Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
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Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
Absolutely Fascinated for plant & genomes
Curated by Andres Zurita
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PLOS ONE: Trends in Ocean Colour and Chlorophyll Concentration from 1889 to 2000, Worldwide

PLOS ONE: Trends in Ocean Colour and Chlorophyll Concentration from 1889 to 2000, Worldwide | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Marine primary productivity is an important agent in the global cycling of carbon dioxide, a major ‘greenhouse gas’, and variations in the concentration of the ocean's phytoplankton biomass can therefore explain trends in the global carbon budget. Since the launch of satellite-mounted sensors globe-wide monitoring of chlorophyll, a phytoplankton biomass proxy, became feasible. Just as satellites, the Forel-Ule (FU) scale record (a hardly explored database of ocean colour) has covered all seas and oceans – but already since 1889. We provide evidence that changes of ocean surface chlorophyll can be reconstructed with confidence from this record. The EcoLight radiative transfer numerical model indicates that theFU index is closely related to chlorophyll concentrations in open ocean regions. The most complete FU record is that of the North Atlantic in terms of coverage over space and in time; this dataset has been used to test the validity of colour changes that can be translated to chlorophyll. The FU and FU-derived chlorophyll data were analysed for monotonously increasing or decreasing trends with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, a method to establish the presence of a consistent trend. Our analysis has not revealed a globe-wide trend of increase or decrease in chlorophyll concentration during the past century; ocean regions have apparently responded differentially to changes in meteorological, hydrological and biological conditions at the surface, including potential long-term trends related to global warming. Since 1889, chlorophyll concentrations have decreased in the Indian Ocean and in the Pacific; increased in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Chinese Sea, and in the seas west and north-west of Japan. This suggests that explanations of chlorophyll changes over long periods should focus on hydrographical and biological characteristics typical of single ocean regions, not on those of ‘the’ ocean.

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Genomic analysis solves the turtle mystery - Research Highlights - RIKEN RESEARCH

Genomic analysis solves the turtle mystery - Research Highlights - RIKEN RESEARCH | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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One of the greatest evolutionary puzzles succumbs to molecular genetics

 

The turtle has always been considered somewhat odd in evolutionary terms. In addition to lacking the hole in the skull—the temporal fenestra—that is characteristic of the egg-laying amniotes, the structure of its shell differs from that of other armored tetrapods such as the armadillo, and its shoulder blades are inside rather than outside the rib cage. An international research team led by Naoki Irie of the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology has now shown through genomic analysis that turtles are most closely related to crocodiles and birds, and that their embryonic development follows the latest ‘hourglass’ model of vertebrate embryology1.

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ABCC1, an ATP Binding Cassette Protein from Grape Berry, Transports Anthocyanidin 3-O-Glucosides

Andres Zurita's insight:

Accumulation of anthocyanins in the exocarp of red grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars is one of several events that characterize the onset of grape berry ripening (véraison). Despite our thorough understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, little is known about the molecular aspects of their transport. The participation of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins in vacuolar anthocyanin transport has long been a matter of debate. Here, we present biochemical evidence that an ABC protein, ABCC1, localizes to the tonoplast and is involved in the transport of glucosylated anthocyanidins. ABCC1 is expressed in the exocarp throughout berry development and ripening, with a significant increase at véraison (i.e., the onset of ripening). Transport experiments using microsomes isolated from ABCC1-expressing yeast cells showed that ABCC1 transports malvidin 3-O-glucoside. The transport strictly depends on the presence of GSH, which is cotransported with the anthocyanins and is sensitive to inhibitors of ABC proteins. By exposing anthocyanin-producing grapevine root cultures to buthionine sulphoximine, which reduced GSH levels, a decrease in anthocyanin concentration is observed. In conclusion, we provide evidence that ABCC1 acts as an anthocyanin transporter that depends on GSH without the formation of an anthocyanin-GSH conjugate.


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Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin

Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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PLOS ONE: Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050

PLOS ONE: Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050 | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

"Clearly, the world faces a looming and growing agricultural crisis. Yields are not improving fast enough to keep up with projected demands in 2050. However, opportunities do exist to increase production through more efficient use of current arable lands and increasing yield growth rates by spreading best management practices and closing yield gaps under different management regimes across the globe."


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Mary Williams's curator insight, June 20, 2013 3:05 AM

Data! This is great, put it in your course folders for your students.

Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, June 22, 2013 8:43 PM

Reality check... a bit scary.

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Meet Calestous Juma, Africa’s genetically modified crop ‘optimist’

Meet Calestous Juma, Africa’s genetically modified crop ‘optimist’ | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
‘Technological intolerance’ has hampered adoption of GMOs, particularly in Africa, says Harvard professor Calestous Juma.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Beyond the Human Eye: Plant Cuticles

Beyond the Human Eye: Plant Cuticles | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Via Anne Osterrieder
Andres Zurita's insight:

Great images!

