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Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant genomes | Scoop.it
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Rescooped by Srini Chaluvadi from Plant Genomics
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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

The genome of Eucalyptus grandis | Plant genomes | Scoop.it

Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's curator insight, June 11, 2014 3:55 PM

Eucalypts are the world’s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

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Architecture and evolution of a minute plant genome : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Architecture and evolution of a minute plant genome : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant genomes | Scoop.it
It has been argued that the evolution of plant genome size is principally unidirectional and increasing owing to the varied action of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) and mobile element proliferation.
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Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group

Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group | Plant genomes | Scoop.it
Completion of genome sequences for the diploid Setaria italica reveals features of C4 photosynthesis that could enable improvement of the polyploid biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).
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Draft genome sequence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) provides a resource for trait improvement : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group

Draft genome sequence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) provides a resource for trait improvement : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group | Plant genomes | Scoop.it
A draft sequence of the staple crop kabuli chickpea, together with resequencing and analysis of 90 additional lines from 10 countries, provides a resource for breeders.
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The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant genomes | Scoop.it
Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.
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The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Plant genomes | Scoop.it

Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's curator insight, June 4, 2014 10:55 PM

Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus.

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A New Darwinian Hero: The Bladderwort

A New Darwinian Hero: The Bladderwort | Plant genomes | Scoop.it
Evolution News and Views (ENV) provides original reporting and analysis about the debate over intelligent design and evolution.
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Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group

Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group | Plant genomes | Scoop.it
Completion of genome sequences for the diploid Setaria italica reveals features of C4 photosynthesis that could enable improvement of the polyploid biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).
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