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CIENCIASMEDICASNEWS: The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 ... [Nature. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

CIENCIASMEDICASNEWS: The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 ... [Nature. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 ... [Nature. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI: The genomic and transcr...
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Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Vegetative buds provide plants in temperate environments the possibility for growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are favorable. In grapevine, crucial developmental events take place within buds during two growing seasons in consecutive years. The first season, the shoot apical meristem within the bud differentiates all the basic elements of the shoot including flowering transition in lateral primordia and development of inflorescence primordia. These events practically end with bud dormancy. The second season, buds resume shoot growth associated to flower formation and development. Gene expression has been previously monitored at specific stages of bud development but has never been followed along the two growing seasons.

Results

Gene expression changes were analyzed along the bud annual cycle at eight different time points. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that the main factors explaining the global gene expression differences were the processes of bud dormancy and active growth as well as stress responses. Accordingly, non dormant buds showed an enrichment in functional categories typical of actively proliferating and growing cells together with the over abundance of transcripts belonging to stress response pathways. Differential expression analyses performed between consecutive time points indicated that major transcriptional changes were associated to para/endodormancy, endo/ecodormancy and ecodormancy/bud break transitions. Transcripts encoding key regulators of reproductive development were grouped in three major expression clusters corresponding to: (i) transcripts associated to flowering induction, (ii) transcripts associated to flower meristem specification and initiation and (iii) transcripts putatively involved in dormancy. Within this cluster, a MADS-box gene (VvFLC2) and other transcripts with similar expression patterns could participate in dormancy regulation.

Conclusions

This work provides a global view of major transcriptional changes taking place along bud development in grapevine, highlighting those molecular and biological functions involved in the main events of bud development. As reported in other woody species, the results suggest that genes regulating flowering could also be involved in dormancy regulatory pathways in grapevine.

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RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Maize Inbred Carrying Nicosulfuron-Tolerant and Nicosulfuron-Susceptible Alleles.

RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Maize Inbred Carrying Nicosulfuron-Tolerant and Nicosulfuron-Susceptible Alleles. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Postemergence applications of nicosulfuron can cause great damage to certain maize inbred lines and hybrids. Variation among different responses to nicosulfuron may be attributed to differential rates of herbicide metabolism. We employed RNA-Seq analysis to compare transcriptome responses between nicosulfuron-treated and untreated in both tolerant and susceptible maize plants. A total of 71.8 million paired end Illumina RNA-Seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 40,441 unique reads. About 345,171 gene ontology (GO) term assignments were conducted for the annotation in terms of biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories, and 6413 sequences with 108 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 134 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression profile (DGE) analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed within the susceptible and tolerant maize between the nicosulfuron-treated and untreated conditions, 13 genes were selected as the candidates most likely involved in herbicide metabolism, and quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for eight genes. This transcriptome data may provide opportunities for the study of sulfonylurea herbicides susceptibility emergence of Zea mays.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Bipolaris zeicola is a fungal pathogen that causes Northern corn leaf spot (NCLS), which is a serious foliar disease in maize and one of the most significant pathogens affecting global food security. Here, we report a genome-wide transcriptional profile analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of maize leaf development after inoculation with B. zeicola. We performed High-Throughput Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant inbred Mo17 lines after infection with B. zeicola at four successive disease development stages-CP (contact period), PP (penetration period), IP (incubation period), and DP (disease period); the expression of the genes was compared with those in a CK (mock-treatment) control. In addition, a sensitive maize line (Zheng58) was used for the comparisons with the Mo17. Among all tested genes, 466 differentially expressed genes were identified in all libraries, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of these genes suggested that they are involved in many biological processes related to systemic symptom development, such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic information regarding systemic symptom development in fungal-infected plants. This information will help in furthering our understanding of the detailed mechanisms of plant responses to fungal infection.

  
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Cysteine Protease Profiles of the Medicinal Plant Calotropis procera R. Br. Revealed by De Novo Transcriptome Analysis.

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 18;10(3):e0119328. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119328. eCollection 2015.
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Calotropis procera R. Br., a traditional medicinal plant in India, is a promising source of commercial proteases, because the cysteine proteases from the plant exhibit high thermo-stability, broad pH optima, and plasma-clotting activity. Though several proteases such as Procerain, Procerain B, CpCp-1, CpCp-2, and CpCp-3 have been isolated and characterized, the information of their transcripts is limited to cDNAs encoding their mature peptides. Due to this limitation, in this study, to determine the cDNA sequences encoding full open reading frame of these cysteine proteases, transcripts were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencer. A total of 171,253,393 clean reads were assembled into 106,093 contigs with an average length of 1,614 bp and an N50 of 2,703 bp, and 70,797 contigs with an average length of 1,565 bp and N50 of 2,082 bp using Trinity and Velvet-Oases software, respectively. Among these contigs, we found 20 unigenes related to papain-like cysteine proteases by BLASTX analysis against a non-redundant NCBI protein database. Our expression analysis revealed that the cysteine protease contains an N-terminal pro-peptide domain (inhibitor region), which is necessary for correct folding and proteolytic activity. It was evident that expression yields using an inducible T7 expression system in Escherichia coli were considerably higher with the pro-peptide domain than without the domain, which could contribute to molecular cloning of the Calotropis procera protease as an active form with correct folding.

  
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Transcriptome analysis highlights preformed defenses and signaling pathways controlled by the prAe1 QTL, conferring partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in Medicago truncatula.

