Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
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Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
Absolutely Fascinated for plant & genomes
Curated by Andres Zurita
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The psychology of GMO - Martin (2013) - Current Biology

The psychology of GMO - Martin (2013) - Current Biology | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Despite receiving the seal of approval from scientists, genetically modified food continues to be unpalatable in many parts of the world. As Cyrus Martin reports, a combination of factors, including economics and culture, may help to explain the differences... 

 

Why the difference in the attitude? Keith Lindsey, a plant scientist at Durham University who sits on a panel charged with advising the British government on GMO, points out that the initial reception of GM food in Europe was actually positive, but the relationship quickly soured due to a combination of suspect science and media sensationalism...

 

“Originally in the UK, in the mid 90s, the first GM product (Flavr Savr tomato) was very popular in the UK and elsewhere — I bought some from the local supermarket, and it sold very well at the time. The turning point was later, with some flawed experiments on GM potatoes, not peer-reviewed but seized on by the popular press, which in turn was seized on by environmentalist campaigners.”

 

Indeed, this same scenario seems to have played out in the case of the recent Séralini study as the panel of experts appointed by the EFSA have discredited the paper, citing a combination of small sample sizes and inadequate statistics. Unfortunately for proponents of GM food, reporting on the EFSA findings in the popular media has been scant, in contrast to when the story first broke...

 

The failure of Calgene was followed by a string of successes with GM crops engineered not to improve the quality of the product but to increase yields and lower costs of production. Chief among these developments was the creation of herbicide- and pest-resistant plants... Such crops are planted extensively in the US, and a global survey reveals that they have also been embraced next door in Canada and in certain South American countries. However, as noted above, GM crops are scarcely planted in Europe. [AS: But they are imported at a large scale.] 

 

If the full history of man’s relationship with food is considered, a reasonable question to ask is whether it is rational for the consumer to put GM food in a different category than traditionally cultivated crops. As is clear in the case of the teosinte to maize transformation, our crops have undergone extensive genetic modification over the millennia, long before modern genetic tools emerged. But there seems to have been a line crossed in the consumer’s mind when it comes to transgenic plants, and the media and environmental groups have certainly helped fan these embers of doubt.

 

But other scientists close to the GM debate feel that, at least in Europe, there may be other mitigating factors — the economy for instance. Hanspeter Naegeli, a toxicology expert who sits on a GM advisory panel for the EFSA, says, “since the end of WWII, there has been no major economic, financial or political crisis in Western Europe and in these countries we have a very high quality of life with prosperity and a well implemented welfare system. The cost of food declined enormously when compared to the overall costs of living such that people are not dependent on a cheap agricultural production and can afford to buy more expensive products (i.e. organic food).” 

 

Coupled to a favourable economic climate in which the consumer can afford to turn their nose up at a genetically modified potato, Naegeli senses an anti-big business current running through Europe, explaining, “there is also a negative attitude against large multinational companies. The economies of Western European countries are traditionally built upon small and medium-sized enterprises and larger international companies are considered suspicious.” Ironically, Naegeli thinks that the stranglehold that big business enjoys is also a product of the reforms environmentalists lobbied for, explaining that, “because of the extensive experimental testing required for approval, GM crops are mainly a domain of such large multinationals.” ... 

 

As with any technology, at some point there has to be a cost/benefit analysis done. While all of the food safety scares surrounding GM food continue to be debunked as fast as they materialize, there are no doubt potential risks that are not yet fully understood, as can be seen in the ecology aspect of the debate. And there is nothing to say that new varieties of GM food could, in principle, potentially be harmful. On the other side of the ledger, however, we have the enormous challenge of feeding the world’s population, which is rapidly growing on a planet with finite resources. Of course, malnourishment has many causes, including local politics and war, but agricultural technology will certainly factor importantly.

 

And GM food has lived up to its promise of providing increased yields with less pesticide use and at a lower cost to the consumer. Not only this, but genetic engineering has the potential to provide much needed micronutrients (i.e., vitamins) to the malnourished of the world. A case in point is the recent development of an engineered form of rice that produces a precursor of vitamin A, dubbed ‘golden rice’. This remarkable and easily implementable technology has the potential to mitigate hundreds of thousands of cases of blindness in the developing world, and yet it remains shelved due to unsubstantiated health concerns.

