft, with (b) the gene predictions from Munich Information Services for Protein Sequences (MIPS) v3.2, with (c) de novo whole-genome shotgun re-sequencing, (d) re-annotation of the gene models using RNA-seq evidence and Fgenesh, Snap, GeneMark and Augustus prediction algorithms, followed by (e) manual curation.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Accurate genome assembly and gene model annotation are critical for comparative species and gene functional analyses. Here we present the completed genome sequence and annotation of the reference strain PH-1 of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of head scab disease of small grain cereals which threatens global food security. Completion was achieved by combining (a) the BROAD Sanger sequenced draft, with (b) the gene predictions from Munich Information Services for Protein Sequences (MIPS) v3.2, with (c) de novo whole-genome shotgun re-sequencing, (d) re-annotation of the gene models using RNA-seq evidence and Fgenesh, Snap, GeneMark and Augustus prediction algorithms, followed by (e) manual curation.

Results

We have comprehensively completed the genomic 36,563,796 bp sequence by replacing unknown bases, placing supercontigs within their correct loci, correcting assembly errors, and inserting new sequences which include for the first time complete AT rich sequences such as centromere sequences, subtelomeric regions and the telomeres. Each of the four F. graminearium chromosomes was found to be submetacentric with respect to centromere positioning. The position of a potential neocentromere was also defined. A preferentially higher frequency of genetic recombination was observed at the end of the longer arm of each chromosome. Within the genome 1529 gene models have been modified and 412 new gene models predicted, with a total gene call of 14,164. The re-annotation impacts upon 69 entries held within the Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base) which stores information on genes for which mutant phenotypes in pathogen-host interactions have been experimentally tested, of which 59 are putative transcription factors, 8 kinases, 1 ATP citrate lyase (ACL1), and 1 syntaxin-like SNARE gene (GzSYN1). Although the completed F. graminearum contains very few transposon sequences, a previously unrecognised and potentially active gypsy-type long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was identified. In addition, each of the sub-telomeres and centromeres contained either a LTR or MarCry-1_FO element. The full content of the proposed ancient chromosome fusion sites has also been revealed and investigated. Regions with high recombination previously noted to be rich in secretome encoding genes were also found to be rich in tRNA sequences. This study has identified 741 F. graminearum species specific genes and provides the first complete genome assembly for a Sordariomycetes species.

Conclusions

This fully completed F. graminearum PH-1 genome and manually curated annotation, available at Ensembl Fungi, provides the optimum resource to perform interspecies comparative analyses and gene function studies.

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Techniques & applications: A first genome assembly for nanopore sequencing

Techniques & applications: A first genome assembly for nanopore sequencing | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
The 'MinION' nanopore sequencer works by applying an ionic current across an electrically resistant membrane permeabilized by protein nanopores. The sequence of DNA molecules passing through each nanopore is determined by measuring changes to this current. Nanopore sequencers can vastly increase the permissible length of input DNA and remove the…
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The 'MinION' nanopore sequencer works by applying an ionic current across an electrically resistant membrane permeabilized by protein nanopores. The sequence of DNA molecules passing through each nanopore is determined by measuring changes to this current. Nanopore sequencers can vastly increase the permissible length of input DNA and remove the…

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Identification and transcriptomic profiling of genes involved in increasing sugar content during salt stress in sweet sorghum leaves

Sweet sorghum is an annual C4 crop considered to be one of the most promising bio-energy crops due to its high sugar content in stem, yet it is poorly understood how this plant increases its sugar content in response to salt stress. In response to high NaCl, many of its major processes, such as photosynthesis, protein synthesis, energy and lipid metabolism, are inhibited. Interestingly, sugar content in sweet sorghum stems remains constant or even increases in several salt-tolerant species.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Sweet sorghum is an annual C4 crop considered to be one of the most promising bio-energy crops due to its high sugar content in stem, yet it is poorly understood how this plant increases its sugar content in response to salt stress. In response to high NaCl, many of its major processes, such as photosynthesis, protein synthesis, energy and lipid metabolism, are inhibited. Interestingly, sugar content in sweet sorghum stems remains constant or even increases in several salt-tolerant species.