Transcriptome analysis highlights preformed defenses and signaling pathways controlled by the prAe1 QTL, conferring partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in Medicago truncatula. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
To gain insights into molecular mechanisms of quantitative disease resistance in Medicago truncatula to the root-infecting oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, we selected two near isogenic lines (NILs), NR and NS, partially resistant and susceptible, respectively, differing in the allelic state of the quantitative resistance locus (QRL) prAe1 (partially resistant to A. euteiches 1). Complementary molecular and cytological phenotyping methods showed that prAe1 alone confers quantitative resistance to A. euteiches. Root and stem tissues were colonized in NS plants and 80% of NS plants died by 21 days post inoculation (dpi). In contrast, A. euteiches mycelium was restricted to the root cortex and spread of symptoms was arrested in aerial parts of NR plants. A transcriptome analysis performed 0, 1 and 6 dpi identified 1,198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between NR and NS lines. More than 87% of the DEGs were significantly more expressed in NR. The highest number of DEGs was found in control conditions, with 723 genes over-expressed in NR vs. 85 in NS. Genes belonging to secondary metabolism, PR-proteins and kinases were significantly enriched. The significant role of the flavonoid pathway in resistance was corroborated by detection of higher amounts of flavonoids in NR roots and inhibition of A. euteiches zoospore germination by 2'-O-methyl-isoliquiritigenin, a compound synthesized by enzymes specifically induced in NR. Our study revealed that prAe1-dependent resistance relies mainly on constitutive expression of defense-related pathways and signaling elements, which can be re-amplified in later time-points of the infection.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

To gain insights into molecular mechanisms of quantitative disease resistance in Medicago truncatula to the root-infecting oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, we selected two near isogenic lines (NILs), NR and NS, partially resistant and susceptible, respectively, differing in the allelic state of the quantitative resistance locus (QRL) prAe1 (partially resistant to A. euteiches 1). Complementary molecular and cytological phenotyping methods showed that prAe1 alone confers quantitative resistance to A. euteiches. Root and stem tissues were colonized in NS plants and 80% of NS plants died by 21 days post inoculation (dpi). In contrast, A. euteiches mycelium was restricted to the root cortex and spread of symptoms was arrested in aerial parts of NR plants. A transcriptome analysis performed 0, 1 and 6 dpi identified 1,198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between NR and NS lines. More than 87% of the DEGs were significantly more expressed in NR. The highest number of DEGs was found in control conditions, with 723 genes over-expressed in NR vs. 85 in NS. Genes belonging to secondary metabolism, PR-proteins and kinases were significantly enriched. The significant role of the flavonoid pathway in resistance was corroborated by detection of higher amounts of flavonoids in NR roots and inhibition of A. euteiches zoospore germination by 2'-O-methyl-isoliquiritigenin, a compound synthesized by enzymes specifically induced in NR. Our study revealed that prAe1-dependent resistance relies mainly on constitutive expression of defense-related pathways and signaling elements, which can be re-amplified in later time-points of the infection.

 
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Transcriptomic profiling of linolenic acid-responsive genes in ROS signaling from RNA-seq data in Arabidopsis

Linolenic acid (Ln) released from chloroplast membrane galactolipids is a precursor of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). The involvement of this hormone in different plant biological processes, such as responses to biotic stress conditions, has been extensively studied. However, the role of Ln in the regulation of gene expression during abiotic stress situations mediated by cellular redox changes and/or by oxidative stress processes remains poorly understood. An RNA-seq approach has increased our knowledge of the interplay among Ln, oxidative stress and ROS signaling that mediates abiotic stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis with the aid of RNA-seq in the absence of oxidative stress revealed that the incubation of Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures (ACSC) with Ln resulted in the modulation of 7525 genes, of which 3034 genes had a 2-fold-change, being 533 up- and 2501 down-regulated genes, respectively. Thus, RNA-seq data analysis showed that an important set of these genes were associated with the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway including lypoxygenases (LOXs) and Allene oxide cyclases (AOCs). In addition, several transcription factor families involved in the response to biotic stress conditions (pathogen attacks or herbivore feeding), such as WRKY, JAZ, MYC, and LRR were also modified in response to Ln. However, this study also shows that Ln has the capacity to modulate the expression of genes involved in the response to abiotic stress conditions, particularly those mediated by ROS signaling. In this regard, we were able to identify new targets such as galactinol synthase 1 (GOLS1), methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) and alkenal reductase in ACSC. It is therefore possible to suggest that, in the absence of any oxidative stress, Ln is capable of modulating new sets of genes involved in the signaling mechanism mediated by additional abiotic stresses (salinity, UV and high light intensity) and especially in stresses mediated by ROS.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Linolenic acid (Ln) released from chloroplast membrane galactolipids is a precursor of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). The involvement of this hormone in different plant biological processes, such as responses to biotic stress conditions, has been extensively studied. However, the role of Ln in the regulation of gene expression during abiotic stress situations mediated by cellular redox changes and/or by oxidative stress processes remains poorly understood. An RNA-seq approach has increased our knowledge of the interplay among Ln, oxidative stress and ROS signaling that mediates abiotic stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis with the aid of RNA-seq in the absence of oxidative stress revealed that the incubation of Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures (ACSC) with Ln resulted in the modulation of 7525 genes, of which 3034 genes had a 2-fold-change, being 533 up- and 2501 down-regulated genes, respectively. Thus, RNA-seq data analysis showed that an important set of these genes were associated with the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway including lypoxygenases (LOXs) and Allene oxide cyclases (AOCs). In addition, several transcription factor families involved in the response to biotic stress conditions (pathogen attacks or herbivore feeding), such as WRKY, JAZ, MYC, and LRR were also modified in response to Ln. However, this study also shows that Ln has the capacity to modulate the expression of genes involved in the response to abiotic stress conditions, particularly those mediated by ROS signaling. In this regard, we were able to identify new targets such as galactinol synthase 1 (GOLS1), methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) and alkenal reductase in ACSC. It is therefore possible to suggest that, in the absence of any oxidative stress, Ln is capable of modulating new sets of genes involved in the signaling mechanism mediated by additional abiotic stresses (salinity, UV and high light intensity) and especially in stresses mediated by ROS.

