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Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
Absolutely Fascinated for plant & genomes
Curated by Andres Zurita
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Regulation of Leaf Senescence and Crop Genetic Improvement - Wu - 2012 - Journal of Integrative Plant Biology

Regulation of Leaf Senescence and Crop Genetic Improvement - Wu - 2012 - Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Leaf senescence can impact crop production by either changing photosynthesis duration, or by modifying the nutrient remobilization efficiency and harvest index. The doubling of the grain yield in major cereals in the last 50 years was primarily achieved through the extension of photosynthesis duration and the increase in crop biomass partitioning, two things that are intrinsically coupled with leaf senescence. In this review, we consider the functionality of a leaf as a function of leaf age, and divide a leaf's life into three phases: the functionality increasing phase at the early growth stage, the full functionality phase, and the senescence and functionality decreasing phase. A genetic framework is proposed to describe gene actions at various checkpoints to regulate leaf development and senescence. Four categories of genes contribute to crop production: those which regulate (I) the speed and transition of early leaf growth, (II) photosynthesis rate, (III) the onset and (IV) the progression of leaf senescence. Current advances in isolating and characterizing senescence regulatory genes are discussed in the leaf aging and crop production context. We argue that the breeding of crops with leaf senescence ideotypes should be an essential part of further crop genetic improvement.


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Increasing drought stress challenges vulnerable hydraulic system of plants

Increasing drought stress challenges vulnerable hydraulic system of plants | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

The hydraulic system of trees is so finely-tuned that predicted increases in drought due to climate change may lead to catastrophic failure in many species.


Via R K Upadhyay
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ANCIENT GRAINS - Homepage of Mark Nesbitt and Delwen Samuel

ANCIENT GRAINS - Homepage of Mark Nesbitt and Delwen Samuel | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Outstanding site for all things grainy and seedy in the ancient near east -

 

We both work in archaeobotany - studying the archaeology of plants.

Delwen Samuel’s interests include bread and beer in ancient Egypt, cereals and nutrition in the Old World, and food microscopy and other techniques of residue analysis. She is based in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Kings College London.

Mark Nesbitt’s interests are in the prehistory and history of plant use in the Near East, especially Turkey, in all aspects of wheat and other Old World cereals, and in the beginnings of farming. Although still publishing in these areas, his day job is on current-day aspects of botany at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

On our website you can find out more about our work, and the places where we have done fieldwork, and download our publications. We would be glad to receive copies or PDFs of your publications.


Via diana buja, Eve Emshwiller, Luigi Guarino
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Cassandra Folkerth's curator insight, September 28, 2013 5:23 PM

Reading about how grains have been used back in the ancient times is fascinating. I didnt know that they made beer back in ancient egypt. I thougt that was kind of a modern day thing. Its just so intruiging how people can find out what to do with the weirdest things. How would you even think to make beer back then? We have breweries now and big fancy machines. Its just so intersting. 

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Fungal Genetics and Biology: Origin of pisatin demethylase (PDA) in the genus Fusarium (2012)

Fungal Genetics and Biology: Origin of pisatin demethylase (PDA) in the genus Fusarium (2012) | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Host specificity of plant pathogens can be dictated by genes that enable pathogens to circumvent host defenses. Upon recognition of a pathogen, plants initiate defense responses that can include the production of antimicrobial compounds such as phytoalexins. The pea pathogen Nectria haematococca mating population VI (MPVI) is a filamentous ascomycete that contains a cluster of genes known as the pea pathogenicity (PEP) cluster in which the pisatin demethylase (PDA) gene resides. The PDA gene product is responsible for the detoxification of the phytoalexin pisatin, which is produced by the pea plant (Pisum sativum L.). This detoxification activity allows the pathogen to evade the phytoalexin defense mechanism. It has been proposed that the evolution of PDA and the PEP cluster reflects horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Previous observations consistent with this hypothesis include the location of the PEP cluster and PDA gene on a dispensable portion of the genome (a supernumerary chromosome), a phylogenetically discontinuous distribution of the cluster among closely related species, and a bias in G + C content and codon usage compared to other regions of the genome. In this study we compared the phylogenetic history of PDA, beta-tubulin, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha in three closely related fungi (Nectria haematococca, Fusarium oxysporum, and Neocosmospora species) to formally evaluate hypotheses regarding the origin and evolution of PDA. Our results, coupled with previous work, robustly demonstrate discordance between the gene genealogy of PDA and the organismal phylogeny of these species, and illustrate how HGT of pathogenicity genes can contribute to the expansion of host specificity in plant-pathogenic fungi.
Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight | BMC Plant Biology

Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth.
Andres Zurita's insight:
Background

Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment.