Results

In this study, the transcript profiles of two sweet sorghum inbred lines (salt-tolerant M-81E and salt-sensitive Roma) were analyzed in the presence of 0 mM or 150 mM NaCl in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that lead to higher sugar content during salt stress. We identified 864 and 930 differentially expressed genes between control plants and those subjected to salt stress in both M-81E and Roma strains. We determined that the majority of these genes are involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation, and starch and sucrose metabolism. Genes important for maintaining photosystem structure and for regulating electron transport were less affected by salt stress in the M-81E line compared to the salt-sensitive Roma line. In addition, expression of genes encoding NADP + -malate enzyme and sucrose synthetase was up-regulated and expression of genes encoding invertase was down-regulated under salt stress in M-81E. In contrast, the expression of these genes showed the opposite trend in Roma under salt stress.

Conclusions

The results we obtained revealed that the salt-tolerant genotype M-81E leads to increased sugar content under salt stress by protecting important structures of photosystems, by enhancing the accumulation of photosynthetic products, by increasing the production of sucrose synthetase and by inhibiting sucrose decomposition.

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Genome-wide annotation and characterization of CLAVATA/ESR (CLE) peptide hormones of soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), an...

Genome-wide annotation and characterization of CLAVATA/ESR (CLE) peptide hormones of soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), an... | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
J Exp Bot. 2015 Jul 17. pii: erv351. [Epub ahead of print]
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CLE peptides are key regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation in plant shoots, roots, vasculature, and legume nodules. They are C-terminally encoded peptides that are post-translationally cleaved and modified from their corresponding pre-propeptides to produce a final ligand that is 12-13 amino acids in length. In this study, an array of bionformatic and comparative genomic approaches was used to identify and characterize the complete family of CLE peptide-encoding genes in two of the world's most important crop species, soybean and common bean. In total, there are 84 CLE peptide-encoding genes in soybean (considerably more than the 32 present in Arabidopsis), including three pseudogenes and two multi-CLE domain genes having six putative CLE domains each. In addition, 44 CLE peptide-encoding genes were identified in common bean. In silico characterization was used to establish all soybean homeologous pairs, and to identify corresponding gene orthologues present in common bean and Arabidopsis. The soybean CLE pre-propeptide family was further analysed and separated into seven distinct groups based on structure, with groupings strongly associated with the CLE domain sequence and function. These groups provide evolutionary insight into the CLE peptide families of soybean, common bean, and Arabidopsis, and represent a novel tool that can aid in the functional characterization of the peptides. Transcriptional evidence was also used to provide further insight into the location and function of all CLE peptide-encoding members currently available in gene atlases for the three species. Taken together, this in-depth analysis helped to identify and categorize the complete CLE peptide families of soybean and common bean, established gene orthologues within the two legume species, and Arabidopsis, and provided a platform to help compare, contrast, and identify the function of critical CLE peptide hormones in plant development.

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Genome-wide identification and Phylogenic analysis of kelch motif containing ACBP in Brassica napus

Acyl-coA binding proteins (ACBPs) bind long chain acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity. Their possible involvement in fatty acid transportation from the plastid to the endoplasmic reticulum, prior to the formation of triacylglycerol has been suggested. Four classes of ACBPs were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: the small ACBPs, the large ACBPs, the ankyrin repeats containing ACBPs and the kelch motif containing ACBPs. They differed in structure and in size, and showed multiple important functions. In the present study, Brassica napus ACBPs were identified and characterized.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Acyl-coA binding proteins (ACBPs) bind long chain acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity. Their possible involvement in fatty acid transportation from the plastid to the endoplasmic reticulum, prior to the formation of triacylglycerol has been suggested. Four classes of ACBPs were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: the small ACBPs, the large ACBPs, the ankyrin repeats containing ACBPs and the kelch motif containing ACBPs. They differed in structure and in size, and showed multiple important functions. In the present study, Brassica napus ACBPs were identified and characterized.