 

Many western consumers can afford to stock their refrigerators with organic produce, but can the rest of the world? Do the potential risks really trump malnourishment and starvation? While the interested parties continue to debate, science marches on. On the horizon are GM crops that can grow in inhospitable corners of the earth, such as the dry and salty environs. And we are now seeing the application of GM technology to animals, such as salmon engineered to reach market weight more quickly through the expression of genes encoding growth hormones. Whether these technologies are taken up or left to gather dust on the shelf will likely depend on the ability of scientists and the government to make a convincing case to the public. If they fail, we potentially handcuff ourselves and will be forced to rely on 20th century technology to solve 21st century problems.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Via Alexander J. Stein, Jennifer Mach
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AckerbauHalle's curator insight, May 7, 2013 11:12 PM

Zur Psychologie der Ablehnung von GVOs. EIn Beitrag, der noch einmal tief in die Historie der ersten Produkte geht und versucht die Entwicklung der letzten  Jahrzehnte zu erklären. 

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BTI scientist co-leads kiwifruit genome sequencing project | BTI

BTI scientist co-leads kiwifruit genome sequencing project | BTI | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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An international team, led by Dr. Zhangjun Fei at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Dr. Yongsheng Liu at Hefei University of Technology and Dr. Hongwen Huang at South China Botanical Garden, has sequenced and assembled a draft genome of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). A heterozygous diploid Chinese kiwifruit variety, called Hongyang, was used to generate the draft genome sequence, which is accessible at the online Kiwifruit Genome Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/kiwi).

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3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture

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Significance

Improving the efficiency of root systems should result in crop varieties with better yields, requiring fewer chemical inputs, and that can grow in harsher environments. Little is known about the genetic factors that condition root growth because of roots’ complex shapes, the opacity of soil, and environmental influences. We designed a 3D root imaging and analysis platform and used it to identify regions of the rice genome that control several different aspects of root system growth. The results of this study should inform future efforts to enhance root architecture for agricultural benefit.

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New Conifer Genomics Learning Modules: Landscape Genomics and Reference Genome Sequencing

New Conifer Genomics Learning Modules: Landscape Genomics and Reference Genome Sequencing | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

The Conifer Genomics Learning Modules are a series of presentations and supporting materials that describe the field of conifer genomics.  The series includes genetics foundation materials as well as more advanced materials on topics of tree genomics.  Modules in this series are meant to be integrated into genetics curricula for high school, college, and post-graduate learners.


Via Plant Breeding and Genomics News
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Investigating journals: The dark side of publishing

Investigating journals: The dark side of publishing | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
The explosion in open-access publishing has fuelled the rise of questionable operators.
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Open questions, few options and paywalls, the usual landscape of research publication. 

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What Plants Talk About - Full Length Documentary

"This program integrates hard-core science with a light-hearted look at how plants behave, revealing a world where plants are as busy, responsive and complex as we are."


Via Mary Williams, ROOTSPROUT
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great source of outreach material

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Eve Emshwiller's curator insight, April 24, 2013 1:24 PM

I hope to have time to watch this sometime soon.

Ana G. Valenzuela Zapata's curator insight, April 25, 2013 2:55 AM

Hermoso

Subhabrata Panda's curator insight, April 25, 2013 11:33 AM

This an in-depth studies on biological phenomena with the help of physical and chemical methods.

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From sunlight to phytomass: on the potential efficiency of converting solar radiation to phyto-energy - New Phytologist