Results

In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length) was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars.

Conclusions

Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS -- suggesting that other tropisms (such as for oxygen and temperature) do not influence skewing. An aspect of the spaceflight environment also retards the rate of early Arabidopsis growth.

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Is ABA involved in tolerance responses to salinity by affecting cytoplasm ion homeostasis in rice cell lines? Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

Is ABA involved in tolerance responses to salinity by affecting cytoplasm ion homeostasis in rice cell lines?  Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

The ability of plant cells to maintain cytoplasm ion homeostasis under saline stress is among the main mechanisms involved in salt tolerance. To cope with excess Na+, cells extrude it from the cytoplasm, which requires expenditure of metabolic energy, provided by H+ gradients generated by membrane-bound H+-pumps. ABA is well-known to be involved in physiological processes elicited or enhanced by stresses causing cell dehydration. In this work we studied the possible implication of this plant hormone in the control of salt-induced cellular mechanisms conducting to Na+ extrusion from the cytoplasm. We used rice (Oryza sativa L.) cell lines selected for their different tolerance to salinity to measure the response to ABA of H+-pumps and Na+/H+-antiporters associated to the plasma membrane and the tonoplast. Our results show that ABA generally enhances H+-pumping under salt stress but not under control conditions. This effect occurs to a higher extent across the tonoplast in the more tolerant lines (L-T). Na+/H+ antiport activity is practically undetectable in calli under control conditions, pre-treated or not with ABA, but shows a strong activation under salinity across the tonoplast, particularly in L-T lines (cv Bahia) and also across de plasma membrane in cv Bomba. In these lines, prior treatments with ABA tend to reduce the NaCl enhanced activity of both antiporters. Overall, under saline conditions ABA seems to affect synergistically H+ pumping and antagonistically Na+ extrusion. A complex network of positive and negative regulatory signals seems involved in restoring ion cell homeostasis under salt stress.

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Can genomics boost productivity of orphan crops? : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group

Can genomics boost productivity of orphan crops? : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Advances in genomics over the past 20 years have enhanced the precision and efficiency of breeding programs1 in many temperate cereal crops2, 3. One of the first applications of genomics-assisted breeding has been the introgression of loci for resistance to biotic stresses or major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tolerance to abiotic stresses into elite genotypes through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC)4. For instance, introgression of a major QTL for submergence tolerance (Sub1) into widely grown rice varieties has substantially improved yield in >15 million hectares of rain-fed low-land rice in South and Southeast Asia5. Despite this success story, the overall adoption of genomics-assisted breeding in developing countries is still limited especially for complex traits like yield under environmental stress in several other crops.

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Novel long non-protein coding RNAs involved in Arabidopsis differentiation and stress responses

Novel long non-protein coding RNAs involved in Arabidopsis differentiation and stress responses | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Abstract

Long non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNA) represent an emerging class of riboregulators, which either act directly in this long form or are processed to shorter miRNA and siRNA. Genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of full-length cDNA databases identified 76 Arabidopsis npcRNAs. Fourteen npcRNAs were antisense to protein-coding mRNAs, suggesting cis-regulatory roles. Numerous 24-nt siRNA matched to five different npcRNAs, suggesting that these npcRNAs are precursors of this type of siRNA. Expression analyses of the 76 npcRNAs identified a novel npcRNA that accumulates in a dcl1 mutant but does not appear to produce trans-acting siRNA or miRNA. Additionally, another npcRNA was the precursor of miR869 and shown to be up-regulated in dcl4 but not in dcl1 mutants, indicative of a young miRNA gene. Abiotic stress altered the accumulation of 22 npcRNAs among the 76, a fraction significantly higher than that observed for the RNA binding protein-coding fraction of the transcriptome. Overexpression analyses in Arabidopsis identified two npcRNAs as regulators of root growth during salt stress and leaf morphology, respectively. Hence, together with small RNAs, long npcRNAs encompass a sensitive component of the transcriptome that have diverse roles during growth and differentiation.


Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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Transcriptome database resource and gene expression atlas for the rose

"Here, we used a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies to generate information on Rosa sp. transcripts using RNA from various tissues and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A total of 80714 transcript clusters were identified and 76611 peptides have been predicted among which 20997 have been clustered into 13900 protein families. BLASTp hits in closely related Rosaceae species revealed that about half of the predicted peptides in the strawberry and peach genomes have orthologs in Rosa dataset. Digital expression was obtained using RNA samples from organs at different development stages and under different stress conditions. qPCR validated the digital expression data for a selection of 23 genes with high or low expression levels. Comparative gene expression analyses between the different tissues and organs allowed the identification of clusters that are highly enriched in given tissues or under particular conditions, demonstrating the usefulness of the digital gene expression analysis. A web interface ROSAseq was created that allows data interrogation by BLAST, subsequent analysis of DNA clusters and access to thorough transcript annotation including best BLAST matches on Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica and Arabidopsis. The rose peptides dataset was used to create the ROSAcyc resource pathway database that allows access to the putative genes and enzymatic pathways."


Via Plant Breeding and Genomics News, Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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RNA-seq and microarray complement each other in transcriptome profiling

RNA-seq and microarray complement each other in transcriptome profiling | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Abstract (provisional)

Background

RNA-seq and microarray are the two popular methods employed for genome-wide transcriptome profiling. Current comparison studies have shown that transcriptome quantified by these two methods correlated well. However, none of them have addressed if they complement each other, considering the strengths and the limitations inherent with them. The pivotal requirement to address this question is the knowledge of a well known data set. In this regard, HrpX regulome from pathogenic bacteria serves as an ideal choice as the target genes of HrpX transcription factor are well studied due to their central role in pathogenicity.

Results

We compared the performance of RNA-seq and microarray in their ability to detect known HrpX target genes by profiling the transcriptome from the wild-type and the hrpX mutant strains of gamma-Proteobacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Our comparative analysis indicated that gene expression levels quantified by RNA-seq and microarray well-correlated both at absolute as well as relative levels (Spearman correlation-coefficient, rs > 0.76). Further, the expression levels quantified by RNA-seq and microarray for the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) also well-correlated with qRT-PCR based quantification (rs=0.58 to 0.94). Finally, in addition to the 55 newly identified DEGs, 72% of the already known HrpX target genes were detected by both RNA-seq and microarray, while, the remaining 28% could only be detected by either one of the methods.

Conclusions

This study has significantly advanced our understanding of the regulome of the critical transcriptional factor HrpX. RNA-seq and microarray together provide a more comprehensive picture of HrpX regulome by uniquely identifying new DEGs. Our study demonstrated that RNA-seq and microarray complement each other in transcriptome profiling.


Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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Identifican el sistema que protege la integridad del genoma ante cambios ambientales adversos / Noticias / SINC - Servicio de Información y Noticias Científicas

Identifican el sistema que protege la integridad del genoma ante cambios ambientales adversos / Noticias / SINC - Servicio de Información y Noticias Científicas | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Investigadores españoles han descubierto el mecanismo que coordina la duplicación del ADN y la producción de proteínas. Este mecanismo detiene el proceso de duplicación del material genético cuando la maquinaria celular está sintetizando proteínas de defensa, que protegen ante cambios ambientales. El trabajo se publica en la revista Nature.

 

SINC, Servicio de Información y Noticias Científicas, plataforma multimedia de comunicación científica...

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Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops

Superdomestication, feed-forward breeding and climate proofing crops | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Climate Proofing of Food Crops, through genetic improvement for adaptation, is an important, medium-term, objective to ensure food-security and increase production while enhancing the sustainability of agriculture. The IAEA has a Coordinated Research Project discussing this topic (archive version). In the YouTube video here, I discuss some of the challenges plant researchers are addressing, and review some of the collaborative work of our Molecular Cytogenetics group that relates to understanding crop evolution, measuring biodiversity, and exploiting and quantifying genetic diversity by hybridization, mapping, introgression, and cell fusion. References to our work in the general areas I am talking about are given at the bottom of this post. Please watch in HD high definition if your internet connection allows. The presentation can be viewed or downloaded from Slideshare (where there are hyper-links to some of the related publications); all my content is CC-BY-NC so please feel free to use in your non-commercial presentations and outputs with acknowledgement.