Results

Eight copies of kelch motif ACBPs were cloned, it showed that B. napus ACBPs shared high amino acid sequence identity with A. thaliana, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Furthermore, phylogeny based on domain structure and comparison map showed the relationship and the evolution of ACBPs within Brassicaceae family: ACBPs evolved into four separate classes with different structure. Chromosome locations comparison showed conserved syntenic blocks.

Conclusions

ACBPs were highly conserved in Brassicaceae. They evolved from a common ancestor, but domain duplication and rearrangement might separate them into four distinct classes, with different structure and functions. Otherwise, B. napus inherited kelch motif ACBPs from ancestor conserving chromosomal location, emphasizing preserved synteny block region. This study provided a first insight for exploring ACBPs in B. napus, which supplies a valuable tool for crop improvement in agriculture.

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Genome-wide characterisation and analysis of bHLH transcription factors related to tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza

Genome-wide characterisation and analysis of bHLH transcription factors related to tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae) is an emerging model plant for traditional medicine, and tanshinones are among the pharmacologically active constituents of this plant. Although extensive chemical and pharmaceutical studies of these compounds have been performed, studies on the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate tanshinone biosynthesis are limited. In our study, 127 bHLH transcription factor genes were identified in the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these SmbHLHs could be classified into 25 subfamilies. A total of 19 sequencing libraries were constructed for expression pattern analyses using RNA-Seq. Based on gene-specific expression patterns and up-regulated expression patterns in response to MeJA treatment, 7 bHLH genes were revealed as potentially involved in the regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis. Among them, the gene expression of SmbHLH37, SmbHLH74 and SmbHLH92 perfectly matches the accumulation pattern of tanshinone biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of bHLH transcription factors in S. miltiorrhiza.

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Use of the de novo transcriptome analysis of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) to identify gene expression changes associated with wounding and terpene biosynthesis

Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.

Results

By next-generation sequencing, the flower/leaf transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium was sequenced and de novo assembled into 75,618 unigenes. Among the unigenes identified, several corresponded to genes involved in terpene biosynthesis; these included terpene synthases (TPSs) and genes of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. Functional characterization of two of the TPSs showed that one produced the sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene and the second produced the monoterpene camphene. Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses. The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene. Wounding also led to the increased expression of the putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 2 (DXS2) gene, a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, corroborating the overall increased output of terpene biosynthesis.

Conclusions

The reported S. elaeagnifolium de novo transcriptome provides a valuable sequence database that could facilitate study of this invasive weed and contribute to our understanding of the highly diverse Solanaceae family. Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant’s interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

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Evolutionary insights from de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP discovery in California white oaks

Reference transcriptomes provide valuable resources for understanding evolution within and among species. We de novo assembled and annotated a reference transcriptome for Quercus lobata and Q. garryana and identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to provide resources for forest genomicists studying this ecologically and economically important genus. We further performed preliminary analyses of genes important in interspecific divergent (positive) selection that might explain ecological differences among species, estimating rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (d

N
/d

S
) and Fay and Wu’s H. Functional classes of genes were tested for unusually high d

N
/d

S
or low H consistent with divergent positive selection.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Reference transcriptomes provide valuable resources for understanding evolution within and among species. We de novo assembled and annotated a reference transcriptome for Quercus lobata and Q. garryana and identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to provide resources for forest genomicists studying this ecologically and economically important genus. We further performed preliminary analyses of genes important in interspecific divergent (positive) selection that might explain ecological differences among species, estimating rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN /dS ) and Fay and Wu’s H. Functional classes of genes were tested for unusually high dN /dS or low H consistent with divergent positive selection.

