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Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
Absolutely Fascinated for plant & genomes
Curated by Andres Zurita
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AnnuRevPlantBiol (2011) Evolution of Photosynthesis

AnnuRevPlantBiol (2011) Evolution of Photosynthesis | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Students sometimes struggle with all the biochemical complexity involved in photosynthesis, and don't always grasp the overarching themes. This terrific article by Hohmann-Marriott and Blankenship beautifully assembles lots of information into a coherent structure.

 

"Understanding the evolutionary constraints imposed on bioenergetic systems is not only an intellectual pursuit but may be a key to unlock our energy future."


Via Mary Williams, Jennifer Mach
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Mary Williams's comment, February 19, 2013 8:33 AM
How to live on light and air!
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Pathogenic Variation in the Pearl Millet Blast Pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and Identification of Resistance to Diverse Pathotypes

Pathogenic Variation in the Pearl Millet Blast Pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and Identification of Resistance to Diverse Pathotypes | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Pathogenic variation was studied in a greenhouse using 25 M. grisea isolates collected from four major pearl-millet-growing states in India. Identification of five pathotypes of M. grisea and sources of resistance to these pathotypes will provide a foundation for breeding for blast resistance in pearl millet in India.


Via Elsa Ballini
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La cara positiva de los priones

La cara positiva de los priones | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Descubierta la función biológica de las proteínas que causan el mal de las vacas locas. Un estudio muestra que tienen un papel en el mantenimiento de la mielina

 

Un trabajo que publicaJournal of Neuroscience, y que reseñaNature, explica al menos una de las funciones que desempeñan estas proteínas en nuestro sistema nervioso: son parte de la plasticidad del cerebro, en concreto, porque ayudan a mantener la mielina, una capa protectora de las neuronas.


Via Ramon Aragon, sonia ramos
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sonia ramos's curator insight, February 18, 2013 6:59 AM

Genial avance en la investigación sobre priones. Todo tiene su lado positivo.

sonia ramos's comment, February 18, 2013 7:00 AM
Genial aportación en tu Scoop. Muy interesante el descubrimiento de esta función... si es que estamos aún en pañales en cuanto a todo lo referente a los priones. Gracias, ya lo he "rescopeado"
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De Novo Assembly and Functional Annotation of the Olive (Olea europaea) Transcriptome

Andres Zurita's insight:

Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation.

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PLOS ONE: Characterization of Capsicum annuum Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Based on Parallel Polymorphism Discovery with a 30K Unigene Pepper GeneChip

PLOS ONE: Characterization of Capsicum annuum Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Based on Parallel Polymorphism Discovery with a 30K Unigene Pepper GeneChip | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Andres Zurita's insight:

The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis inCapsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome-wide transcript-based markers to assess genetic and genomic features among Capsicum annuum.

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Of Bacteria and Men: Plant pathogen focus: Pierce's disease and the vineyards of California (2013)

Of Bacteria and Men: Plant pathogen focus: Pierce's disease and the vineyards of California (2013) | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Xylella fastidiosa  is not your ordinary kind of bug. It made it to the list of the most wanted plant pathogenic bacteria in 2012! This is well deserved: X. fastidiosa can infect over a hundred species (grapevine, oleander, citrus, almonds,…), and it causes severe symptoms that can kill the infected plant. TheXylella bacteria colonize the xylem vessels, and by doing so they block the transport of water in the plant. The water-deprived leaves dry and scorch, until finally they drop to the ground.

 

Check also the video on the glassy-winged sharpshooter leafhopper.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Mary Williams
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Hao-Xun Chang's comment, February 16, 2013 10:11 AM
I love your blog!!! I'm also study plant pathology~ I'll keep following.
Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, February 20, 2013 10:44 PM
Thanks for the kind comments :)
Diana Rivera's curator insight, March 4, 2013 6:08 PM

This type of pathogen can be very dangerous to any grower.  The Xylella Fastidiosa can whip out an entire harvest of crops, and some people might not understand how dangerous they can be to society.  By taking out feilds of crops they are putting our natural resource in danger.  Everyone needs to eat nutricious foods, but these pathogens are threating our health.