From sunlight to phytomass: on the potential efficiency of converting solar radiation to phyto-energy - New Phytologist | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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The relationship between solar radiation capture and potential plant growth is of theoretical and practical importance. The key processes constraining the transduction of solar radiation into phyto-energy (i.e. free energy in phytomass) were reviewed to estimate potential solar-energy-use efficiency. Specifically, the out-put : input stoichiometries of photosynthesis and photorespiration in C3 and C4 systems, mobilization and translocation of photosynthate, and biosynthesis of major plant biochemical constituents were evaluated. The maintenance requirement, an area of important uncertainty, was also considered. For a hypothetical C3 grain crop with a full canopy at 30°C and 350 ppm atmospheric [CO2], theoretically potential efficiencies (based on extant plant metabolic reactions and pathways) were estimated at c. 0.041 J J−1 incident total solar radiation, and c. 0.092 J J−1 absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). At 20°C, the calculated potential efficiencies increased to 0.053 and 0.118 J J−1 (incident total radiation and absorbed PAR, respectively). Estimates for a hypothetical C4 cereal were c. 0.051 and c. 0.114 J J−1, respectively. These values, which cannot be considered as precise, are less than some previous estimates, and the reasons for the differences are considered. Field-based data indicate that exceptional crops may attain a significant fraction of potential efficiency.


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ROOT UVB SENSITIVE 1/WEAK AUXIN RESPONSE 3 Is Essential for Polar Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis

ROOT UVB SENSITIVE 1/WEAK AUXIN RESPONSE 3 Is Essential for Polar Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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The phytohormone auxin regulates virtually every aspect of plant development. To identify new genes involved in auxin activity, a genetic screen was performed for Arabidopsis mutants with altered expression of the auxin responsive reporter DR5rev:GFP. One of the mutants recovered in the screen, designated as weak auxin response 3 (wxr3), exhibits much lower DR5rev:GFP expression when treated with the synthetic auxin, 2,4-D, and displays severe defects in root development. The wxr3 mutant decreases polar auxin transport and results in a disruption of the asymmetric auxin distribution. The level of the auxin transporters, AUX1 and PINs, is dramatically reduced in the wxr3 root tip. Molecular analyses demonstrate that WXR3 is ROOT UV-B SENSITIVE1 (RUS1), a member of the conserved DUF647 protein family found in diverse eukaryotic organisms. Our data suggests that RUS1/WXR3 plays an essential role in the regulation of polar auxin transport by maintaining the proper level of auxin transporters on the plasma membrane.


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PLOS ONE: Effect of Stacked Insecticidal Cry Proteins from Maize Pollen on Nurse Bees (Apis mellifera carnica) and Their Gut Bacteria

PLOS ONE: Effect of Stacked Insecticidal Cry Proteins from Maize Pollen on Nurse Bees (Apis mellifera carnica) and Their Gut Bacteria | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Honey bee pollination is a key ecosystem service to nature and agriculture. However, biosafety research on genetically modified crops rarely considers effects on nurse bees from intact colonies, even though they receive and primarily process the largest amount of pollen. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of nurse bees and their gut bacteria to pollen from Bt maize expressing three different insecticidal Cry proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry3Bb1). Naturally Cry proteins are produced by bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis). Colonies of Apis mellifera carnica were kept during anthesis in flight cages on field plots with the Bt maize, two different conventionally bred maize varieties, and without cages, 1-km outside of the experimental maize field to allow ad libitum foraging to mixed pollen sources. During their 10-days life span, the consumption of Bt maize pollen had no effect on their survival rate, body weight and rates of pollen digestion compared to the conventional maize varieties. As indicated by ELISA-quantification of Cry1A.105 and Cry3Bb1, more than 98% of the recombinant proteins were degraded. Bacterial population sizes in the gut were not affected by the genetic modification. Bt-maize, conventional varieties and mixed pollen sources selected for significantly different bacterial communities which were, however, composed of the same dominant members, including Proteobacteria in the midgut and Lactobacillus sp. andBifidobacterium sp. in the hindgut. Surprisingly, Cry proteins from natural sources, most likelyB. thuringiensis, were detected in bees with no exposure to Bt maize. The natural occurrence of Cry proteins and the lack of detectable effects on nurse bees and their gut bacteria give no indication for harmful effects of this Bt maize on nurse honey bees.

  
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Loss of wild pollinators would hit crops, finds study - SciDev.Net

Loss of wild pollinators would hit crops, finds study - SciDev.Net | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Without the natural pollination provided by insects, crop yields could be reduced, harming global food security, warns a study.
Andres Zurita's insight:
Speed ReadFields with more wild pollinators produced more fruitHoneybees also raised fruit production, but only in 14 per cent of casesFarmland should include habitat for wild insects
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New insight into photosynthesis: Carotenoids can capture blue/green light and pass energy on to chlorophylls

New insight into photosynthesis: Carotenoids can capture blue/green light and pass energy on to chlorophylls | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Pigments found in plants and purple bacteria employed to provide protection from sun damage do more than just that. Researchers have found that they also help to harvest light energy during photosynthesis.