  
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Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis

Bambusoideae (Poaceae) comprise three distinct and well-supported lineages: tropical woody bamboos (Bambuseae), temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) and herbaceous bamboos (Olyreae). Phylogenetic studies using chloroplast markers have generally supported a sister relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. This suggests either at least two origins of the woody bamboo syndrome in this subfamily or its loss in Olyreae.
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Bambusoideae (Poaceae) comprise three distinct and well-supported lineages: tropical woody bamboos (Bambuseae), temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) and herbaceous bamboos (Olyreae). Phylogenetic studies using chloroplast markers have generally supported a sister relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. This suggests either at least two origins of the woody bamboo syndrome in this subfamily or its loss in Olyreae. Results Here a full chloroplast genome (plastome) phylogenomic study is presented using the coding and noncoding regions of 13 complete plastomes from the Bambuseae, eight from Olyreae and 10 from Arundinarieae. Trees generated using full plastome sequences support the previously recovered monophyletic relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. In addition to these relationships, several unique plastome features are uncovered including the first mitogenome-to-plastome horizontal gene transfer observed in monocots. Conclusions Phylogenomic agreement with previous published phylogenies reinforces the validity of these studies. Additionally, this study presents the first published plastomes from Neotropical woody bamboos and the first full plastome phylogenomic study performed within the herbaceous bamboos. Although the phylogenomic tree presented in this study is largely robust, additional studies using nuclear genes support monophyly in woody bamboos as well as hybridization among previous woody bamboo lineages. The evolutionary history of the Bambusoideae could be further clarified using transcriptomic techniques to increase sampling among nuclear orthologues and investigate the molecular genetics underlying the development of woody and floral tissues.

 

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Transcriptome assembly, gene annotation and tissue gene expression atlas of the rainbow trout.

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 20;10(3):e0121778. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121778. eCollection 2015.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Efforts to obtain a comprehensive genome sequence for rainbow trout are ongoing and will be complemented by transcriptome information that will enhance genome assembly and annotation. Previously, transcriptome reference sequences were reported using data from different sources. Although the previous work added a great wealth of sequences, a complete and well-annotated transcriptome is still needed. In addition, gene expression in different tissues was not completely addressed in the previous studies. In this study, non-normalized cDNA libraries were sequenced from 13 different tissues of a single doubled haploid rainbow trout from the same source used for the rainbow trout genome sequence. A total of ~1.167 billion paired-end reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity RNA-Seq assembler yielding 474,524 contigs > 500 base-pairs. Of them, 287,593 had homologies to the NCBI non-redundant protein database. The longest contig of each cluster was selected as a reference, yielding 44,990 representative contigs. A total of 4,146 contigs (9.2%), including 710 full-length sequences, did not match any mRNA sequences in the current rainbow trout genome reference. Mapping reads to the reference genome identified an additional 11,843 transcripts not annotated in the genome. A digital gene expression atlas revealed 7,678 housekeeping and 4,021 tissue-specific genes. Expression of about 16,000-32,000 genes (35-71% of the identified genes) accounted for basic and specialized functions of each tissue. White muscle and stomach had the least complex transcriptomes, with high percentages of their total mRNA contributed by a small number of genes. Brain, testis and intestine, in contrast, had complex transcriptomes, with a large numbers of genes involved in their expression patterns. This study provides comprehensive de novo transcriptome information that is suitable for functional and comparative genomics studies in rainbow trout, including annotation of the genome.

  
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Transcriptome characterization of three wild Chinese Vitis uncovers a large number of distinct disease related genes

Abstract
Background
Grape is one of the most valuable fruit crops and can serve for both fresh consumption and wine production. Grape cultivars have been selected and evolved to produce high-quality fruits during their domestication over thousands of years. However, current widely planted grape cultivars suffer extensive loss to many diseases while most wild species show resistance to various pathogens. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of wild grapes would contribute to the improvement of disease resistance in grape breeding programs.

Results
We performed deep transcriptome sequencing of three Chinese wild grapes using the Illumina strand-specific RNA-Seq technology. High quality transcriptomes were assembled de novo and more than 93% transcripts were shared with the reference PN40024 genome. Over 1,600 distinct transcripts, which were absent or highly divergent from sequences in the reference PN40024 genome, were identified in each of the three wild grapes, among which more than 1,000 were potential protein-coding genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway annotations of these distinct genes showed those involved in defense responses and plant secondary metabolisms were highly enriched. More than 87,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2,000 small insertions or deletions (indels) were identified between each genotype and PN40024, and approximately 20% of the SNPs caused nonsynonymous mutations. Finally, we discovered 100 to 200 highly confident cis-natural antisense transcript (cis-NAT) pairs in each genotype. These transcripts were significantly enriched with genes involved in secondary metabolisms and plant responses to abiotic stresses.

Conclusion
The three de novo assembled transcriptomes provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetic research in grape. The newly discovered genes from wild Vitis, as well as SNPs and small indels we identified, may facilitate future studies on the molecular mechanisms related to valuable traits possessed by these wild Vitis and contribute to the grape breeding programs. Furthermore, we identified hundreds of cis-NAT pairs which showed their potential regulatory roles in secondary metabolism and abiotic stress responses.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Grape is one of the most valuable fruit crops and can serve for both fresh consumption and wine production. Grape cultivars have been selected and evolved to produce high-quality fruits during their domestication over thousands of years. However, current widely planted grape cultivars suffer extensive loss to many diseases while most wild species show resistance to various pathogens. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of wild grapes would contribute to the improvement of disease resistance in grape breeding programs.

Results

We performed deep transcriptome sequencing of three Chinese wild grapes using the Illumina strand-specific RNA-Seq technology. High quality transcriptomes were assembled de novo and more than 93% transcripts were shared with the reference PN40024 genome. Over 1,600 distinct transcripts, which were absent or highly divergent from sequences in the reference PN40024 genome, were identified in each of the three wild grapes, among which more than 1,000 were potential protein-coding genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway annotations of these distinct genes showed those involved in defense responses and plant secondary metabolisms were highly enriched. More than 87,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2,000 small insertions or deletions (indels) were identified between each genotype and PN40024, and approximately 20% of the SNPs caused nonsynonymous mutations. Finally, we discovered 100 to 200 highly confident cis-natural antisense transcript (cis-NAT) pairs in each genotype. These transcripts were significantly enriched with genes involved in secondary metabolisms and plant responses to abiotic stresses.

Conclusion

The three de novo assembled transcriptomes provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetic research in grape. The newly discovered genes from wild Vitis, as well as SNPs and small indels we identified, may facilitate future studies on the molecular mechanisms related to valuable traits possessed by these wild Vitis and contribute to the grape breeding programs. Furthermore, we identified hundreds of cis-NAT pairs which showed their potential regulatory roles in secondary metabolism and abiotic stress responses.