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Scientists Identify Genetic Mechanism That Contributed to Irish Famine

Scientists Identify Genetic Mechanism That Contributed to Irish Famine | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
February 6, 2013: Research by UC Riverside plant pathologists is the first to show that RNA silencing regulates plant defense against the notorious Phytophthora pathogens.
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Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Symbiosis and the social network of higher plants

Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Symbiosis and the social network of higher plants | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

In the Internet era, communicating with friends and colleagues via social networks constitutes a significant proportion of our daily activities. Similarly animals and plants also interact with many organisms, some of which are pathogens and do no good for the plant, while others are beneficial symbionts. Almost all plants indulge in developing social networks with microbes, in particular with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and emerging evidence indicates that most employ an ancient and widespread central ‘social media’ pathway made of signaling molecules within what is called the SYM pathway. Some plants, like legumes, are particularly active recruiters of friends, as they have established very sophisticated and beneficial interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, also via the SYM pathway. Interestingly, many members of the Brassicaceae, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, seem to have removed themselves from this ancestral social network and lost the ability to engage in mutually favorable interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite these generalizations, recent studies exploring the root microbiota of A. thalianahave found that in natural conditions, A. thaliana roots are colonized by many different bacterial species and therefore may be using different and probably more recent ‘social media’ for these interactions. In general, recent advances in the understanding of such molecular machinery required for plant–symbiont associations are being obtained using high throughput genomic profiling strategies including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The crucial mechanistic understanding that such data reveal may provide the infrastructure for future efforts to genetically manipulate crop social networks for our own food and fiber needs.

Highlights

► Most plants associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using an ancient and highly conserved SYM pathway. ► Most of this pathway has been lost in some plant families including the Brassicaceae. ► This SYM pathway has been usurped by some plant families such as the legumes to instead also associate with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. ► The possibility of manipulating this SYM pathway to engineer more efficient associations between nonleguminous crops and nitrogen-fixing bacteria is discussed.

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Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models

Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Recent years have seen an impressive increase in our knowledge of the topology of plant hormone signaling networks. The complexity of these topologies has motivated the development of models for several hormones to aid understanding of how signaling networks process hormonal inputs. Such work has generated essential insights into the mechanisms of hormone perception and of regulation of cellular responses such as transcription in response to hormones. In addition, modeling approaches have contributed significantly to exploring how spatio-temporal regulation of hormone signaling contributes to plant growth and patterning. New tools have also been developed to obtain quantitative information on hormone distribution during development and to test model predictions, opening the way for quantitative understanding of the developmental roles of hormones.

Highlights

► Plant hormone signaling pathways exhibit complex topologies. ► Computational models predict the dynamics of hormone signaling. ► Modeling provides key insights on the role of hormones during growth and development. ► New tools allow for a quantitative understanding of hormone signaling.

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PLOS ONE: A Versatile Method to Design Stem-Loop Primer-Based Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Small Regulatory RNA Molecules

PLOS ONE: A Versatile Method to Design Stem-Loop Primer-Based Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Small Regulatory RNA Molecules | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Short regulatory RNA-s have been identified as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. They have been involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes such as embryonal development, immunoregulation and cancer. One of their relevant characteristics is their high stability, which makes them excellent candidates for use as biomarkers. Their number is constantly increasing as next generation sequencing methods reveal more and more details of their synthesis. These novel findings aim for new detection methods for the individual short regulatory RNA-s in order to be able to confirm the primary data and characterize newly identified subtypes in different biological conditions. We have developed a flexible method to design RT-qPCR assays that are very sensitive and robust. The newly designed assays were tested extensively in samples from plant, mouse and even human formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Moreover, we have shown that these assays are able to quantify endogenously generated shRNA molecules. The assay design method is freely available for anyone who wishes to use a robust and flexible system for the quantitative analysis of matured regulatory RNA-s.

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Rooting plant development - what's new since Dolan et al 1993 published "Cellular organisation of the Arabidopsis thaliana root"?