Results

Our draft transcriptome is among the most complete for oaks, including 83,644 contigs (23,329 ≥ 1 kbp), 14,898 complete and 13,778 partial gene models, and functional annotations for 9,431 Arabidopsis orthologs and 19,365 contigs with Pfam hits. We identified 1.7 million possible sequence variants including 1.1 million high-quality diallelic SNPs — among the largest sets identified in any tree. 11 of 18 functional categories with significantly elevated dN /dS are involved in disease response, including 50+ genes with dN /dS > 1. Other high-dN /dS genes are involved in biotic response, flowering and growth, or regulatory processes. In contrast, median dN /dS was low (0.22), suggesting that purifying selection influences most genes. No functional categories have unusually low H.

Conclusions

These results offer preliminary support for the hypothesis that divergent selection at pathogen resistance are important factors in species divergence in these hybridizing California oaks. Our transcriptome provides a solid foundation for future studies of gene expression, natural selection, and speciation in Quercus.

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Whole transcriptome profiling of the vernalization process in Lilium longiflorum (cultivar White Heaven) bulbs

Vernalization is an obligatory requirement of extended exposure to low temperatures to induce flowering in certain plants. It is the most important factor affecting flowering time and quality in Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum). Exposing the bulbs to 4 °C gradually decreases flowering time up to 50 % compared to non-vernalized plants. We aim to understand the molecular regulation of vernalization in Easter lily, for which we characterized the global expression in lily bulb meristems after 0, 2, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of incubation at 4 °C.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Vernalization is an obligatory requirement of extended exposure to low temperatures to induce flowering in certain plants. It is the most important factor affecting flowering time and quality in Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum). Exposing the bulbs to 4 °C gradually decreases flowering time up to 50 % compared to non-vernalized plants. We aim to understand the molecular regulation of vernalization in Easter lily, for which we characterized the global expression in lily bulb meristems after 0, 2, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of incubation at 4 °C.

Results

We assembled de-novo a transcriptome which, after filtering, yielded 121,572 transcripts and 42,430 genes which hold 15,414 annotated genes, with up to 3,657 GO terms. This extensive annotation was mapped to the more general GO slim plant with a total of 94 terms. The response to cold exposure was summarized in 6 expression clusters, providing useful patterns for dissecting the dynamics of vernalization in lily. The functional annotation (GO and GO slim plant) was used to group transcripts in gene sets. Analysis of these gene sets and profiles revealed that most of the enriched functions among genes up-regulated by cold exposure were related to epigenetic processes and chromatin remodeling. Candidate vernalization genes in lily were selected based on their sequence similarity to known regulators of flowering in other species.

Conclusions

We present a detailed analysis of gene expression dynamics during vernalization in Lilium, covering several time points and accounting for biological variation by the use of replicates. The resulting collection of transcripts and novel isoforms provides a useful resource for studying the changes occurring during vernalization at a fine level. The selected potential candidate genes can shed light on the regulation of this process.

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Daytime soybean transcriptome fluctuations during water deficit stress

Since drought can seriously affect plant growth and development and little is known about how the oscillations of gene expression during the drought stress-acclimation response in soybean is affected, we applied Illumina technology to sequence 36 cDNA libraries synthesized from control and drought-stressed soybean plants to verify the dynamic changes in gene expression during a 24-h time course. Cycling variables were measured from the expression data to determine the putative circadian rhythm regulation of gene expression.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Since drought can seriously affect plant growth and development and little is known about how the oscillations of gene expression during the drought stress-acclimation response in soybean is affected, we applied Illumina technology to sequence 36 cDNA libraries synthesized from control and drought-stressed soybean plants to verify the dynamic changes in gene expression during a 24-h time course. Cycling variables were measured from the expression data to determine the putative circadian rhythm regulation of gene expression.