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Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium

Abstract
Background
Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants.

Results
Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds.

Conclusions
Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might responsible for low concentration MES specifically inducing male sterility. A simple action model of CHA-MES inducing male sterility in B. napus was proposed. These results will help us to understand the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility at low concentration, and might provide some potential targets for developing new male sterility inducing CHAs and for genetic manipulation in rapeseed breeding.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napusL.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants.

Results

Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds.

Conclusions

Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might responsible for low concentration MES specifically inducing male sterility. A simple action model of CHA-MES inducing male sterility in B. napus was proposed. These results will help us to understand the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility at low concentration, and might provide some potential targets for developing new male sterility inducing CHAs and for genetic manipulation in rapeseed breeding.

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Gene expresion: StringTie assembles transcriptomes

Gene expresion: StringTie assembles transcriptomes | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Transcriptomes in higher eukaryotes are highly complex, with coding and noncoding transcripts subject to intricate regulation and alternative splicing. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) can rapidly produce short reads that make up a transcriptome, but unambiguous assembly of the correct transcripts is difficult. Pertea et al. developed a de novo read assembly approach that simultaneously assembles transcripts and assesses their expression level. In a comparison with the popular RNA-seq assembly algorithm Cufflinks, StringTie assembled over 50% more transcripts on data from human blood. The r…
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Transcriptomes in higher eukaryotes are highly complex, with coding and noncoding transcripts subject to intricate regulation and alternative splicing. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) can rapidly produce short reads that make up a transcriptome, but unambiguous assembly of the correct transcripts is difficult. Pertea et al. developed a de novo read assembly approach that simultaneously assembles transcripts and assesses their expression level. In a comparison with the popular RNA-seq assembly algorithm Cufflinks, StringTie assembled over 50% more transcripts on data from human blood. The r…

 
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Selfish genetic elements and plant genome size evolution

Selfish genetic elements and plant genome size evolution | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
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Plants have contributed extensively to our understanding of selfish genetic elements. Most recently, the sequencing of the Arabis alpina genome shows how the co-evolutionary arms race between transposable elements and the silencing machinery employed to control them may drive the evolution of genome size.

 
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Transcriptome atlas of the Arabidopsis funiculus – a study of maternal seed subregions

Transcriptome atlas of the Arabidopsis funiculus – a study of maternal seed subregions | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
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The funiculus anchors the structurally complex seed to the maternal plant, and is the only direct route of transport for nutrients and maternal signals to the seed. While our understanding of seed development is becoming clearer, current understanding of the genetics and cellular mechanisms that contribute to funiculus development is limited. Using laser microdissection combined with global RNA-profiling experiments we compared the genetic profiles of all maternal and zygotic regions and subregions during seed development. We found that the funiculus is a dynamic region of the seed that is enriched for mRNAs associated with hormone metabolism, molecular transport, and metabolic activities corresponding to biological processes that have yet to be described in this maternal seed structure. We complemented our genetic data with a complete histological analysis of the funiculus from the earliest stages of development through to seed maturation at the light and electron microscopy levels. The anatomy revealed signs of photosynthesis, the endomembrane system, cellular respiration, and transport within the funiculus, all of which supported data from the transcriptional analysis. Finally, we studied the transcriptional programming of the funiculus compared to other seed subregions throughout seed development. Using newly designed in silico algorithms, we identified a number of transcriptional networks hypothesized to be responsible for biological processes like auxin response and glucosinolate biosynthesis found specifically within the funiculus. Taken together, patterns of gene activity and histological observations reveal putative functions of the understudied funiculus region and identify predictive transcriptional circuits underlying these biological processes in space and time.

 
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Transcriptomic Analysis Highlights Reciprocal Interactions of Urea and Nitrate for Nitrogen Acquisition by Maize Roots

Transcriptomic Analysis Highlights Reciprocal Interactions of Urea and Nitrate for Nitrogen Acquisition by Maize Roots | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Even though urea and nitrate are the two major nitrogen (N) forms applied as fertilizers in agriculture and occur concomitantly in soils, the reciprocal influence of these two N sources on the mechanisms of their acquisition are poorly understood. Therefore, molecular and physiological aspects of urea and nitrate uptake were investigated in maize (Zea mays), a crop plant consuming high amounts of N. In roots, urea uptake was stimulated by the presence of urea in the external solution, indicating the presence of an inducible transport system. On the other hand, the presence of nitrate depressed the induction of urea uptake and, at the same time, the induction of nitrate uptake was depressed by the presence of urea. The expression of about 60,000 transcripts of maize in roots was monitored by microarray analyses and the transcriptional patterns of those genes involved in nitrogen acquisition were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR). In comparison with the treatment without added N, the exposure of maize roots to urea modulated the expression of only very few genes, such as asparagine synthase. On the other hand, the concomitant presence of urea and nitrate enhanced the overexpression of genes involved in nitrate transport (NRT2) and assimilation (nitrate and nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase 2), and a specific response of 41 transcripts was determined, including glutamine synthetase 1‐5, glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase, shikimate kinase and arogenate dehydrogenase. Also based on the real-time RT–PCR analysis, the transcriptional modulation induced by both sources might determine an increase in N metabolism promoting a more efficient assimilation of the N that is taken up.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Transcriptomic Analysis of the Underground Renewal Buds during Dormancy Transition and Release in 'Hangbaishao' Peony (Paeonia lactiflora).