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Anne Osterrieder's curator insight, June 7, 2013 8:44 PM

Lovely micrographs of plant cuticles, by Phil Gates. 

Hiren P Bhatt's comment, July 17, 2013 4:47 AM
nice article
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Curr.Opin.Plant Biol. Biomechanics of plant–insect interactions

Curr.Opin.Plant Biol.  Biomechanics of plant–insect interactions | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

"Plant–insect interactions are determined by both chemical and physical mechanisms. Biomechanical factors play an important role across many ecological situations, including pollination, herbivory and plant carnivory, and have led to complex adaptations in both plants and insects."


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Mary Williams's curator insight, June 13, 2013 5:30 AM

Nice review that covers everything from petal texture to carnivorous plant trapping mechanisms. It might appeal to some of your less chemically-included students.

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PLOS ONE: Draft Genome Sequence, and a Sequence-Defined Genetic Linkage Map of the Legume Crop Species Lupinus angustifolius L

PLOS ONE: Draft Genome Sequence, and a Sequence-Defined Genetic Linkage Map of the Legume Crop Species Lupinus angustifolius L | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species.

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PLOS ONE: Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

PLOS ONE: Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

 

 


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Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derive crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: A scientific review

Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derive crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: A scientific review | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

• Nucleic acids, including double-stranded RNAs, have a history of safe consumption.

• Activity of ingested nucleic acids is limited by biological barriers.

• Delivery is a major hurdle for RNA drugs; these drugs are generally well tolerated.

• A large safety margin is anticipated for dsRNAs from biotech crops employing RNAi.

• The existing biotech crop safety assessment paradigm applies to crops using RNAi.

 

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PLOS Genetics: Cell Polarity and Patterning by PIN Trafficking through Early Endosomal Compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana

PLOS Genetics: Cell Polarity and Patterning by PIN Trafficking through Early Endosomal Compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS Genetics is an open-access
Andres Zurita's insight:

PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

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Dynamic Transcriptomic Profiles between Tomato and a Wild Relative Reflect Distinct Developmental Architectures

Dynamic Transcriptomic Profiles between Tomato and a Wild Relative Reflect Distinct Developmental Architectures | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Developmental differences between species commonly result from changes in the tissue-specific expression of genes. Clustering algorithms are a powerful means to detect coexpression across tissues in single species but are not often applied to multidimensional data sets, such as gene expression across tissues in multiple species. As next-generation sequencing approaches enable interspecific analyses, methods to visualize and explore such data sets will be required. Here, we analyze a data set comprising gene expression profiles across six different tissue types in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and a wild relative (Solanum pennellii). We find that self-organizing maps are a useful means to analyze interspecies data, as orthologs can be assigned to independent levels of a “super self-organizing map.” We compare various clustering approaches using a principal component analysis in which the expression of orthologous pairs is indicated by two points. We leverage the expression profile differences between orthologs to look at tissue-specific changes in gene expression between species. Clustering based on expression differences between species (rather than absolute expression profiles) yields groups of genes with large tissue-by-species interactions. The changes in expression profiles of genes we observe reflect differences in developmental architecture, such as changes in meristematic activity between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii. Together, our results offer a suite of data-exploration methods that will be important to visualize and make biological sense of next-generation sequencing experiments designed explicitly to discover tissue-by-species interactions in gene expression data.


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Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease?

Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause Disease? | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Plants respond to pathogens using elaborate networks of genetic interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding RNA silencing and how viruses counter this apparently ubiquitous antiviral defense. In addition, plants also induce hypersensitive and systemic acquired resistance responses, which together limit the virus to infected cells and impart resistance to the noninfected tissues. Molecular processes such as the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA methylation are also critical to antiviral defenses. Here, we provide a summary and update of advances in plant antiviral immune responses, beyond RNA silencing mechanisms—advances that went relatively unnoticed in the realm of RNA silencing and nonviral immune responses. We also document the rise of Brachypodium and Setaria species as model grasses to study antiviral responses in Poaceae, aspects that have been relatively understudied, despite grasses being the primary source of our calories, as well as animal feed, forage, recreation, and biofuel needs in the 21st century. Finally, we outline critical gaps, future prospects, and considerations central to studying plant antiviral immunity. To promote an integrated model of plant immunity, we discuss analogous viral and nonviral immune concepts and propose working definitions of viral effectors, effector-triggered immunity, and viral pathogen-triggered immunity.


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PLOS Biology: Where Have All the Crop Phenotypes Gone?