Via R K Upadhyay
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Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis

Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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Biotic and abiotic stresses limit agricultural yields, and plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses. Combinations of stresses such as heat and drought or cold and high light intensity have profound effects on crop performance and yields. Thus, delineation of the regulatory networks and metabolic pathways responding to single and multiple concurrent stresses is required for breeding and engineering crop stress tolerance. Many studies have described transcriptome changes in response to single stresses. However, exposure of plants to a combination of stress factors may require agonistic or antagonistic responses or responses potentially unrelated to responses to the corresponding single stresses. To analyze such responses, we initially compared transcriptome changes in 10 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes using cold, heat, high-light, salt, and flagellin treatments as single stress factors as well as their double combinations. This revealed that some 61% of the transcriptome changes in response to double stresses were not predic from the responses to single stress treatments. It also showed that plants prioritized between potentially antagonistic responses for only 5% to 10% of the responding transcripts. This indicates that plants have evolved to cope with combinations of stresses and, therefore, may be bred to endure them. In addition, using a subset of this data from the Columbia and Landsberg erecta ecotypes, we have delineated coexpression network modules responding to single and combined stresses.

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Bringing light in the discussion about GMOs? – A rather long reading list

[updated 15 March, 2013]  

 

These days I received an apparently easy request: “Do you have any recommendations for reading about the debate on GMOs? I think there is a lot of heat, but too little light in the discussion; I trust you can send me some…” To which I answered carelessly: “Sure, I will look into it, select a few references and post them…” 

 

I thought I’d have a quick look into my collection of bookmarks and references and post some of the links to satisfy the request. Obviously there would be too many individual studies and crop-specific or country-specific reports, but focusing only (i) on what was published over the last couple of years, (ii) on sources where all this information was already aggregated (literature reviews, meta-analyses, authoritative statements, FAQs, etc.), and (iii) on academic or publicly funded sources should produce a fairly concise list, I thought.

 

While not unmanageable, the list has become quite long. To get a rough idea of the current state of knowledge, it may be sufficient to peruse the first 1-2 (starred *) references under each heading, and to have a quick look at the abstracts and summaries of some of the others. (Given the controversy surrounding this topic I didn’t want to suggest just one or two sources, but to show a bit the width of the scientific consensus, and to offer some titbits of related information.) ... 

http://ajstein.tumblr.com/post/40504136918/ ;


Via Alexander J. Stein
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Jennifer Mach's comment, March 30, 2013 9:05 AM
I admit I haven't read this list... but for future reference, I'll definitely have a look.
Karen Ashby's curator insight, April 5, 2016 4:26 AM

Conflicted about how your view on GM ties in with a career in Biotech? Look no further

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Fine-tuning plant growth - Research Highlights - RIKEN RESEARCH

Fine-tuning plant growth - Research Highlights - RIKEN RESEARCH | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Figure 1: Mutant rice plants without the CYP714B1 andCYP714B2 genes (right) show enhanced uppermost node lengths, indicating that these genes are negative regulators of growth.

Andres Zurita's insight:

Finding the missing genes in a hormone-biosynthesis pathway hints at subtle control of growth in rice


The plant hormones known as gibberellins (GAs) are growth promoters that are involved in a wide range of processes from seed germination to flower development. The details of the biosynthesis of GAs, however, have yet to be fully clarified. Hiroshi Magome and colleagues of the Gene Discovery Research Group at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science have now identified genes for two ‘cytochrome P450’ enzymes involved in GA biosynthesis in rice1. 1. Magome, H., Nomura, T., Hanada, A., Takeda-Kamiya, N., Ohnishi, T., Shinma, Y., Katsumata, T., Kawaide, H., Kamiya, Y. & Yamaguchi, S. CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 encode gibberellin 13-oxidases that reduce gibberellin activity in rice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110, 1947–1952 (2013).
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GM CROPS: PROMISE AND REALITY | Nature

GM CROPS: PROMISE AND REALITY | Nature | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

The introduction of the first transgenic plant 30 years ago heralded the start of a second green revolution, providing food to the starving, profits to farmers and environmental benefits to boot. Many GM crops fulfilled the promise. But their success has been mired in controversy with many questioning their safety, their profitability and their green credentials. A polarized debate has left little room for consensus. In this special issue, Nature explores the hopes, the fears, the reality and the future.