Paeonia lactiflora is one of the most famous species of herbaceous peonies with gorgeous flowers. Bud dormancy is a crucial developmental process that allows P. lactiflora to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanism of the bud dormancy in P. lactiflora. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing using the Illumina RNA sequencing platform for the underground renewal buds of P. lactiflora 'Hangbaishao' to study the molecular mechanism underlying its bud dormancy transition (the period from endodormancy to ecodormancy) and release (the period from ecodormancy to bud elongation and sprouting). Approximately 300 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled into 207,827 (mean length = 828 bp) and 51,481 (mean length = 1250 bp) unigenes using two assembly methods named "Trinity" and "Trinity+PRICE", respectively. Based on the data obtained by the latter method, 32,316 unigenes were annotated by BLAST against various databases. Approximately 1,251 putative transcription factors were obtained, of which the largest number of unique transcripts belonged to the basic helix-loop-helix protein (bHLH) transcription factor family, and five of the top ten highly expressed transcripts were annotated as dehydrin (DHN). A total of 17,705 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs distributed in 13,797 sequences were obtained. The budbreak morphology, levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were observed. The expression of 20 interested unigenes, which annotated as DHN, heat shock protein (HSP), histone, late elongated hypocotyl (LHY), and phytochrome (PHY), and so on, were also analyzed. These studies were based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels and provide comprehensive insight into the mechanism of dormancy transition and release in P. lactiflora. Transcriptome dataset can be highly valuable for future investigation on gene expression networks in P. lactiflora as well as research on dormancy in other non-model perennial horticultural crops of commercial significance.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Paeonia lactiflora is one of the most famous species of herbaceous peonies with gorgeous flowers. Bud dormancy is a crucial developmental process that allows P. lactiflora to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanism of the bud dormancy in P. lactiflora. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing using the Illumina RNA sequencing platform for the underground renewal buds of P. lactiflora 'Hangbaishao' to study the molecular mechanism underlying its bud dormancy transition (the period from endodormancy to ecodormancy) and release (the period from ecodormancy to bud elongation and sprouting). Approximately 300 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled into 207,827 (mean length = 828 bp) and 51,481 (mean length = 1250 bp) unigenes using two assembly methods named "Trinity" and "Trinity+PRICE", respectively. Based on the data obtained by the latter method, 32,316 unigenes were annotated by BLAST against various databases. Approximately 1,251 putative transcription factors were obtained, of which the largest number of unique transcripts belonged to the basic helix-loop-helix protein (bHLH) transcription factor family, and five of the top ten highly expressed transcripts were annotated as dehydrin (DHN). A total of 17,705 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs distributed in 13,797 sequences were obtained. The budbreak morphology, levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were observed. The expression of 20 interested unigenes, which annotated as DHN, heat shock protein (HSP), histone, late elongated hypocotyl (LHY), and phytochrome (PHY), and so on, were also analyzed. These studies were based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels and provide comprehensive insight into the mechanism of dormancy transition and release in P. lactiflora. Transcriptome dataset can be highly valuable for future investigation on gene expression networks in P. lactiflora as well as research on dormancy in other non-model perennial horticultural crops of commercial significance.

  
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Whole-Transcriptome Sequencing for High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analysis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Whole-Transcriptome Sequencing for High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analysis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
RNA-seq uses next-generation sequencing technology to determine the transcription profile of an organism in a quantitative manner. With respect to microarrays, this methodology allows greater resolution, increased dynamic range, and identification of new features such as previously unannotated genes and noncoding RNAs. Here we describe how to extract RNA from mycobacterial cultures, how to prepare libraries for Illumina sequencing, and the bioinformatics analysis of the sequencing data to determine the transcription profile.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

RNA-seq uses next-generation sequencing technology to determine the transcription profile of an organism in a quantitative manner. With respect to microarrays, this methodology allows greater resolution, increased dynamic range, and identification of new features such as previously unannotated genes and noncoding RNAs. Here we describe how to extract RNA from mycobacterial cultures, how to prepare libraries for Illumina sequencing, and the bioinformatics analysis of the sequencing data to determine the transcription profile.

  
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Tissue-specific transcriptome assemblies of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma and comparative analysis with the freshwater medaka Oryzias latipes.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The marine medaka Oryzias melastigma has been demonstrated as a novel model for marine ecotoxicological studies. However, the lack of genome and transcriptome reference has largely restricted the use of O. melastigma in the assessment of in vivo molecular responses to environmental stresses and the analysis of biological toxicity in the marine environment. Although O. melastigma is believed to be phylogenetically closely related to Oryzias latipes, the divergence between these two species is still largely unknown. Using Illumina high-throughput RNA sequencing followed by de novo assembly and comprehensive gene annotation, we provided transcriptomic resources for the brain, liver, ovary and testis of O. melastigma. We also investigated the possible extent of divergence between O. melastigma and O. latipes at the transcriptome level.
RESULTS:
More than 14,000 transcripts across brain, liver, ovary and testis in marine medaka were annotated, of which 5880 transcripts were orthologous between O. melastigma and O. latipes. Tissue-enriched genes were identified in O. melastigma, and Gene Ontology analysis demonstrated the functional specificity of the annotated genes in respective tissue. Lastly, the identification of marine medaka-enriched transcripts suggested the necessity of generating transcriptome dataset of O. melastigma.
CONCLUSIONS:
Orthologous transcripts between O. melastigma and O. latipes, tissue-enriched genes and O. melastigma-enriched transcripts were identified. Genome-wide expression studies of marine medaka require an assembled transcriptome, and this sequencing effort has generated a valuable resource of coding DNA for a non-model species. This transcriptome resource will aid future studies assessing in vivo molecular responses to environmental stresses and those analyzing biological toxicity in the marine environment.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBACKGROUND:

The marine medaka Oryzias melastigma has been demonstrated as a novel model for marine ecotoxicological studies. However, the lack of genome and transcriptome reference has largely restricted the use of O. melastigma in the assessment of in vivo molecular responses to environmental stresses and the analysis of biological toxicity in the marine environment. Although O. melastigma is believed to be phylogenetically closely related to Oryzias latipes, the divergence between these two species is still largely unknown. Using Illumina high-throughput RNA sequencing followed by de novo assembly and comprehensive gene annotation, we provided transcriptomic resources for the brain, liver, ovary and testis of O. melastigma. We also investigated the possible extent of divergence between O. melastigma and O. latipes at the transcriptome level.

RESULTS:

More than 14,000 transcripts across brain, liver, ovary and testis in marine medaka were annotated, of which 5880 transcripts were orthologous between O. melastigma and O. latipes. Tissue-enriched genes were identified in O. melastigma, and Gene Ontology analysis demonstrated the functional specificity of the annotated genes in respective tissue. Lastly, the identification of marine medaka-enriched transcripts suggested the necessity of generating transcriptome dataset of O. melastigma.