PLOS Biology: Where Have All the Crop Phenotypes Gone? | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS Biology is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal that features works of exceptional significance in all areas of biological science, from molecules to ecosystems, including works at the interface with other disciplines.
Andres Zurita's insight:

In crop genetics and breeding research, phenotypic data are collected for each plant genotype, often in multiple locations and field conditions, in search of the genomic regions that confer improved traits. But what is happening to all of these phenotypic data? Currently, virtually none of the data generated from the hundreds of phenotypic studies conducted each year are being made publically available as raw data; thus there is little we can learn from past experience when making decisions about how to breed better crops for the future. This ongoing loss of phenotypic information, particularly about crop productivity, must be stopped if we are to meet the considerable challenge of increasing food production sufficiently to meet the needs of a growing world population. Here I present a road map for developing and implementing an information network to share data on crop plant phenotypes.

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From Bacillus coahuilensis, a strategy to extend phosphate resources

From Bacillus coahuilensis, a strategy to extend phosphate resources | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

It was super to hear Luis Herrera-Estrella share this exciting work at the ICAR meeting. Luis has been investigating the problem of phosphate limitation for much of his career - see more here: (http://www.hhmi.org/research/sirs/herrera_estrella.html).

 

The work, recently published in Nature Biotechnology (http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v30/n9/full/nbt.2346.html) explores the use of phosphite, a reduced version of phospate, as a dual purpose fertilizer and weed killer. His work suggests that by using phosphite, the limited global reserves could serve our needs for twice as long as if we continue to use it as phosphate.

 

One of the interesting things I learned from his talk is about the source of the enzyme phosphite oxidoreductase. It was found in Bacillus coahuilensis, which lives in a very nutrient-poor environment, Cuatro Ciénegas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuatro_Ci%C3%A9negas). This unique environment is one of only a few places you can find living stromatolites (colonies of cyanobacteia) - Shark Bay, Western Australia is the other well-known place to see them.


Via Mary Williams, Jennifer Mach
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Jorge Sáenz Mata's curator insight, June 27, 2013 2:34 PM

Interesting!! Investigadores Mexicanos!!

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Plant breeding as a public good. Again.

Back in February 2012 we were happy to spread the word about the first Student Organic Seed Symposium, in Vermont in the US. We heard no more about it, of course.

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Anthocyanins Double the Shelf Life of Tomatoes by Delaying Overripening and Reducing Susceptibility to Gray Mold | Current Biology

Anthocyanins Double the Shelf Life of Tomatoes by Delaying Overripening and Reducing Susceptibility to Gray Mold | Current Biology | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:
HighlightsAnthocyanin accumulation doubles the postharvest storage time of tomato fruitAnthocyanin enrichment reduces susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinereaLonger shelf life is associated with high hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of fruitAnthocyanins perturb the dynamics of the ROS burst during infection by B. cinereaSummary

Shelf life is an important quality trait for many fruit, including tomatoes. We report that enrichment of anthocyanin, a natural pigment, in tomatoes can significantly extend shelf life. Processes late in ripening are suppressed by anthocyanin accumulation, and susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, one of the most important postharvest pathogens, is reduced in purple tomato fruit. We show that reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea is dependent specifically on the accumulation of anthocyanins, which alter the spreading of the ROS burst during infection. The increased antioxidant capacity of purple fruit likely slows the processes of overripening. Enhancing the levels of natural antioxidants in tomato provides a novel strategy for extending shelf life by genetic engineering or conventional breeding.

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Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health.

 


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Trends in Plant Science - A trait-based framework to understand life history of mycorrhizal fungi

Trends in Plant Science - A trait-based framework to understand life history of mycorrhizal fungi | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Despite the growing appreciation for the functional diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, our understanding of the causes and consequences of this diversity is still poor. In this opinion article, we review published data on AM fungal functional traits and attempt to identify major axes of life history variation. We propose that a life history classification system based on the grouping of functional traits, such as Grime's C-S-R (competitor, stress tolerator, ruderal) framework, can help to explain life history diversification in AM fungi, successional dynamics, and the spatial structure of AM fungal assemblages. Using a common life history classification framework for both plants and AM fungi could also help in predicting probable species associations in natural communities and increase our fundamental understanding of the interaction between land plants and AM fungi.