Rooting plant development - what's new since Dolan et al 1993 published "Cellular organisation of the Arabidopsis thaliana root"? | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Here's a nice two page summary of the state-of-the field in 1993, what we've learned, and where we're going.


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Andres Zurita's comment, February 13, 2013 7:14 AM
great analysis, unfortunately I couldn't break the paywall :)
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PLOS Genetics: A Quartet of PIF bHLH Factors Provides a Transcriptionally Centered Signaling Hub That Regulates Seedling Morphogenesis through Differential Expression-Patterning of Shared Target Ge...

PLOS Genetics: A Quartet of PIF bHLH Factors Provides a Transcriptionally Centered Signaling Hub That Regulates Seedling Morphogenesis through Differential Expression-Patterning of Shared Target Ge... | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS Genetics is an open-access
Andres Zurita's insight:

An important issue in understanding mechanisms of eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is how members of large transcription-factor families, with conserved DNA–binding domains (such as the 162-member Arabidopsis bHLH family), discriminate between target genes. However, the specific question of whether, and to what extent, closely related sub-family members, with potential overlapping functional redundancy (like the quartet of Phytochrome (phy)-Interacting bHLH transcription Factors (PIF1, 3, 4, and 5) studied here), share regulation of target genes through shared binding to promoter-localized consensus motifs does not appear to have been widely investigated. Here, using ChIP–seq analysis, we have identified genes that bind PIF3 to conserved, sequence-specific sites in their promoters; and, using RNA–seq, we have identified those genes displaying altered expression in various pif mutants. Integration of these data identifies those genes that are likely direct targets of transcriptional regulation by PIF3. Our data suggest that the PIF quartet members share directly in transcriptional activation of numerous target genes, potentially via redundant promoter occupancy, in a manner that varies quantitatively from gene to gene. This finding suggests that these PIFs function collectively as a signaling hub, selectively partitioning common upstream signals from light-activated phys at the transcriptional-network interface.

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Trends in Biotechnology - Plant genetic engineering and agricultural biotechnology 1983–2013


Via Plant Breeding and Genomics News
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Cushion plants help other plants survive

Cushion plants help other plants survive | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Alpine cushion plants help other plants in harsh mountain environments to survive.

Via R K Upadhyay
Andres Zurita's insight:

The researchers have studied 77 alpine plant communities on five continents. The cushion-like plant form has evolved more than 50 independent occasions in the higher plants' evolutionary history, and can now be found in all major alpine, sub-Antarctic and Arctic regions around the world.

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Nanci J. Ross's curator insight, August 12, 2013 12:32 PM

This is similar to the work I did with Robbie H on rhododendrons in yak grazing meadows...I need to read the actual paper though...this article just gives the punch line:)

Nanci J. Ross's curator insight, August 12, 2013 12:42 PM

This is reminiscent of the work I did with Robbie H on rhododendrons in yak grazing meadows, but I need to read the full paper...this article just gives the punch line:)

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plantlife photos

ah! plants. They eat light you know. free for free use: these pictures are released under this creative commons license enjoy!

Via Mary Williams
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Mary Williams's curator insight, February 18, 2013 6:31 AM

Happy Birthday to my husband, artist tom clearwood. He provides photos pro bono for the Teaching Tools, and makes them available for educational use thorugh a creative commons license. Teaching Tools users will certainly recognize some of the photos in this set... Thanks Tom!

Jennifer Mach's comment, February 19, 2013 8:38 AM
Beautiful!
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The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Zhangjun Fei and colleagues report the draft genome of a Chinese elite watermelon inbred line 97103 and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions that represent the three subspecies of Citrullus lunatus.

Via Jennifer Mach
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Jennifer Mach's curator insight, February 17, 2013 11:40 AM

Plant biology is sweet, juicy, and delicious!

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F1000Research Article: De novo genetic variation revealed in somatic sectors of single Arabidopsis plants.