CONCLUSIONS:

Orthologous transcripts between O. melastigma and O. latipes, tissue-enriched genes and O. melastigma-enriched transcripts were identified. Genome-wide expression studies of marine medaka require an assembled transcriptome, and this sequencing effort has generated a valuable resource of coding DNA for a non-model species. This transcriptome resource will aid future studies assessing in vivo molecular responses to environmental stresses and those analyzing biological toxicity in the marine environment.

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Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate.

Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate. | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
J Plant Physiol. 2015 Feb 18;178:43-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2015.01.012. [Epub ahead of print]
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Primary and secondary metabolism in grape berries is under the control of complex interactions among environmental conditions, genotypes, and management practices. To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35, and 38 stages of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). The transcript abundance of epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and xanthoxin dehydrogenase required for ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher in the GT berries at E-L 35 and 38 stages compared with the CL berries, which may explain the relatively short maturation period of berries in the western region. Some genes required for carbohydrate metabolism, such as hexose transporter, l-idonate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were significantly up-regulated in the CL berries in relation to the GT berries, which positively correlated with the sugar and organic acid accumulations. Pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the CL berries had higher levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at E-L 38 stage than the GT berries, which may relate to the quick fading of the GT wines because of weak co-pigmentation. This observation lays a foundation for further study concerning the molecular basis for environmental effects on berry quality formation.

 
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Transcriptome Sequence Analysis of an Ornamental Plant, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, Revealed the Potential Unigenes Involved in Terpenoid and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple) is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies.
RESULTS:
The Ananas comosus var. bracteatus transcriptome was sequenced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained a total of 23.5 million high quality sequencing reads, 1,555,808 contigs and 41,052 unigenes. In total 41,052 unigenes of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, 23,275 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 23,134 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Port database. Out of these, 17,748 and 8,505 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database identified 5,825 unigenes which were mapped to 117 pathways. The assembly predicted many unigenes that were previously unknown. The annotated unigenes were compared against pineapple, rice, maize, Arabidopsis, and sorghum. Unigenes that did not match any of those five sequence datasets are considered to be Ananas comosus var. bracteatus unique. We predicted unigenes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.
CONCLUSION:
The sequence data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. To our knowledge; this is the first report on the de novo transcriptome sequencing of the Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Unigenes obtained in this study, may help improve future gene expression, genetic and genomics studies in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBACKGROUND:

Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple) is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies.

RESULTS:

The Ananas comosus var. bracteatus transcriptome was sequenced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained a total of 23.5 million high quality sequencing reads, 1,555,808 contigs and 41,052 unigenes. In total 41,052 unigenes of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, 23,275 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 23,134 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Port database. Out of these, 17,748 and 8,505 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database identified 5,825 unigenes which were mapped to 117 pathways. The assembly predicted many unigenes that were previously unknown. The annotated unigenes were compared against pineapple, rice, maize, Arabidopsis, and sorghum. Unigenes that did not match any of those five sequence datasets are considered to be Ananas comosus var. bracteatus unique. We predicted unigenes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.

CONCLUSION:

The sequence data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. To our knowledge; this is the first report on the de novo transcriptome sequencing of the Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Unigenes obtained in this study, may help improve future gene expression, genetic and genomics studies in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

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Adaptation and Transcriptome Analysis of Aureobasidium pullulans in Corncob Hydrolysate for Increased Inhibitor Tolerance to Malic Acid Production.

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry, and is also a potential C4 platform chemical. Corncob is a low-cost renewable feedstock from agricultural industry. However, side-reaction products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), formic acid, and acetic acid) that severely hinder fermentation are formed during corncob pretreatment. The process for producing malic acid from a hydrolysate of corncob was investigated with a polymalic acid (PMA)-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain. Under the optimal hydrolysate sugar concentration 110 g/L, A. pullulans was further adapted in an aerobic fibrous bed bioreactor (AFBB) by gradually increasing the sugar concentration of hydrolysate. After nine batches of fermentation, the production and productivity of malic acid reached 38.6 g/L and 0.4 g/L h, respectively, which was higher than that in the first batch (27.6 g/L and 0.29 g/L h, respectively). The adapted strain could grow under the stress of 0.5 g/L furfural, 3 g/L HMF, 2g/L acetic acid, and 0.5 g/L formic acid, whereas the wild type did not. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, lipid transport and metabolism, signal transduction mechanism, redox metabolism, and energy production and conversion under 0.5 g/L furfural and 3 g/L HMF stress conditions. In total, 42 genes in the adapted strain were upregulated by 15-fold or more, and qRT-PCR also confirmed that the expression levels of key genes (i.e. SIR, GSS, CYS, and GSR) involved in sulfur assimilation pathway were upregulated by over 10-fold in adapted strain for cellular protection against oxidative stress.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry, and is also a potential C4 platform chemical. Corncob is a low-cost renewable feedstock from agricultural industry. However, side-reaction products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), formic acid, and acetic acid) that severely hinder fermentation are formed during corncob pretreatment. The process for producing malic acid from a hydrolysate of corncob was investigated with a polymalic acid (PMA)-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain. Under the optimal hydrolysate sugar concentration 110 g/L, A. pullulans was further adapted in an aerobic fibrous bed bioreactor (AFBB) by gradually increasing the sugar concentration of hydrolysate. After nine batches of fermentation, the production and productivity of malic acid reached 38.6 g/L and 0.4 g/L h, respectively, which was higher than that in the first batch (27.6 g/L and 0.29 g/L h, respectively). The adapted strain could grow under the stress of 0.5 g/L furfural, 3 g/L HMF, 2g/L acetic acid, and 0.5 g/L formic acid, whereas the wild type did not. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, lipid transport and metabolism, signal transduction mechanism, redox metabolism, and energy production and conversion under 0.5 g/L furfural and 3 g/L HMF stress conditions. In total, 42 genes in the adapted strain were upregulated by 15-fold or more, and qRT-PCR also confirmed that the expression levels of key genes (i.e. SIR, GSS, CYS, and GSR) involved in sulfur assimilation pathway were upregulated by over 10-fold in adapted strain for cellular protection against oxidative stress.