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Genome Biology | From RNA-seq reads to differential expression results

Many methods and tools are available for preprocessing high-throughput RNA sequencing data and detecting differential expression.
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Guia de Bolsillo Los cultivos modificados genéticamente en la Unión Europea | Transgénicos

Guia de Bolsillo Los cultivos modificados genéticamente en la Unión Europea | Transgénicos | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Fundación Antama presenta su guía de bolsillo: ‘Los cultivos MG en la Unión Europea’
Publicado por Alfredo L. Zamora en Noticias el 4 Dic, 2012 | 

 

Coincidiendo con el cumplimiento de los 15 años de siembra continuada de maíz modificado genéticamente en España, la Fundación Antama lanza su guía de bolsillo ‘Los cultivos modificados genéticamente en la Unión Europea’, un completo documento de referencia que pretende dar respuesta a las principales cuestiones que rodean la biotecnología agraria tanto a periodistas como a cualquier persona interesada en la materia.

La guía de bolsillo consta de 67 páginas en las que se ofrecen datos generales de la biotecnología agraria, su papel en la elaboración de alimentos y piensos, la normativa europea en torno a éstos, así como los retos mundiales ante los que esta tecnología juega un papel clave. La guía incluye también una sección en la que se da respuesta a las preguntas más frecuentes sobre estos cultivos y alimentos, tratando de solventar las controversias más comunes en torno a esta tecnología.

 

Noticia completa en la fuente: http://fundacion-antama.org/fundacion-antama-presenta-su-guia-de-bolsillo-%E2%80%98los-cultivos-modificados-geneticamente-en-la-union-europea%E2%80%99/

 


Via sonia ramos
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José Manuel Fdez. S.'s comment, December 7, 2012 12:35 PM
... y nosotros esperando que esta sociedad consumista intente derribar esa enorme barrera contra la alimentación-sana. Pues parece que no es posible, grandes multinacionales mantienen sus posturas en el gran ranking de los cultivos transgénicos, creyendo que es la única solución contra la excesiva demanda de productos alimenticios a nivel mundial, dejando de creer en bio-soluciones o al menos soluciones #sinresiduos. La carrera es larga y dura, no será fácil para nosotros, pero tan sólo nos bastará convencer a los más avispados, no somos tan ambiciosos, nos conformamos con muy poco. SL2 SONIA
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Current Biology - Mechanical Regulation of Auxin-Mediated Growth

Background

The phytohormone auxin is a primary regulator of growth and developmental pattern formation in plants. Auxin accumulates at specific sites (e.g., organ primordia) and induces localized growth within a tissue. Auxin also mediates developmental responses to intrinsic and external physical stimuli; however, exactly how mechanics influences auxin distribution is unknown.

Results

Here we show that mechanical strain can regulate auxin transport and accumulation in the tomato shoot apex, where new leaves emerge and rapidly grow. Modification of turgor pressure, application of external force, and artificial growth induction collectively show that the amount and intracellular localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1 are sensitive to mechanical alterations. In general, the more strained the tissue was, the more PIN1 was present per cell and the higher the proportion localized to the plasma membrane. Modulation of the membrane properties alone was sufficient to explain most of the mechanical effects.

Conclusions

Our experiments support the hypothesis that the plasma membrane acts as a sensor of tissue mechanics that translates the cell wall strain into cellular responses, such as the intracellular localization of membrane-embedded proteins. One implication of this fundamental mechanism is the mechanical enhancement of auxin-mediated growth in young organ primordia. We propose that growth-induced mechanical strain upregulates PIN1 function and auxin accumulation, thereby promoting further growth, in a robust positive feedback loop.