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Concurrent overactivation of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase and the GABA shunt in the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato leads to resistance against Botrytis cinerea - Seifi - 2013 - New Ph...

Concurrent overactivation of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase and the GABA shunt in the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato leads to resistance against Botrytis cinerea - Seifi - 2013 - New Ph... | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:
SummaryDeficiency of abscisic acid (ABA) in the sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) culminates in increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea through a rapid epidermal hypersensitive response (HR) and associated phenylpropanoid pathway-derived cell wall fortifications. This study focused on understanding the role of primary carbon : nitrogen (C : N) metabolism in the resistance response of sitiens to B. cinerea. How alterations in C : N metabolism are linked with the HR-mediated epidermal arrest of the pathogen has been also investigated.Temporal alterations in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle and phenylpropanoid pathway were transcriptionally, enzymatically and metabolically monitored in both wild-type and sitiens plants. Virus-induced gene silencing, microscopic analyses and pharmacological assays were used to further confirm the data.Our results on the sitiens–B. cinerea interaction favor a model in which cell viability in the cells surrounding the invaded tissue is maintained by a constant replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through overactivation of the GS/GOGAT cycle and the GABA shunt, resulting in resistance through both tightly controlling the defense-associated HR and slowing down the pathogen-induced senescence.Collectively, this study shows that maintaining cell viability via alterations in host C : N metabolism plays a vital role in the resistance response against necrotrophic pathogens.
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Trends in Plant Science: Paradoxical EU agricultural policies on genetically engineered crops

Trends in Plant Science: Paradoxical EU agricultural policies on genetically engineered crops | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

There are lots of press releases floating around about this new review by Masip et al., in TIPS, mostly without links. Here is a link to the PDF of the online article: http://download.cell.com/images/edimages/Trends/plantscience/TRPLSC_1050.pdf

 

The authors conclude, "The EU is undermining its own competitiveness in the agricultural sector, damaging both the EU and its humanitarian activities in the developing world."


Via Mary Williams, Meristemi
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Mary Williams's curator insight, April 26, 2013 3:07 AM

Good paper for reading and discussion - very informative.

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The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Yijun Ruan and colleagues report the draft genome of the sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Their data suggests sweet orange originated from a cross between pummelo and mandarin.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.


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S. Diez de Medina Ph.D.'s comment, April 23, 2013 3:38 PM
Every day more and more info available
Andres Zurita's comment, April 27, 2013 3:24 PM
filtering is the key, and comparative system analysis as well... Cheers dude
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Interacting Glutamate Receptor-Like Proteins in Phloem Regulate Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis

Interacting Glutamate Receptor-Like Proteins in Phloem Regulate Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Molecular, genetic, and electrophysiological evidence indicates that at least one of the plant Glu receptor-like molecules, GLR3.4, functions as an amino acid–gated Ca2+ channel at the plasma membrane. The aspect of plant physiology, growth, or development to which GLR3.4 contributes is an open question. Protein localization studies performed here provide important information. In roots, GLR3.4 and the related GLR3.2 protein were present primarily in the phloem, especially in the vicinity of the sieve plates. GLR3.3 was expressed in most cells of the growing primary root but was not enriched in the phloem, including the sieve plate area. GLR3.2 and GLR3.4 physically interacted with each other better than with themselves as evidenced by a biophotonic assay performed in human embryonic kidney cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells. GLR3.3 interacted poorly with itself or the other two GLRs. Mutations in GLR3.2, GLR3.4, or GLR3.2and GLR3.4 caused the same and equally severe phenotype, namely, a large overproduction and aberrant placement of lateral root primordia. Loss of GLR3.3did not affect lateral root primordia. These results support the hypothesis that apoplastic amino acids acting through heteromeric GLR3.2/GLR3.4 channels affect lateral root development via Ca2+ signaling in the phloem.