F1000Research Article: <i>De novo</i> genetic variation revealed in somatic sectors of single Arabidopsis plants. | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Read the latest article version by Marianne T Hopkins, Aaron M Khalid, Pei-Chun Chang, Karen C Vanderhoek, Dulcie Lai, Meghan D Doerr, Susan J Lolle, at F1000Research.
Andres Zurita's insight:

Concern over the tremendous loss of genetic diversity among many of our most important crops has prompted major efforts to preserve seed stocks derived from cultivated species and their wild relatives. Arabidopsis thaliana propagates mainly by self-fertilizing, and therefore, like many crop plants, theoretically has a limited potential for producing genetically diverse offspring. Despite this, inbreeding has persisted in Arabidopsis for over a million years suggesting that some underlying adaptive mechanism buffers the deleterious consequences of this reproductive strategy. Using presence-absence molecular markers we demonstrate that single Arabidopsis plants can have multiple genotypes. Sequence analyses reveal single nucleotide changes, loss of sequences and, surprisingly, acquisition of unique genomic insertions. Estimates based on quantitative analyses suggest that these genetically discordant sectors are very small but can have a complex genetic makeup. In ruling out more trivial explanations for these data, our findings raise the possibility that intrinsic drivers of genetic variation are responsible for the targeted sequence changes we detect. Given the evolutionary advantage afforded to populations with greater genetic diversity, we hypothesize that organisms that primarily self-fertilize or propagate clonally counteract the genetic cost of such reproductive strategies by leveraging a cryptic reserve of extra-genomic information.

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New Phytologist: Heavy traffic in the fast lane: long-distance signalling by macromolecules

New Phytologist: Heavy traffic in the fast lane: long-distance signalling by macromolecules | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

"This review focuses on the signalling functions conveyed by the movement of macromolecules. Here, a signal is defined as the communication of information from source to destination, where it modifies development, physiology or defence through altered gene expression or by direct influences on other cellular processes."


Via Mary Williams
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Mary Williams's curator insight, February 14, 2013 11:55 AM

I just love this stuff. When I was a student we didn't learn about plants as integrated parts maintaining homeostasis through long-distance signals - it's all a relatively new way of understanding plants!

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Flavonoids: Their Structure, Biosynthesis and Role in the Rhizosphere, Including Allelopathy

Flavonoids: Their Structure, Biosynthesis and Role in the Rhizosphere, Including Allelopathy | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Flavonoids are biologically active low molecular weight secondary metabolites that are produced by plants, with over 10,000 structural variants now reported. Due to their physical and biochemical properties, they interact with many diverse targets in subcellular locations to elicit various activities in microbes, plants, and animals. In plants, flavonoids play important roles in transport of auxin, root and shoot development, pollination, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and signalling of symbiotic bacteria in the legume Rhizobium symbiosis. In addition, they possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer activities. In the plant, flavonoids are transported within and between plant tissues and cells, and are specifically released into the rhizosphere by roots where they are involved in plant/plant interactions or allelopathy. Released by root exudation or tissue degradation over time, both aglycones and glycosides of flavonoids are found in soil solutions and root exudates. Although the relative role of flavonoids in allelopathic interference has been less well-characterized than that of some secondary metabolites, we present classic examples of their involvement in autotoxicity and allelopathy. We also describe their activity and fate in the soil rhizosphere in selected examples involving pasture legumes, cereal crops, and ferns. Potential research directions for further elucidation of the specific role of flavonoids in soil rhizosphere interactions are considered.

 

Weston LA, Mathesius U. (2013) J Chem Ecol. Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]


Via IvanOresnik, Mary Williams
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Mary Williams's comment, February 14, 2013 3:00 AM
This issue of Chemical Ecology also has reviews of allelopathy and cereal crops - rice, rye, sorghum http://link.springer.com/journal/10886/onlineFirst/page/1
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Quinoa, a catalyst for innovation - CIRAD

Quinoa, a catalyst for innovation - CIRAD | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Quinoa, a catalyst for innovation : As the International Year of Quinoa begins, Didier Bazile shows in this new issue of Perspective
how the supply chain can have a significant effect on territorial development, above and beyond i...
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An Andean mother pseudo-cereal that might a represent an outstanding source of high quality proteins for food security.