Via Guogen Yang, Jean-Pierre Zryd
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Células en mitosis

domingo, 9 de diciembre de 2012 La Mitosis, un bello espectáculo   Tomando fotografías cada siete segundos David Castro ha confeccionado este vídeo de la mitosis de células epiteliales de riñón de cerdo. Los cromosomas se ven rojos porque los tiñó con una proteína fluorescente que se une a una histona (recordad que las histonas sirven para enrrollar y empaquetar el ADN), el huso acromático en verde gracias a otra proteína que también fluoresce y se a una proteína de los microtúbulos. La música pone el resto...   Fuente de este vídeo: http://bioprofe4.blogspot.fr/2012/12/la-mitosis-un-bello-espectaculo.html  

 

vÍDEO PROCEDENTE DE biounalm 

Para desarrollar este video se usaron células epiteliales de riñones de cerdos (línea celular LLC-PK1) marcadas con dos proteínas fluorescentes: mCherry (roj...


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MIPS PlantsDB: a database framework for comparative plant genome research

ABSTRACT
The rapidly increasing amount of plant genome
(sequence) data enables powerful comparative
analyses and integrative approaches and also
requires structured and comprehensive information
resources. Databases are needed for both model
and crop plant organisms and both intuitive
search/browse views and comparative genomics
tools should communicate the data to researchers
and help them interpret it. MIPS PlantsDB (http://
mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/genomes.jsp)
was initially described in NAR in 2007 [Spannagl,M.,
Noubibou,O., Haase,D., Yang,L., Gundlach,H.,
Hindemitt, T., Klee,K., Haberer,G., Schoof,H. and
Mayer,K.F. (2007) MIPSPlantsDB–plant database
resource for integrative and comparative plant
genome research. Nucleic Acids Res., 35, D834–
D840] and was set up from the start to provide
data and information resources for individual plant
species as well as a framework for integrative
and comparative plant genome research. PlantsDB
comprises database instances for tomato,
Medicago, Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, Sorghum,
maize, rice, barley and wheat. Building up on that,
state-of-the-art comparative genomics tools such
as CrowsNest are integrated to visualize and investigate
syntenic relationships between monocot
genomes. Results from novel genome analysis
strategies targeting the complex and repetitive
genomes of triticeae species (wheat and barley)
are provided and cross-linked with model species.
The MIPS Repeat Element Database (mips-REdat)
and Catalog (mips-REcat) as well as tight connections
to other databases, e.g. via web services, ar


Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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Alginate oligosaccharides enhanced Triticum aestivum L. tolerance to drought stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

Alginate oligosaccharides enhanced Triticum aestivum L. tolerance to drought stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
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Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) prepared from degradation of alginate is a potent plant elicitor. Hydroponic experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanism of AOS on improving Triticum aestivum L. resistant ability to drought stress. Drought model was simulated by exposing the roots of wheat to polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) solution (150 g L−1) for 4 days and the growth of wheat treated with PEG was significantly decreased. However, after AOS application, seedling and root length, fresh weight and relative water content of wheat were increased by 18%, 26%, 43% and 33% under dehydration status compared with that of PEG group, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidative enzymes activities were obviously enhanced and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was reduced by 37.9% in samples treated by AOS. Additionally, the drought resistant related genes involved in ABA signal pathway, such as late embryogenesis abundant protein 1 gene (LEA1), psbA gene, Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 gene (SnRK2) and Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase gene (P5CS) were up-regulated by AOS. Our results suggested that AOS might regulate ABA-dependent signal pathway to enhance drought stress resistance of wheat during growth period.

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Can genomics boost productivity of orphan crops? : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group

Can genomics boost productivity of orphan crops? : Nature Biotechnology : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Advances in genomics over the past 20 years have enhanced the precision and efficiency of breeding programs1 in many temperate cereal crops2, 3. One of the first applications of genomics-assisted breeding has been the introgression of loci for resistance to biotic stresses or major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tolerance to abiotic stresses into elite genotypes through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC)4. For instance, introgression of a major QTL for submergence tolerance (Sub1) into widely grown rice varieties has substantially improved yield in >15 million hectares of rain-fed low-land rice in South and Southeast Asia5. Despite this success story, the overall adoption of genomics-assisted breeding in developing countries is still limited especially for complex traits like yield under environmental stress in several other crops.

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Producción de quinoa en el Perú crecerá 15% hasta 48.000 toneladas el 2013

Producción de quinoa en el Perú crecerá 15% hasta 48.000 toneladas el 2013 | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

El viceministro de Agricultura, Juan Rheineck, indicó que en los últimos cinco años se ha incrementado la siembra y producción nacional y que en el 2011 la cosecha de quinoa alcanzó las 35.500 hectáreas, lo que permitió que se obtuviera una oferta de 41.200 toneladas.