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3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture.

Abstract

Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala × Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r2 = 24-37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops.

 


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Concursos abiertos para cargos en INIA/ Job applications open at INIA

Concursos abiertos para cargos en INIA/ Job applications open at INIA | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
La Primera Bolsa de Empleo de Latinoamerica, desde 1999. Contamos con mas de 3000 empresas asociadas y la mejor tecnologia.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Concurso semestral abierto para investigadores de posgrado en INIA.

Ver detalles y especialidades requeridas.

 

Research positions opened for graduate investigators at INIA Chile.

Check webpage for fields and corresponding locations required.

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PLOS ONE: A Global and Spatially Explicit Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Consumptive Water Use

PLOS ONE: A Global and Spatially Explicit Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Consumptive Water Use | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Food security and water scarcity have become two major concerns for future human's sustainable development, particularly in the context of climate change. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on the production and water use of major cereal crops on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes for the 2030s (short term) and the 2090s (long term), respectively. Our findings show that impact uncertainties are higher on larger spatial scales (e.g., global and continental) but lower on smaller spatial scales (e.g., national and grid cell). Such patterns allow decision makers and investors to take adaptive measures without being puzzled by a highly uncertain future at the global level. Short-term gains in crop production from climate change are projected for many regions, particularly in African countries, but the gains will mostly vanish and turn to losses in the long run. Irrigation dependence in crop production is projected to increase in general. However, several water poor regions will rely less heavily on irrigation, conducive to alleviating regional water scarcity. The heterogeneity of spatial patterns and the non-linearity of temporal changes of the impacts call for site-specific adaptive measures with perspectives of reducing short- and long-term risks of future food and water security.

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Climate Change Conversations

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The thousands of presentations at next week's meeting of The American Chemical Society (ACS) in New Orleans exemplify one of the many ways scientists converse among themselves about the most recent advances in science. Science and technology continue to reshape the world we live in, and appreciating how these changes, both intended and unintended, come about is a necessity for all citizens in a democratic society. Scientists have a responsibility to help their fellow citizens understand what science and technology can and cannot do for them.

 

Communicating the science of climate change provides one example where the scientific community must do more. Climate change affects everyone, so everyone should understand why the climate is changing and what it means for them, their children, and generations to follow. Scientists are already members of groups that can facilitate this communication: neighborhoods, school boards, religious groups, service clubs, political organizations, and so on. These groups present opportunities to engage in respectful conversations on climate change and on the policies and actions that individuals, communities, and nations might take to mitigate and adapt to what is happening to our planet.

  
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The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution | Nature Genetics

The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution | Nature Genetics | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
The International Peach Genome Initiative reports the high quality draft genome sequence of peach (Prunus persica). They also resequenced ten additional P.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

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In Vivo Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism Spread in Vitis vinifera

In Vivo Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism Spread in Vitis vinifera | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Long-distance water transport through plant xylem is vulnerable to hydraulic dysfunction during periods of increased tension on the xylem sap, often coinciding with drought. While the effects of local and systemic embolism on plant water transport and physiology are well documented, the spatial patterns of embolism formation and spread are not well understood. Using a recently developed nondestructive diagnostic imaging tool, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, we documented the dynamics of drought-induced embolism in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) plants in vivo, producing the first three-dimensional, high-resolution, time-lapse observations of embolism spread. Embolisms formed first in the vessels surrounding the pith at stem water potentials of approximately –1.2 megapascals in drought experiments. As stem water potential decreased, embolisms spread radially toward the epidermis within sectored vessel groupings via intervessel connections and conductive xylem relays, and infrequently (16 of 629 total connections) through lateral connections into adjacent vessel sectors. Theoretical loss of conductivity calculated from the high-resolution x-ray computed tomography images showed good agreement with previously published nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and hydraulic conductivity experiments also using grapevine. Overall, these data support a growing body of evidence that xylem organization is critically important to the isolation of drought-induced embolism spread and confirm that air seeding through the pit membranes is the principle mechanism of embolism spread.


Open Access

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