Results

We identified 4866 genes differentially expressed in soybean plants in response to water deficit. Of these genes, 3715 were differentially expressed during the light period, from which approximately 9.55 % were observed in both light and darkness. We found 887 genes that were either up- or down-regulated in different periods of the day. Of 54,175 predicted soybean genes, 35.52 % exhibited expression oscillations in a 24 h period. This number increased to 39.23 % when plants were submitted to water deficit. Major differences in gene expression were observed in the control plants from late day (ZT16) until predawn (ZT20) periods, indicating that gene expression oscillates during the course of 24 h in normal development. Under water deficit, dissimilarity increased in all time-periods, indicating that the applied stress influenced gene expression. Such differences in plants under stress were primarily observed in ZT0 (early morning) to ZT8 (late day) and also from ZT4 to ZT12. Stress-related pathways were triggered in response to water deficit primarily during midday, when more genes were up-regulated compared to early morning. Additionally, genes known to be involved in secondary metabolism and hormone signaling were also expressed in the dark period.

Conclusions

Gene expression networks can be dynamically shaped to acclimate plant metabolism under environmental stressful conditions. We have identified putative cycling genes that are expressed in soybean leaves under normal developmental conditions and genes whose expression oscillates under conditions of water deficit. These results suggest that time of day, as well as light and temperature oscillations that occur considerably affect the regulation of water deficit stress response in soybean plants.

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The Pkn22 Ser/Thr kinase in Nostoc PCC 7120: role of FurA and NtcA regulators and transcript profiling under nitrogen starvation and oxidative stress

The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 can fix N
2
when combined nitrogen is not available. Furthermore, it has to cope with reactive oxygen species generated as byproducts of photosynthesis and respiration. We have previously demonstrated the synthesis of Ser/Thr kinase Pkn22 as an important survival response of Nostoc to oxidative damage. In this study we wished to investigate the possible involvement of this kinase in signalling peroxide stress and nitrogen deprivation.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 can fix N 2 when combined nitrogen is not available. Furthermore, it has to cope with reactive oxygen species generated as byproducts of photosynthesis and respiration. We have previously demonstrated the synthesis of Ser/Thr kinase Pkn22 as an important survival response of Nostoc to oxidative damage. In this study we wished to investigate the possible involvement of this kinase in signalling peroxide stress and nitrogen deprivation.

Results

Quantitative RT-PCR experiments revealed that the pkn22 gene is induced in response to peroxide stress and to combined nitrogen starvation. Electrophoretic motility assays indicated that the pkn22 promoter is recognized by the global transcriptional regulators FurA and NtcA. Transcriptomic analysis comparing a pkn22-insertion mutant and the wild type strain indicated that this kinase regulates genes involved in important cellular functions such as photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and iron acquisition. Since metabolic changes may lead to oxidative stress, we investigated whether this is the case with nitrogen starvation. Our results rather invalidate this hypothesis thereby suggesting that the function of Pkn22 under nitrogen starvation is independent of its role in response to peroxide stress.

Conclusions

Our analyses have permitted a more complete functional description of Ser/Thr kinase in Nostoc. We have decrypted the transcriptional regulation of the pkn22 gene, and analysed the whole set of genes under the control of this kinase in response to the two environmental changes often encountered by cyanobacteria in their natural habitat: oxidative stress and nitrogen deprivation.

 
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Global transcriptome and gene regulation network for secondary metabolite biosynthesis of tea plant (Camellia sinensis)

Major secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, caffeine, and theanine, are important components of tea products and are closely related to the taste, flavor, and health benefits of tea. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis is differentially regulated in different tissues during growth and development. Until now, little was known about the expression patterns of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways or their regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to generate expression profiles for C. sinensis tissues and to build a gene regulation model of the secondary metabolic pathways.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Major secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, caffeine, and theanine, are important components of tea products and are closely related to the taste, flavor, and health benefits of tea. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis is differentially regulated in different tissues during growth and development. Until now, little was known about the expression patterns of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways or their regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to generate expression profiles for C. sinensis tissues and to build a gene regulation model of the secondary metabolic pathways.