  
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The RNA structurome: transcriptome-wide structure probing with next-generation sequencing

The RNA structurome: transcriptome-wide structure probing with next-generation sequencing | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Highlights
•Transcriptome-wide RNA structure probing coupled with NGS yields the RNA structurome.
•Workflows for in vitro and in vivo RNA structurome studies are reviewed.
•RNA structurome data tremendously improve prediction of in vivo RNA structure.
•RNA structurome data uncover relationships between RNA structure and gene regulation.
RNA folds into intricate structures that enable its pivotal roles in biology, ranging from regulation of gene expression to ligand sensing and enzymatic functions. Therefore, elucidating RNA structure can provide profound insights into living systems. A recent marriage between in vivo RNA structure probing and next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the RNA field by enabling transcriptome-wide structure determination in vivo, which has been applied to date to human cells, yeast cells, and Arabidopsis seedlings. Analysis of resultant in vivo ‘RNA structuromes’ provides new and important information regarding myriad cellular processes, including control of translation, alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, energy-dependent unfolding of mRNA, and effects of proteins on RNA structure. An emerging view suggests potential links between RNA structure and stress and disease physiology across the tree of life. As we discuss here, these exciting findings open new frontiers into RNA biology, genome biology, and beyond.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
 •Transcriptome-wide RNA structure probing coupled with NGS yields the RNA structurome.•Workflows for in vitro and in vivo RNA structurome studies are reviewed.•RNA structurome data tremendously improve prediction of in vivo RNA structure.•RNA structurome data uncover relationships between RNA structure and gene regulation.

 

RNA folds into intricate structures that enable its pivotal roles in biology, ranging from regulation of gene expression to ligand sensing and enzymatic functions. Therefore, elucidating RNA structure can provide profound insights into living systems. A recent marriage between in vivo RNA structure probing and next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the RNA field by enabling transcriptome-wide structure determination in vivo, which has been applied to date to human cells, yeast cells, and Arabidopsisseedlings. Analysis of resultant in vivo ‘RNA structuromes’ provides new and important information regarding myriad cellular processes, including control of translation, alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, energy-dependent unfolding of mRNA, and effects of proteins on RNA structure. An emerging view suggests potential links between RNA structure and stress and disease physiology across the tree of life. As we discuss here, these exciting findings open new frontiers into RNA biology, genome biology, and beyond.

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Transcriptomic analysis of Litchi chinensis pericarp during maturation with a focus on chlorophyll degradation and flavonoid biosynthesis

Abstract
Background
The fruit of litchi (Litchi chinensis) comprises a white translucent edible aril surrounded by a pericarp. The pericarp of litchi has been the focus of studies associated with fruit size, coloration, cracking and shelf life. However, research at the molecular level has been limited by the lack of genomic and transcriptomic information. In this study, an analysis of the transcriptome of litchi pericarp was performed to obtain information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological changes in the pericarp, including those leading to fruit surface coloration.

Results
Coincident with the rapid break down of chlorophyll, but substantial increase of anthocyanins in litchi pericarp as fruit developed, two major physiological changes, degreening and pigmentation were visually apparent. In this study, a cDNA library of litchi pericarp with three different coloration stages was constructed. A total of 4.7 Gb of raw RNA-Seq data was generated and this was then de novo assembled into 51,089 unigenes with a mean length of 737 bp. Approximately 70% of the unigenes (34,705) could be annotated based on public protein databases and, of these, 3,649 genes were significantly differentially expressed between any two coloration stages, while 156 genes were differentially expressed among all three stages. Genes encoding enzymes involved in chlorophyll degradation and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified in the transcriptome dataset. The transcript expression patterns of the Stay Green (SGR) protein suggested a key role in chlorophyll degradation in the litchi pericarp, and this conclusion was supported by the result of an assay over-expressing LcSGR protein in tobacco leaves. We also found that the expression levels of most genes especially late anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were co-ordinated up-regulated coincident with the accumulation of anthocyanins, and that candidate MYB transcription factors that likely regulate flavonoid biosynthesis were identified.

Conclusions
This study provides a large collection of transcripts and expression profiles associated with litchi fruit maturation processes, including coloration. Since most of the unigenes were annotated, they provide a platform for litchi functional genomic research within this species.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

The fruit of litchi (Litchi chinensis) comprises a white translucent edible aril surrounded by a pericarp. The pericarp of litchi has been the focus of studies associated with fruit size, coloration, cracking and shelf life. However, research at the molecular level has been limited by the lack of genomic and transcriptomic information. In this study, an analysis of the transcriptome of litchi pericarp was performed to obtain information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological changes in the pericarp, including those leading to fruit surface coloration.

Results

Coincident with the rapid break down of chlorophyll, but substantial increase of anthocyanins in litchi pericarp as fruit developed, two major physiological changes, degreening and pigmentation were visually apparent. In this study, a cDNA library of litchi pericarp with three different coloration stages was constructed. A total of 4.7 Gb of raw RNA-Seq data was generated and this was then de novo assembled into 51,089 unigenes with a mean length of 737 bp. Approximately 70% of the unigenes (34,705) could be annotated based on public protein databases and, of these, 3,649 genes were significantly differentially expressed between any two coloration stages, while 156 genes were differentially expressed among all three stages. Genes encoding enzymes involved in chlorophyll degradation and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified in the transcriptome dataset. The transcript expression patterns of the Stay Green (SGR) protein suggested a key role in chlorophyll degradation in the litchi pericarp, and this conclusion was supported by the result of an assay over-expressing LcSGR protein in tobacco leaves. We also found that the expression levels of most genes especially late anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were co-ordinated up-regulated coincident with the accumulation of anthocyanins, and that candidate MYB transcription factors that likely regulate flavonoid biosynthesis were identified.

Conclusions

This study provides a large collection of transcripts and expression profiles associated with litchi fruit maturation processes, including coloration. Since most of the unigenes were annotated, they provide a platform for litchi functional genomic research within this species.