And a super-tolerance plant model as well.

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Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Gene regulatory networks in the Arabidopsis root

Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Gene regulatory networks in the Arabidopsis root | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Thanks to the increasing use of high-throughput tools in genetics, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, a tremendous amount of information has been generated in the recent years. How these genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites are inter-connected in a spatiotemporal context is one of the most ambitious goals that fundamental biology needs to answer. Owing to high quality data that are available, Arabidopsis thalianahas become an ideal organism for the application of bioinformatics and systems biology studies. The radially symmetrical structure of the Arabidopsis root and the ability to track developmental time in constrained cell files make this organ the perfect model to investigate different types of biological networks at a cell type-specific level. In this review we present the latest findings in this field as well as our perspective on the future of root biological networks.

Highlights

► Root networks with feedforward and autoregulatory loops and mobile factors. ► Perspectives on how biological context can be inferred from existing networks. ► Cell type-specific signals and hormone models of the root meristem. ► Data types and integration needed to characterize root cell type networks.

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ScienceDirect.com - Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Dynamic models of epidermal patterning as an approach to plant eco-evo-devo

ScienceDirect.com - Current Opinion in Plant Biology - Dynamic models of epidermal patterning as an approach to plant eco-evo-devo | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Andres Zurita's insight:

Epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and root has become a model system for experimental and theoretical developmental studies, yielding well-characterized regulatory networks. We succinctly review the dynamic models proposed for this system and then argue that it provides an excellent instance to integrate and further study the role of non-genetic factors in plant development and evolution. Then, we set up to review the role of phytohormones and environmental stimuli in the regulation of cell-fate determination and patterning in this system. We conclude that dynamic modeling of complex regulatory networks can help understand the plasticity and variability of cellular patterns, and hence, such modeling approaches can be expanded to advance in the consolidation of plant Evolutionary and Ecological Developmental Biology (eco-evo-devo).

Highlights

► Network models proposed for epidermal patterning in the leaf and root of Arabidopsis thaliana have helped to integrate data, understand the dynamics behind this process, and generate novel predictions. ► Epidermal patterns are plastic and emerge from complex interactions in gene regulatory networks, that feedback with hormonal systems and environmental factors. ► Modeling epidermal patterning will help establish and address some of the basic questions in Ecological Developmental Biology.

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GigaScience: Crowdsourcing genomic analyses of ash and ash dieback -- power to the people (2013)

GigaScience: Crowdsourcing genomic analyses of ash and ash dieback -- power to the people (2013) | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it

Ash dieback is a devastating fungal disease of ash trees that has swept across Europe and recently reached the UK. This emergent pathogen has received little study in the past and its effect threatens to overwhelm the ash populations. In response to this we have produced some initial genomics datasets and taken the unusual step of releasing them to the scientific for analysis without first performing our own. In this manner we hope to 'crowdsource' analyses and bring the expertise of the community to bear on this problem as quickly as possible. Our data has been released through our website at oadb.tsl.ac.uk and a public GitHub repository.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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PLOS ONE: A Drought Resistance-Promoting Microbiome Is Selected by Root System under Desert Farming

PLOS ONE: A Drought Resistance-Promoting Microbiome Is Selected by Root System under Desert Farming | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Andres Zurita's insight:
BackgroundTraditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of “reverse desertification”. Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates) were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively). Most of the isolates (95%) presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuumrhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40%) under drought stress.Conclusions/SignificanceCrop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the plant root system acting as a “resource island” able to attract and select microbial communities endowed with multiple PGP traits that sustain plant development under water limiting conditions.
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Goldman Sachs accused of profiting from food crisis

Goldman Sachs accused of profiting from food crisis | Plant Gene Seeker -PGS | Scoop.it
Speculating on food prices saw investment banking firm Goldman Sachs pocket more than one billion pounds in 2012, reigniting the controversy surrounding banks profiting from the global food crisis.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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