Results

RNA sequencing was performed on 13 different tissue samples from various organs and developmental stages of tea plants, including buds and leaves of different ages, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. A total of 43.7 Gbp of raw sequencing data were generated, from which 347,827 unigenes were assembled and annotated. There were 46,693, 8446, 3814, 10,206, and 4948 unigenes specifically expressed in the buds and leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots, respectively. In total, 1719 unigenes were identified as being involved in the secondary metabolic pathways in C. sinensis, and the expression patterns of the genes involved in flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis were characterized, revealing the dynamic nature of their regulation during plant growth and development. The possible transcription factor regulation network for the biosynthesis of flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine was built, encompassing 339 transcription factors from 35 families, namely bHLH, MYB, and NAC, among others. Remarkably, not only did the data reveal the possible critical check points in the flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways, but also implicated the key transcription factors and related mechanisms in the regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

Conclusions

Our study generated gene expression profiles for different tissues at different developmental stages in tea plants. The gene network responsible for the regulation of the secondary metabolic pathways was analyzed. Our work elucidated the possible cross talk in gene regulation between the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways in C. sinensis. The results increase our understanding of how secondary metabolic pathways are regulated during plant development and growth cycles, and help pave the way for genetic selection and engineering for germplasm improvement.

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Unearthing the genomes of plant-beneficial Pseudomonas model strains WCS358, WCS374 and WCS417

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can protect plants against pathogenic microbes through a diversity of mechanisms including competition for nutrients, production of antibiotics, and stimulation of the host immune system, a phenomenon called induced systemic resistance (ISR). In the past 30 years, the Pseudomonas spp. PGPR strains WCS358, WCS374 and WCS417 of the Willie Commelin Scholten (WCS) collection have been studied in detail in pioneering papers on the molecular basis of PGPR-mediated ISR and mechanisms of biological control of soil-borne pathogens via siderophore-mediated competition for iron.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can protect plants against pathogenic microbes through a diversity of mechanisms including competition for nutrients, production of antibiotics, and stimulation of the host immune system, a phenomenon called induced systemic resistance (ISR). In the past 30 years, the Pseudomonas spp. PGPR strains WCS358, WCS374 and WCS417 of the Willie Commelin Scholten (WCS) collection have been studied in detail in pioneering papers on the molecular basis of PGPR-mediated ISR and mechanisms of biological control of soil-borne pathogens via siderophore-mediated competition for iron.

Results

The genomes of the model WCS PGPR strains were sequenced and analyzed to unearth genetic cues related to biological questions that surfaced during the past 30 years of functional studies on these plant-beneficial microbes. Whole genome comparisons revealed important novel insights into iron acquisition strategies with consequences for both bacterial ecology and plant protection, specifics of bacterial determinants involved in plant-PGPR recognition, and diversity of protein secretion systems involved in microbe-microbe and microbe-plant communication. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence alignment and whole genome comparison revealed the taxonomic position of the WCS model strains within the Pseudomonas genus. Despite the enormous diversity of Pseudomonas spp. in soils, several plant-associated Pseudomonas spp. strains that have been isolated from different hosts at different geographic regions appear to be nearly isogenic to WCS358, WCS374, or WCS417. Interestingly, all these WCS look-a-likes have been selected because of their plant protective or plant growth-promoting properties.

Conclusions

The genome sequences of the model WCS strains revealed that they can be considered representatives of universally-present plant-beneficial Pseudomonas spp. With their well-characterized functions in the promotion of plant growth and health, the fully sequenced genomes of the WCS strains provide a genetic framework that allows for detailed analysis of the biological mechanisms of the plant-beneficial traits of these PGPR. Considering the increasing focus on the role of the root microbiome in plant health, functional genomics of the WCS strains will enhance our understanding of the diversity of functions of the root microbiome.

 
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Transcriptome and exoproteome analysis of utilization of plant-derived biomass by Myceliophthora thermophila.