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Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

Transcriptome variation along bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Vegetative buds provide plants in temperate environments the possibility for growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are favorable. In grapevine, crucial developmental events take place within buds during two growing seasons in consecutive years. The first season, the shoot apical meristem within the bud differentiates all the basic elements of the shoot including flowering transition in lateral primordia and development of inflorescence primordia. These events practically end with bud dormancy. The second season, buds resume shoot growth associated to flower formation and development. Gene expression has been previously monitored at specific stages of bud development but has never been followed along the two growing seasons.

Results

Gene expression changes were analyzed along the bud annual cycle at eight different time points. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) revealed that the main factors explaining the global gene expression differences were the processes of bud dormancy and active growth as well as stress responses. Accordingly, non dormant buds showed an enrichment in functional categories typical of actively proliferating and growing cells together with the over abundance of transcripts belonging to stress response pathways. Differential expression analyses performed between consecutive time points indicated that major transcriptional changes were associated to para/endodormancy, endo/ecodormancy and ecodormancy/bud break transitions. Transcripts encoding key regulators of reproductive development were grouped in three major expression clusters corresponding to: (i) transcripts associated to flowering induction, (ii) transcripts associated to flower meristem specification and initiation and (iii) transcripts putatively involved in dormancy. Within this cluster, a MADS-box gene (VvFLC2) and other transcripts with similar expression patterns could participate in dormancy regulation.

Conclusions

This work provides a global view of major transcriptional changes taking place along bud development in grapevine, highlighting those molecular and biological functions involved in the main events of bud development. As reported in other woody species, the results suggest that genes regulating flowering could also be involved in dormancy regulatory pathways in grapevine.


Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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The Archaeobotanist: Weed evolution by de-domestication: the case of rice

The Archaeobotanist: Weed evolution by de-domestication: the case of rice | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

The study of weed origins and evolutionary history is the poor cousin of the archaeobotany of crop domestication. Archaeobotanists can potentially do much more on this, and undoubtedly should. To provide some inspiration it is worth considering some recent insights from genetics, to do with weedy rice. While it is surely the case that rice's wild progenitors may act as weeds in the crop, it now appears that much weedy rice is descended from the crop and not directly from the wild progenitor.


Via Dorian Q Fuller, Eve Emshwiller, Jean-Pierre Zryd
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El Supermercado de la Ciencia

El Supermercado de la Ciencia | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Bienvenidos a este blog dedicado a Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos.

Se les ha pedido a los alumnos que busquen constituyentes alimentarios con potencial saludable, que averigüen qué efecto/s saludable/s poseen potencialmente, y lo más importante, que busquen el posible mecanismo de acción de dicho constituyente a nivel bioquímico y molecular que permita desencadenar el efecto saludable. Todo ello, lógicamente, avalado por estudios científicos que ellos han buscado.

Por último, se les ha pedido que desarrollen sus aptitudes imaginativas e innovadoras y, dejando aparte tecnológica, creen un producto con el constituyente “saludable” incorporado, que complemente al alimento, que lo dirijan a un tipo de consumidor y que lo hagan llamativo para dicho consumidor, a través de un “reclamo publicitario” o una imagen atrayente.

 

OJO, SE JUEGAN PARTE DE LA NOTA!


¿Qué se pide a los lectores?, a vosotros os pedimos que votéis una de las cinco presentaciones. Por favor, animaros y votad vuestro favorito, y además se os invita a que hagáis comentarios, críticas (constructivas); son estudiantes y pueden aprender, pero son universitarios y también pueden aportar. ¿Te animas a participar?


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Even ‘Organic’ Food Isn’t Truly Natural | Heartlander Magazine

Even ‘Organic’ Food Isn’t Truly Natural | Heartlander Magazine | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

With only rare exceptions, all food production is completely unnatural. The means by which science has allowed us to increase production on a smaller piece of land, and to protect that production from a myriad of weeds, pests, and pathogens, is nothing short of phenomenal. It’s something to be giving thanks for instead of attacking. Even organic farmers have benefited from decades, centuries in fact, of objective, peer-reviewed, scientific enquiry into nature’s secrets of efficient food production.

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