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Temperature, light and nitrate sensing coordinate Arabidopsis seed dormancy cycling, resulting in winter and summer annual phenotypes - Plant Journal

Temperature, light and nitrate sensing coordinate Arabidopsis seed dormancy cycling, resulting in winter and summer annual phenotypes - Plant Journal | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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Summary

Seeds use environmental cues to sense the seasons and their surroundings to initiate the life cycle of the plant. The dormancy cycling underlying this process is extensively described, but the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. To address this we selected a range of representative genes from published array experiments in the laboratory, and investigated their expression patterns in seeds of Arabidopsis ecotypes with contrasting life cycles over an annual dormancy cycle in the field. We show how mechanisms identified in the laboratory are coordinated in response to the soil environment to determine the dormancy cycles that result in winter and summer annual phenotypes. Our results are consistent with a seed-specific response to seasonal temperature patterns (temporal sensing) involving the gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) that indicates the correct season, and concurrent temporally driven co-opted mechanisms that sense spatial signals, i.e. nitrate, via CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE 23 (CIPK23) phosphorylation of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1 (NRT1.1), and light, via PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA). In both ecotypes studied, when all three genes have low expression there is enhanced GIBBERELLIN 3 BETA-HYDROXYLASE 1 (GA3ox1) expression, exhumed seeds have the potential to germinate in the laboratory, and the initiation of seedling emergence occurs following soil disturbance (exposure to light) in the field. Unlike DOG1, the expression of MOTHER of FLOWERING TIME (MFT) has an opposite thermal response in seeds of the two ecotypes, indicating a role in determining their different dormancy cycling phenotypes.

 

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Genome Biology | Abstract | Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)

Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop.
Andres Zurita's insight:
Background

Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop. It is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity and exceptional water repellency, known as the lotus effect. The latter property is due to the nanoscopic closely-packed protuberances on its self-cleaning leaf surface, which have been adapted for the manufacture of a self-cleaning industrial paint, Lotusan.

Results

The genome of the China Antique variety of the sacred lotus was sequenced with Illumina and 454 technologies, at respective depths of 101x and 5.2x. The final assembly has a contig N50 of 38.8 kbp and a scaffold N50 of 3.4 Mbp, and covers 86.5% of the estimated 929 Mbp total genome size. The genome notably lacks the paleo-triplication observed in other eudicots, but reveals a lineage-specific duplication. The genome has evidence of slow evolution, with a 30% slower nucleotide mutation rate than observed in grape. Comparisons of the available sequenced genomes suggest a minimum gene set for vascular plants of 4,223 genes. Strikingly, the sacred lotus has sixteen COG2132 multi-copper oxidase family proteins with root specific expression; these are involved in root meristem phosphate starvation, reflecting adaptation to limited nutrient availability in an aquatic environment.

Conclusions

The slow nucleotide substitution rate makes the sacred lotus a better resource than the current standard, grape, for reconstructing the pan-eudicot genome, and should therefore accelerate comparative analysis between eudicots and monocots.

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PLOS ONE: Cell- and Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analyses of Medicago truncatula Root Nodules

PLOS ONE: Cell- and Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analyses of Medicago truncatula Root Nodules | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Legumes have the unique ability to host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria as symbiosomes inside root nodule cells. To get insight into this key process, which forms the heart of the endosymbiosis, we isolated specific cells/tissues at different stages of symbiosome formation from nodules of the model legume Medicago truncatula using laser-capture microdissection. Next, we determined their associated expression profiles using Affymetrix Medicago GeneChips. Cells were collected from the nodule infection zone divided into a distal (where symbiosome formation and division occur) and proximal region (where symbiosomes are mainly differentiating), as well as infected cells from the fixation zone containing mature nitrogen fixing symbiosomes. As non-infected cells/tissue we included nodule meristem cells and uninfected cells from the fixation zone. Here, we present a comprehensive gene expression map of an indeterminate Medicago nodule and selected genes that show specific enriched expression in the different cells or tissues. Validation of the obtained expression profiles, by comparison to published gene expression profiles and experimental verification, indicates that the data can be used as digital “in situ”. This digital “in situ” offers a genome-wide insight into genes specifically associated with subsequent stages of symbiosome and nodule cell development, and can serve to guide future functional studies.

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Flavor network and the principles of food pairing : Scientific Reports

Flavor network and the principles of food pairing : Scientific Reports | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Scientific Reports 1, Article number: 196 doi:10.1038/srep00196

Andres Zurita's insight:

The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.

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Plant-Plant Interactions, the newest Teaching Tool online

Plant-Plant Interactions, the newest Teaching Tool online | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Online today, the newest Teaching Tool in Plant Biology, "Plant-Plant Interactions", by Ariel Novoplansky and Mary Williams. It's all about how plants sense and respond to their neighbors. Subscription to Plant Cell required. Slides, lecture notes and teaching guide too!
http://www.plantcell.org/site/teachingtools/TTPB25.xhtml


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Mahani Mohamad's curator insight, June 2, 2013 12:35 PM

to be shared with Jr.

Happy Updates's comment, June 3, 2013 12:55 AM
nice share Mary Williams http://icareeradvice.com/