Transcriptome and exoproteome analysis of utilization of plant-derived biomass by Myceliophthora thermophila. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Fungal Genet Biol. 2014 Nov;72:10-20. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2014.05.006. Epub 2014 May 29. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Myceliophthora thermophila is a thermophilic fungus whose genome encodes a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) involved in plant biomass degradation. Such enzymes have potential applications in turning different kinds of lignocellulosic feedstock into sugar precursors for biofuels and chemicals. The present study examined and compared the transcriptomes and exoproteomes of M. thermophila during cultivation on different types of complex biomass to gain insight into how its secreted enzymatic machinery varies with different sources of lignocellulose. In the transcriptome analysis three monocot (barley, oat, triticale) and three dicot (alfalfa, canola, flax) plants were used whereas in the proteome analysis additional substrates, i.e. wood and corn stover pulps, were included. A core set of 59 genes encoding CAZymes was up-regulated in response to both monocot and dicot straws, including nine polysaccharide monooxygenases and GH10, but not GH11, xylanases. Genes encoding additional xylanolytic enzymes were up-regulated during growth on monocot straws, while genes encoding additional pectinolytic enzymes were up-regulated in response to dicot biomass. Exoproteome analysis was generally consistent with the conclusions drawn from transcriptome analysis, but additional CAZymes that accumulated to high levels were identified. Despite the wide variety of biomass sources tested some CAZy family members were not expressed under any condition. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view from both transcriptome and exoproteome levels, of how M. thermophila responds to a wide range of biomass sources using its genomic resources.

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Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates.

Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Front Plant Sci. 2015 Jun 29;6:480. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00480. eCollection 2015.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) germinated spore exudates (GSEs), responsible for activating nuclear Ca(2+) spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (COs; acknowledged AM fungal signals) and long COs (as activators of pathogenic responses). This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 h and a subsequent down-regulation after 48 h. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be up-regulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long COs activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs.

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De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq.

De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
PLoS One. 2015 Jul 15;10(7):e0132969. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132969. eCollection 2015.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77%) were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75%) and 28,119 (35.62%) unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr) databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2) during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3%) with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles reveal molecular traits for root induction and initiation. This study provides a platform for functional genomic research with this species.

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Transcriptomic insight into the immune defenses in the ghost moth, Hepialus xiaojinensis, during an Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungal infection.

Transcriptomic insight into the immune defenses in the ghost moth, Hepialus xiaojinensis, during an Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungal infection. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Jul 10;64:1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.06.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Hepialus xiaojinensis is an economically important species of Lepidopteran insect. The fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis can infect its larvae, which leads to mummification after 5-12 months, providing a valuable system with which to study interactions between the insect hosts and pathogenic fungi. However, little sequence information is available for this insect. A time-course analysis of the fat body transcriptome was performed to explore the host immune response to O. sinensis infection. In total, 50,164 unigenes were obtained by assembling the reads from two high-throughput approaches: 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina Hiseq2000. Hierarchical clustering and functional examination revealed four major gene clusters. Clusters 1-3 included transcripts markedly induced by the fungal infection within 72 h. Cluster 4, with a lower number of transcripts, was suppressed during the early phase of infection but returned to normal expression levels sometime before 1 year. Based on sequence similarity to orthologs known to participate in immune defenses, 258 candidate immunity-related transcripts were identified, and their functions were hypothesized. The genes were more primitive than those in other Lepidopteran insects. In addition, lineage-specific family expansion of the clip-domain serine proteases and C-type lectins were apparent and likely caused by selection pressures. Global expression profiles of immunity-related genes indicated that H. xiaojinensis was capable of a rapid response to an O. sinensis challenge; however, the larvae developed tolerance to the fungus after prolonged infection, probably due to immune suppression. Specifically, antimicrobial peptide mRNAs could not be detected after chronic infection, because key components of the Toll pathway (MyD88, Pelle and Cactus) were downregulated. Taken together, this study provides insights into the defense system of H. xiaojinensis, and a basis for understanding the molecular aspects of the interaction between the host and the entomopathogen.

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