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Transcriptomic characterization of the enzymatic antioxidants FeSOD, MnSOD, APX and KatG in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium

Background The diversity of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., as assessed by genetic markers, is well established. To what extent this diversity is reflected on the amino acid level of functional genes such as enzymatic antioxidants that play an important role in thermal stress tolerance of the coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis is, however, unknown. Here we present a predicted structural analysis and phylogenetic characterization of the enzymatic antioxidant repertoire of the genus Symbiodinium. We also report gene expression and enzymatic activity under short-term thermal stress in Symbiodinium of the B1 genotype. Results Based on eight different ITS2 types, covering six clades, multiple protein isoforms for three of the four investigated antioxidants (ascorbate peroxidase [APX], catalase peroxidase [KatG], manganese superoxide dismutase [MnSOD]) are present in the genus Symbiodinium. Amino acid sequences of both SOD metalloforms (Fe/Mn), as well as KatG, exhibited a number of prokaryotic characteristics that were also supported by the protein phylogeny. In contrast to the bacterial form, KatG in Symbiodinium is characterized by extended functionally important loops and a shortened C-terminal domain. Intercladal sequence variations were found to be much higher in both peroxidases, compared to SODs. For APX, these variable residues involve binding sites for substrates and cofactors, and might therefore differentially affect the catalytic properties of this enzyme between clades. While expression of antioxidant genes was successfully measured in Symbiodinium B1, it was not possible to assess the link between gene expression and protein activity due to high variability in expression between replicates, and little response in their enzymatic activity over the three-day experimental period. Conclusions The genus Symbiodinium has a diverse enzymatic antioxidant repertoire that has similarities to prokaryotes, potentially as a result of horizontal gene transfer or events of secondary endosymbiosis. Different degrees of sequence evolution between SODs and peroxidases might be the result of potential selective pressure on the conserved molecular function of SODs as the first line of defence. In contrast, genetic redundancy of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes might permit the observed variations in peroxidase sequences. Our data and successful measurement of antioxidant gene expression in Symbiodinium will serve as basis for further studies of coral health.
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Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agen...

Abstract
Background
Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants.

Results
Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds.

Conclusions
Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might responsible for low concentration MES specifically inducing male sterility. A simple action model of CHA-MES inducing male sterility in B. napus was proposed. These results will help us to understand the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility at low concentration, and might provide some potential targets for developing new male sterility inducing CHAs and for genetic manipulation in rapeseed breeding.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
AbstractBackground

Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants.

Results

Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds.

Conclusions

Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might responsible for low concentration MES specifically inducing male sterility. A simple action model of CHA-MES inducing male sterility in B. napus was proposed. These results will help us to understand the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility at low concentration, and might provide some potential targets for developing new male sterility inducing CHAs and for genetic manipulation in rapeseed breeding.

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Transcriptome responses to Ralstonia solanacearum infection in the roots of the wild potato Solanum commersonii

Solanum commersonii is a wild potato species that exhibits high tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses and has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated potato. Among the interesting features of S. commersonii is resistance to the bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most devastating bacterial diseases of crops.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Background Solanum commersonii is a wild potato species that exhibits high tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses and has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated potato. Among the interesting features of S. commersonii is resistance to the bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most devastating bacterial diseases of crops. Results In this study, we used deep sequencing of S. commersonii RNA (RNA-seq) to analyze the below-ground plant transcriptional responses to R. solanacearum. While a majority of S. commersonii RNA-seq reads could be aligned to the Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja DM reference genome sequence, we identified 2,978 S. commersonii novel transcripts through assembly of unaligned S. commersonii RNA-seq reads. We also used RNA-seq to study gene expression in pathogen-challenged roots of S. commersonii accessions resistant (F118) and susceptible (F97) to the pathogen. Expression profiles obtained from read mapping to the S. tuberosum reference genome and the S. commersonii novel transcripts revealed a differential response to the pathogen in the two accessions, with 221 (F118) and 644 (F97) differentially expressed genes including S. commersonii novel transcripts in the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Interestingly, 22.6% of the F118 and 12.8% of the F97 differentially expressed genes had been previously identified as responsive to biotic stresses and half of those up-regulated in both accessions had been involved in plant pathogen responses. Finally, we compared two different methods to eliminate ribosomal RNA from the plant RNA samples in order to allow dual mapping of RNAseq reads to the host and pathogen genomes and provide insights on the advantages and limitations of each technique. Conclusions Our work catalogues the S. commersonii transcriptome and strengthens the notion that this species encodes specific genes that are differentially expressed to respond to bacterial wilt. In addition, a high proportion of S. commersonii-specific transcripts were altered by R. solanacearum only in F118 accession, while phythormone-related genes were highly induced in F97, suggesting a markedly different response to the pathogen in the two plant accessions studied.

 
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Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) | Plant Genomics | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here, we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control plant was able to complement the Arabidopsis Atcrtiso mutant phenotype, Brcrtisowith a large insertion from the orange head Chinese cabbage failed to rescue the Arabidopsismutant phenotype. The results show that Brcrtiso was non-functional, concomitant with the accumulation of prolycopene in Br-or to yield orange head. Comparative transcriptome analysis byRNA-seq identified 372 differentially expressed genes between the control and Br-or mutant using two near-isogenic lines with white and orange inner leaves. The mutation in BrCRTISO specifically affected many genes in the functional groups involved in RNA, protein, transport, and signaling. Particularly, expressions of many transcription factor genes were dramatically altered in Br-or, suggesting a potential role of BrCRTISO or carotenoid metabolites in affecting transcription. A novel co-dominant gene-specific marker was developed that co-segregated with orange color phenotype and would be useful for marker-assisted selection with enhanced selection efficiency. Our study provides new insights into understanding of the molecular basis of Br-or in mediating head leaf color and depicts a global view of the effect of BrCRTISO on cellular processes in plant. It also provides a molecular tool to accelerate breeding new Chinese cabbage cultivars with unique health quality and visual appearance.

 
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The oak gene expression atlas: insights into Fagaceae genome evolution and the discovery of genes regulated during bud dormancy release

Many northern-hemisphere forests are dominated by oaks. These species extend over diverse environmental conditions and are thus interesting models for studies of plant adaptation and speciation. The genomic toolbox is an important asset for exploring the functional variation associated with natural selection.

Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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